Abstract

We report on the sub-Doppler laser cooling of neutral Yb171 and Yb173 in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) using the S10−P11 transition at 398.9 nm. We use two independent means to estimate the temperature of the atomic cloud for several of the Yb isotopes. The two methods of MOT cloud imaging and release-and-recapture show consistency with one another. Temperatures below 400 and 200 μK are recorded for Yb171 and Yb173, respectively, while ∼1  mK is measured for both Yb172 and Yb174. By comparison, the associated one-dimensional Doppler cooling temperature limit is 694 μK. The sub-Doppler cooling of the I=1/2Yb171 isotope in a σ+−σ light-field trap adds further evidence that the Sisyphus cooling mechanism is occurring in such three-dimensional MOTs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. While the angular momentum values are not the same as those of either Yb171 or Yb173, the affect of F on temperature is small in comparison to the difference between sub-Doppler cooling and two-level cooling theory. This is supported by the results in [41].
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10–18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, W.-K. Lee, S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, S. K. Lee, J. W. Cho, T. H. Yoon, J. Mun, S. J. Park, T. Y. Kwon, and S.-B. Lee, “Absolute frequency measurement of 1S0 (F=1/2)−3P0 (F=1/2) transition of 171 Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice at KRISS,” Metrologia 50, 119–128 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Borkowski, P. Zuchowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, D. Kedziera, L. Mentel, P. Tecmer, F. Munchow, C. Bruni, and A. Gorlitz, “Scattering lengths in isotopologues of the RbYb system,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 052708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Rathod, A. Singh, and V. Natarajan, “Continuous beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms,” Europhys. Lett. 102, 43001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

H. Hara, Y. Takasu, Y. Yamaoka, J. Doyle, and Y. Takahashi, “Quantum degenerate mixtures of alkali and alkaline-earth-like atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 205304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hansen, A. Khramov, W. Dowd, A. Jamison, V. Ivanov, and S. Gupta, “Quantum degenerate mixture of ytterbium and lithium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 011606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Borkowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, R. Yamazaki, H. Hara, K. Enomoto, S. Taie, S. Sugawa, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Photoassociative production of ultracold heteronuclear ytterbium molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 030702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Munchow, C. Bruni, M. Madalinski, and A. Gorlitz, “Two-photon photoassociation spectroscopy of heteronuclear YbRb,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 18734–18737 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

F. Gerbier and J. Dalibard, “Gauge fields for ultracold atoms in optical superlattices,” New J. Phys. 12, 033007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Okano, H. Hara, M. Muramatsu, K. Doi, S. Uetake, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Simultaneous magneto-optical trapping of lithium and ytterbium atoms towards production of ultracold polar molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 691–696 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. J. McFerran, L. Yi, S. Mejri, and S. Bize, “Sub-Doppler cooling of fermionic Hg isotopes in a magneto-optical trap,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3078–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates, “Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kohno, M. Yasuda, K. Hosaka, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, and F.-L. Hong, “One-dimensional optical lattice clock with a fermionic 171Yb isotope,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 072501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

P. Wolf, P. Lemonde, A. Lambrecht, S. Bize, A. Landragin, and A. Clairon, “From optical lattice clocks to the measurement of forces in the Casimir regime,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 063608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose–Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Maruyama, R. Wynar, M. Romalis, A. Andalkar, M. Swallows, C. Pearson, and E. Fortson, “Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling in an ytterbium magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 011403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, T. Loftus, J. Dunn, C. Greene, J. Hall, A. Gallagher, and J. Ye, “Single-stage sub-Doppler cooling of alkaline earth atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 193002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Park and T. H. Yoon, “Efficient magneto-optical trapping of Yb atoms with a violet laser diode,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 55401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Courtillot, A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, J.-J. Zondy, A. Landragin, A. Clairon, and P. Lemonde, “Efficient cooling and trapping of strontium atoms,” Opt. Lett. 28, 468–470 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Honda, Y. Takasu, T. Kuwamoto, M. Kumakura, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Optical dipole force trapping of a fermion-boson mixture of ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, T. H. Loftus, M. J. Smith, J. L. Hall, A. Gallagher, and J. Ye, “Dynamics in a two-level atom magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 011401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Loftus, J. Bochinski, and T. Mossberg, “Simultaneous multi-isotope trapping of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 053401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Loftus, J. Bochinski, and T. Mossberg, “Probing magneto-optic trap dynamics through weak excitation of a coupled narrow-linewidth transition,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 061401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. Schadwinkel, U. Reiter, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Magneto-optical trap as an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013409 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuwamoto, K. Honda, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Magneto-optical trapping of Yb atoms using an intercombination transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R745–R748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Hopkins and A. Durrant, “Parameters for polarization gradients in three-dimensional electromagnetic standing waves,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4012–4022 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Castin and K. Mølmer, “Monte Carlo wave-function analysis of 3D optical molasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3772–3775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (2)

