Abstract

The present work reports the luminescence properties and the laser operation of a Nd3+-doped (TeO2-ZnO) bulk tellurite glass. The spectroscopic data are analyzed within the framework of the Judd–Ofelt formalism and the results are used in conjunction with fluorescence lifetime and emission measurements to derive values for the quantum efficiency and the stimulated emission cross section of the considered F43/2I411/2 infrared laser transition around 1062.5 μm. Continuous-wave laser action is achieved for the first time with this bulk tellurite glass by pumping the sample inside a standard two-mirror laser cavity with different output couplers. A low-threshold pump power of 8 mW associated with a laser slope efficiency of 21% could be obtained for an output coupler transmission of 2.7%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “On the origin of bichromatic laser emission in Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Express 16, 11894–11906 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Fernandez, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Azkargorta, M. Voda, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in lead–niobium–germanate bulk glass,” Opt. Mater. 25, 185–191 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  23. A. P. Silva, A. P. Carmo, V. Anjos, M. J. V. Bell, L. R. P. Kassab, and R. A. Pinto, “Temperature coefficient of optical path of tellurite glasses doped with gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 34, 239–243 (2011).
  24. V. D. Del Cacho, A. L. Siarkowsi, N. Morimoto, H. V. Borges, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Fabrication and characterization of TeO2–ZnO rib waveguides,” ECS Transactions 31, 225–229 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  26. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. K. Krupke, “Induced emission cross-sections in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 450–457 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. A. Sidek, S. Rosmawati, Z. A. Talib, M. K. Halimah, and W. M. Daud, “Synthesis and optical properties of ZnO–TeO2 glass system,” Am. J. Appl. Sci. 6, 1489–1494 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-levels lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staver, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+,” J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077–1099 (1988).
  31. R. Moncorgé, “Current topics in rare-earth lasers,” in Spectroscopic Properties of Rare-Earths in Optical Materials, G. Liu and B. Jacquier, eds., Springer Series in Materials Science (Springer, 2005), Chap. 6, pp. 320–378.
  32. J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewi, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, and E. M. Vogel, “Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1448–1449 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

T. A. A. de Assumpção, M. E. Camilo, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Frequency upconversion properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2–ZnO glasses containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 536, S504–S506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

A. P. Silva, A. P. Carmo, V. Anjos, M. J. V. Bell, L. R. P. Kassab, and R. A. Pinto, “Temperature coefficient of optical path of tellurite glasses doped with gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 34, 239–243 (2011).

L. R. P. Kassab, L. F. Freitas, T. A. A. de Assumpção, D. M. da Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, “Frequency upconversion properties of Ag: TeO2–ZnO nanocomposites codoped with Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions,” Appl. Phys. B 104, 1029–1034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

V. D. Del Cacho, A. L. Siarkowsi, N. Morimoto, H. V. Borges, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Fabrication and characterization of TeO2–ZnO rib waveguides,” ECS Transactions 31, 225–229 (2010).

2009 (1)

A. A. Sidek, S. Rosmawati, Z. A. Talib, M. K. Halimah, and W. M. Daud, “Synthesis and optical properties of ZnO–TeO2 glass system,” Am. J. Appl. Sci. 6, 1489–1494 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “On the origin of bichromatic laser emission in Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Express 16, 11894–11906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kalaycioglu, H. Cankaya, G. Ozen, L. Ovecoglu, and A. Sennaroglu, “Lasing at 1065  nm in bulk Nd3+-doped telluride–tungstate glass,” Opt. Commun. 281, 6056–6060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. R. P. Kassab, R. A. Kobayashi, M. J. V. Bell, A. P. Carmo, and T. Catunda, “Thermo-optical parameters of tellurite glasses doped with Yb3+,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40, 4073–4077 (2007).

2004 (1)

J. Fernandez, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Azkargorta, M. Voda, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in lead–niobium–germanate bulk glass,” Opt. Mater. 25, 185–191 (2004).

2003 (1)

D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, and M. L. Baesso, “Laser emission at 1077  nm in Nd3+-doped calcium aluminosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 59–63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+ doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).

1996 (2)

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Lei, B. Xu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Ti–sapphire laser pumped Nd–tellurite