A. Steane and C. Foot, “Laser cooling below the Doppler limit in a magneto-optical trap,” Europhys. Lett. 14, 231–236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Mølmer, “Friction and diffusion coefficients for cooling of atoms in laser fields with multidimensional periodicity,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 5820–5832 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, W. D. Phillips, A. Clairon, and S. Guellati, “Laser cooling of cesium atoms below 3 μK,” Europhys. Lett. 12, 683–688 (1990).

1989 (2)

1988 (1)

P. D. Lett, R. N. Watts, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. L. Gould, and H. J. Metcalf, “Observation of atoms laser cooled below the Doppler limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 169–172 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, and A. Ashkin, “Three-dimensional viscous confinement and cooling of atoms by resonance radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48–51 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Andalkar, A.

R. Maruyama, R. Wynar, M. Romalis, A. Andalkar, M. Swallows, C. Pearson, and E. Fortson, “Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling in an ytterbium magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 011403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

J. Dalibard, C. Salomon, A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “New schemes in laser cooling,” in Atomic Physics 11, S. Haroche, ed. (World Scientific, 1989), p. 199.

Ashkin, A.

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, and A. Ashkin, “Three-dimensional viscous confinement and cooling of atoms by resonance radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48–51 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

J. Dalibard, C. Salomon, A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “New schemes in laser cooling,” in Atomic Physics 11, S. Haroche, ed. (World Scientific, 1989), p. 199.

Barber, Z. W.

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates, “Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beloy, K.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10–18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bize, S.

J. J. McFerran, L. Yi, S. Mejri, and S. Bize, “Sub-Doppler cooling of fermionic Hg isotopes in a magneto-optical trap,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3078–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Wolf, P. Lemonde, A. Lambrecht, S. Bize, A. Landragin, and A. Clairon, “From optical lattice clocks to the measurement of forces in the Casimir regime,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 063608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, and A. Ashkin, “Three-dimensional viscous confinement and cooling of atoms by resonance radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48–51 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bochinski, J.

T. Loftus, J. Bochinski, and T. Mossberg, “Simultaneous multi-isotope trapping of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 053401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Loftus, J. Bochinski, and T. Mossberg, “Probing magneto-optic trap dynamics through weak excitation of a coupled narrow-linewidth transition,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 061401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Borkowski, M.

M. Borkowski, P. Zuchowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, D. Kedziera, L. Mentel, P. Tecmer, F. Munchow, C. Bruni, and A. Gorlitz, “Scattering lengths in isotopologues of the RbYb system,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 052708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Borkowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, R. Yamazaki, H. Hara, K. Enomoto, S. Taie, S. Sugawa, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Photoassociative production of ultracold heteronuclear ytterbium molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 030702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bruni, C.

M. Borkowski, P. Zuchowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, D. Kedziera, L. Mentel, P. Tecmer, F. Munchow, C. Bruni, and A. Gorlitz, “Scattering lengths in isotopologues of the RbYb system,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 052708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Munchow, C. Bruni, M. Madalinski, and A. Gorlitz, “Two-photon photoassociation spectroscopy of heteronuclear YbRb,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 18734–18737 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and D. DeMille, Atomic Physics, an Exploration Through Problems and Solutions, 2nd ed. (Oxford University, 2008).

Cable, A.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, and A. Ashkin, “Three-dimensional viscous confinement and cooling of atoms by resonance radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48–51 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Castin, Y.

Y. Castin and K. Mølmer, “Monte Carlo wave-function analysis of 3D optical molasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3772–3775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J. W.

C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, W.-K. Lee, S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, S. K. Lee, J. W. Cho, T. H. Yoon, J. Mun, S. J. Park, T. Y. Kwon, and S.-B. Lee, “Absolute frequency measurement of 1S0 (F=1/2)−3P0 (F=1/2) transition of 171 Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice at KRISS,” Metrologia 50, 119–128 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, and A. Ashkin, “Three-dimensional viscous confinement and cooling of atoms by resonance radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48–51 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, D. Weiss, Y. Shevy, and P. Ungar, “Laser cooling due to atomic dipole orientation,” in Atomic Physics 11, S. Haroche, ed. (World Scientific, 1989), p. 636.

Ciurylo, R.

M. Borkowski, P. Zuchowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, D. Kedziera, L. Mentel, P. Tecmer, F. Munchow, C. Bruni, and A. Gorlitz, “Scattering lengths in isotopologues of the RbYb system,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 052708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Borkowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, R. Yamazaki, H. Hara, K. Enomoto, S. Taie, S. Sugawa, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Photoassociative production of ultracold heteronuclear ytterbium molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 030702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

P. Wolf, P. Lemonde, A. Lambrecht, S. Bize, A. Landragin, and A. Clairon, “From optical lattice clocks to the measurement of forces in the Casimir regime,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 063608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Courtillot, A. Quessada, R. P. Kovacich, J.-J. Zondy, A. Landragin, A. Clairon, and P. Lemonde, “Efficient cooling and trapping of strontium atoms,” Opt. Lett. 28, 468–470 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, W. D. Phillips, A. Clairon, and S. Guellati, “Laser cooling of cesium atoms below 3 μK,” Europhys. Lett. 12, 683–688 (1990).

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

J. Dalibard and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Laser cooling below the Doppler limit by polarization gradients: simple theoretical models,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2023–2045 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Dalibard, C. Salomon, A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “New schemes in laser cooling,” in Atomic Physics 11, S. Haroche, ed. (World Scientific, 1989), p. 199.

Courtillot, I.

Dalibard, J.

F. Gerbier and J. Dalibard, “Gauge fields for ultracold atoms in optical superlattices,” New J. Phys. 12, 033007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, W. D. Phillips, A. Clairon, and S. Guellati, “Laser cooling of cesium atoms below 3 μK,” Europhys. Lett. 12, 683–688 (1990).

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X. Xu, T. H. Loftus, M. J. Smith, J. L. Hall, A. Gallagher, and J. Ye, “Dynamics in a two-level atom magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 011401 (2002).
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N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10–18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
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R. Maruyama, R. Wynar, M. Romalis, A. Andalkar, M. Swallows, C. Pearson, and E. Fortson, “Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling in an ytterbium magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 011403 (2003).
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T. Loftus, J. Bochinski, and T. Mossberg, “Probing magneto-optic trap dynamics through weak excitation of a coupled narrow-linewidth transition,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 061401 (2000).
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C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, W.-K. Lee, S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, S. K. Lee, J. W. Cho, T. H. Yoon, J. Mun, S. J. Park, T. Y. Kwon, and S.-B. Lee, “Absolute frequency measurement of 1S0 (F=1/2)−3P0 (F=1/2) transition of 171 Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice at KRISS,” Metrologia 50, 119–128 (2013).
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M. Borkowski, P. Zuchowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, D. Kedziera, L. Mentel, P. Tecmer, F. Munchow, C. Bruni, and A. Gorlitz, “Scattering lengths in isotopologues of the RbYb system,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 052708 (2013).
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M. Okano, H. Hara, M. Muramatsu, K. Doi, S. Uetake, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Simultaneous magneto-optical trapping of lithium and ytterbium atoms towards production of ultracold polar molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 691–696 (2010).
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T. Kohno, M. Yasuda, K. Hosaka, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, and F.-L. Hong, “One-dimensional optical lattice clock with a fermionic 171Yb isotope,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 072501 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

Park, C. Y.

C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, W.-K. Lee, S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, S. K. Lee, J. W. Cho, T. H. Yoon, J. Mun, S. J. Park, T. Y. Kwon, and S.-B. Lee, “Absolute frequency measurement of 1S0 (F=1/2)−3P0 (F=1/2) transition of 171 Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice at KRISS,” Metrologia 50, 119–128 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Park and T. H. Yoon, “Efficient magneto-optical trapping of Yb atoms with a violet laser diode,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 55401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. E.

C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, W.-K. Lee, S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, S. K. Lee, J. W. Cho, T. H. Yoon, J. Mun, S. J. Park, T. Y. Kwon, and S.-B. Lee, “Absolute frequency measurement of 1S0 (F=1/2)−3P0 (F=1/2) transition of 171 Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice at KRISS,” Metrologia 50, 119–128 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, W.-K. Lee, S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, S. K. Lee, J. W. Cho, T. H. Yoon, J. Mun, S. J. Park, T. Y. Kwon, and S.-B. Lee, “Absolute frequency measurement of 1S0 (F=1/2)−3P0 (F=1/2) transition of 171 Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice at KRISS,” Metrologia 50, 119–128 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Parker, T. E.

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates, “Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, C.

R. Maruyama, R. Wynar, M. Romalis, A. Andalkar, M. Swallows, C. Pearson, and E. Fortson, “Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling in an ytterbium magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 011403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, N. B.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10–18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, W.

Phillips, W. D.

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, W. D. Phillips, A. Clairon, and S. Guellati, “Laser cooling of cesium atoms below 3 μK,” Europhys. Lett. 12, 683–688 (1990).

P. D. Lett, R. N. Watts, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. L. Gould, and H. J. Metcalf, “Observation of atoms laser cooled below the Doppler limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 169–172 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pizzocaro, M.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10–18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pritchard, D. E.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Quessada, A.

Raab, E. L.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rathod, K.

K. Rathod, A. Singh, and V. Natarajan, “Continuous beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms,” Europhys. Lett. 102, 43001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reiter, U.

H. Schadwinkel, U. Reiter, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Magneto-optical trap as an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013409 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rolston, S.

Romalis, M.

R. Maruyama, R. Wynar, M. Romalis, A. Andalkar, M. Swallows, C. Pearson, and E. Fortson, “Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling in an ytterbium magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 011403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, C.

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, W. D. Phillips, A. Clairon, and S. Guellati, “Laser cooling of cesium atoms below 3 μK,” Europhys. Lett. 12, 683–688 (1990).

J. Dalibard, C. Salomon, A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “New schemes in laser cooling,” in Atomic Physics 11, S. Haroche, ed. (World Scientific, 1989), p. 199.

Schadwinkel, H.

H. Schadwinkel, U. Reiter, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Magneto-optical trap as an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013409 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schioppo, M.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10–18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, J. A.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10–18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shevy, Y.

S. Chu, D. Weiss, Y. Shevy, and P. Ungar, “Laser cooling due to atomic dipole orientation,” in Atomic Physics 11, S. Haroche, ed. (World Scientific, 1989), p. 636.

Singh, A.

K. Rathod, A. Singh, and V. Natarajan, “Continuous beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms,” Europhys. Lett. 102, 43001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. J.

X. Xu, T. H. Loftus, M. J. Smith, J. L. Hall, A. Gallagher, and J. Ye, “Dynamics in a two-level atom magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 011401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steane, A.

A. Steane and C. Foot, “Laser cooling below the Doppler limit in a magneto-optical trap,” Europhys. Lett. 14, 231–236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sugawa, S.

M. Borkowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, R. Yamazaki, H. Hara, K. Enomoto, S. Taie, S. Sugawa, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Photoassociative production of ultracold heteronuclear ytterbium molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 030702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Swallows, M.

R. Maruyama, R. Wynar, M. Romalis, A. Andalkar, M. Swallows, C. Pearson, and E. Fortson, “Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling in an ytterbium magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 011403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taie, S.

M. Borkowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, R. Yamazaki, H. Hara, K. Enomoto, S. Taie, S. Sugawa, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Photoassociative production of ultracold heteronuclear ytterbium molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 030702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

M. Borkowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, R. Yamazaki, H. Hara, K. Enomoto, S. Taie, S. Sugawa, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Photoassociative production of ultracold heteronuclear ytterbium molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 030702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Hara, Y. Takasu, Y. Yamaoka, J. Doyle, and Y. Takahashi, “Quantum degenerate mixtures of alkali and alkaline-earth-like atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 205304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Okano, H. Hara, M. Muramatsu, K. Doi, S. Uetake, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Simultaneous magneto-optical trapping of lithium and ytterbium atoms towards production of ultracold polar molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 691–696 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose–Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Honda, Y. Takasu, T. Kuwamoto, M. Kumakura, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Optical dipole force trapping of a fermion-boson mixture of ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuwamoto, K. Honda, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Magneto-optical trapping of Yb atoms using an intercombination transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R745–R748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takano, T.

Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose–Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takasu, Y.

M. Borkowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, R. Yamazaki, H. Hara, K. Enomoto, S. Taie, S. Sugawa, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Photoassociative production of ultracold heteronuclear ytterbium molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 030702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Hara, Y. Takasu, Y. Yamaoka, J. Doyle, and Y. Takahashi, “Quantum degenerate mixtures of alkali and alkaline-earth-like atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 205304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Okano, H. Hara, M. Muramatsu, K. Doi, S. Uetake, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Simultaneous magneto-optical trapping of lithium and ytterbium atoms towards production of ultracold polar molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 691–696 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose–Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Honda, Y. Takasu, T. Kuwamoto, M. Kumakura, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Optical dipole force trapping of a fermion-boson mixture of ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tan, K. Y. N.

Tanner, C.

Tecmer, P.

M. Borkowski, P. Zuchowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, D. Kedziera, L. Mentel, P. Tecmer, F. Munchow, C. Bruni, and A. Gorlitz, “Scattering lengths in isotopologues of the RbYb system,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 052708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Uetake, S.

M. Okano, H. Hara, M. Muramatsu, K. Doi, S. Uetake, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Simultaneous magneto-optical trapping of lithium and ytterbium atoms towards production of ultracold polar molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 691–696 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ungar, P.

S. Chu, D. Weiss, Y. Shevy, and P. Ungar, “Laser cooling due to atomic dipole orientation,” in Atomic Physics 11, S. Haroche, ed. (World Scientific, 1989), p. 636.

Vansteenkiste, N.

J. Dalibard, C. Salomon, A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “New schemes in laser cooling,” in Atomic Physics 11, S. Haroche, ed. (World Scientific, 1989), p. 199.

Wallace, C. D.

Watts, R.

Watts, R. N.

P. D. Lett, R. N. Watts, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. L. Gould, and H. J. Metcalf, “Observation of atoms laser cooled below the Doppler limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 169–172 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, D.

S. Chu, D. Weiss, Y. Shevy, and P. Ungar, “Laser cooling due to atomic dipole orientation,” in Atomic Physics 11, S. Haroche, ed. (World Scientific, 1989), p. 636.

Westbrook, C.

Westbrook, C. I.

P. D. Lett, R. N. Watts, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. L. Gould, and H. J. Metcalf, “Observation of atoms laser cooled below the Doppler limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 169–172 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, P.

P. Wolf, P. Lemonde, A. Lambrecht, S. Bize, A. Landragin, and A. Clairon, “From optical lattice clocks to the measurement of forces in the Casimir regime,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 063608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wynar, R.

R. Maruyama, R. Wynar, M. Romalis, A. Andalkar, M. Swallows, C. Pearson, and E. Fortson, “Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling in an ytterbium magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 011403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, T. Loftus, J. Dunn, C. Greene, J. Hall, A. Gallagher, and J. Ye, “Single-stage sub-Doppler cooling of alkaline earth atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 193002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, T. H. Loftus, M. J. Smith, J. L. Hall, A. Gallagher, and J. Ye, “Dynamics in a two-level atom magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 011401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yabuzaki, T.

Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose–Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Honda, Y. Takasu, T. Kuwamoto, M. Kumakura, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Optical dipole force trapping of a fermion-boson mixture of ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuwamoto, K. Honda, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Magneto-optical trapping of Yb atoms using an intercombination transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R745–R748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamaoka, Y.

H. Hara, Y. Takasu, Y. Yamaoka, J. Doyle, and Y. Takahashi, “Quantum degenerate mixtures of alkali and alkaline-earth-like atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 205304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, R.

M. Borkowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, R. Yamazaki, H. Hara, K. Enomoto, S. Taie, S. Sugawa, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Photoassociative production of ultracold heteronuclear ytterbium molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 030702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, M.

T. Kohno, M. Yasuda, K. Hosaka, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, and F.-L. Hong, “One-dimensional optical lattice clock with a fermionic 171Yb isotope,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 072501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

X. Xu, T. Loftus, J. Dunn, C. Greene, J. Hall, A. Gallagher, and J. Ye, “Single-stage sub-Doppler cooling of alkaline earth atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 193002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, T. H. Loftus, M. J. Smith, J. L. Hall, A. Gallagher, and J. Ye, “Dynamics in a two-level atom magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 011401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yi, L.

Yoon, T. H.

C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, W.-K. Lee, S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, S. K. Lee, J. W. Cho, T. H. Yoon, J. Mun, S. J. Park, T. Y. Kwon, and S.-B. Lee, “Absolute frequency measurement of 1S0 (F=1/2)−3P0 (F=1/2) transition of 171 Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice at KRISS,” Metrologia 50, 119–128 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Park and T. H. Yoon, “Efficient magneto-optical trapping of Yb atoms with a violet laser diode,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 55401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D.-H.

C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, W.-K. Lee, S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, S. K. Lee, J. W. Cho, T. H. Yoon, J. Mun, S. J. Park, T. Y. Kwon, and S.-B. Lee, “Absolute frequency measurement of 1S0 (F=1/2)−3P0 (F=1/2) transition of 171 Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice at KRISS,” Metrologia 50, 119–128 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zondy, J.-J.

Zuchowski, P.

M. Borkowski, P. Zuchowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, D. Kedziera, L. Mentel, P. Tecmer, F. Munchow, C. Bruni, and A. Gorlitz, “Scattering lengths in isotopologues of the RbYb system,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 052708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Okano, H. Hara, M. Muramatsu, K. Doi, S. Uetake, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Simultaneous magneto-optical trapping of lithium and ytterbium atoms towards production of ultracold polar molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 691–696 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Kohno, M. Yasuda, K. Hosaka, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, and F.-L. Hong, “One-dimensional optical lattice clock with a fermionic 171Yb isotope,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 072501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (3)

K. Rathod, A. Singh, and V. Natarajan, “Continuous beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms,” Europhys. Lett. 102, 43001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Steane and C. Foot, “Laser cooling below the Doppler limit in a magneto-optical trap,” Europhys. Lett. 14, 231–236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, W. D. Phillips, A. Clairon, and S. Guellati, “Laser cooling of cesium atoms below 3 μK,” Europhys. Lett. 12, 683–688 (1990).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Metrologia (1)

C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, W.-K. Lee, S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, S. K. Lee, J. W. Cho, T. H. Yoon, J. Mun, S. J. Park, T. Y. Kwon, and S.-B. Lee, “Absolute frequency measurement of 1S0 (F=1/2)−3P0 (F=1/2) transition of 171 Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice at KRISS,” Metrologia 50, 119–128 (2013).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

F. Gerbier and J. Dalibard, “Gauge fields for ultracold atoms in optical superlattices,” New J. Phys. 12, 033007 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

F. Munchow, C. Bruni, M. Madalinski, and A. Gorlitz, “Two-photon photoassociation spectroscopy of heteronuclear YbRb,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 18734–18737 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (14)

M. Borkowski, P. Zuchowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, D. Kedziera, L. Mentel, P. Tecmer, F. Munchow, C. Bruni, and A. Gorlitz, “Scattering lengths in isotopologues of the RbYb system,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 052708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, T. H. Loftus, M. J. Smith, J. L. Hall, A. Gallagher, and J. Ye, “Dynamics in a two-level atom magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 011401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Loftus, J. Bochinski, and T. Mossberg, “Probing magneto-optic trap dynamics through weak excitation of a coupled narrow-linewidth transition,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 061401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Maruyama, R. Wynar, M. Romalis, A. Andalkar, M. Swallows, C. Pearson, and E. Fortson, “Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling in an ytterbium magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 011403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Loftus, J. Bochinski, and T. Mossberg, “Simultaneous multi-isotope trapping of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 053401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Borkowski, R. Ciurylo, P. Julienne, R. Yamazaki, H. Hara, K. Enomoto, S. Taie, S. Sugawa, Y. Takasu, and Y. Takahashi, “Photoassociative production of ultracold heteronuclear ytterbium molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 030702 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hansen, A. Khramov, W. Dowd, A. Jamison, V. Ivanov, and S. Gupta, “Quantum degenerate mixture of ytterbium and lithium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 011606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Wolf, P. Lemonde, A. Lambrecht, S. Bize, A. Landragin, and A. Clairon, “From optical lattice clocks to the measurement of forces in the Casimir regime,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 063608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Mølmer, “Friction and diffusion coefficients for cooling of atoms in laser fields with multidimensional periodicity,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 5820–5832 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Park and T. H. Yoon, “Efficient magneto-optical trapping of Yb atoms with a violet laser diode,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 55401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Honda, Y. Takasu, T. Kuwamoto, M. Kumakura, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Optical dipole force trapping of a fermion-boson mixture of ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 021401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kuwamoto, K. Honda, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yabuzaki, “Magneto-optical trapping of Yb atoms using an intercombination transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R745–R748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Hopkins and A. Durrant, “Parameters for polarization gradients in three-dimensional electromagnetic standing waves,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4012–4022 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Schadwinkel, U. Reiter, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Magneto-optical trap as an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 013409 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, and A. Ashkin, “Three-dimensional viscous confinement and cooling of atoms by resonance radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48–51 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Lett, R. N. Watts, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. L. Gould, and H. J. Metcalf, “Observation of atoms laser cooled below the Doppler limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 169–172 (1988).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, T. Loftus, J. Dunn, C. Greene, J. Hall, A. Gallagher, and J. Ye, “Single-stage sub-Doppler cooling of alkaline earth atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 193002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Hara, Y. Takasu, Y. Yamaoka, J. Doyle, and Y. Takahashi, “Quantum degenerate mixtures of alkali and alkaline-earth-like atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 205304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takasu, K. Maki, K. Komori, T. Takano, K. Honda, M. Kumakura, T. Yabuzaki, and Y. Takahashi, “Spin-singlet Bose–Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 040404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates, “Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Castin and K. Mølmer, “Monte Carlo wave-function analysis of 3D optical molasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3772–3775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10–18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, Experimental Techniques, 4th ed. (Springer, 2008).

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and D. DeMille, Atomic Physics, an Exploration Through Problems and Solutions, 2nd ed. (Oxford University, 2008).

J. Dalibard, C. Salomon, A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “New schemes in laser cooling,” in Atomic Physics 11, S. Haroche, ed. (World Scientific, 1989), p. 199.

S. Chu, D. Weiss, Y. Shevy, and P. Ungar, “Laser cooling due to atomic dipole orientation,” in Atomic Physics 11, S. Haroche, ed. (World Scientific, 1989), p. 636.

While the angular momentum values are not the same as those of either Yb171 or Yb173, the affect of F on temperature is small in comparison to the difference between sub-Doppler cooling and two-level cooling theory. This is supported by the results in [41].

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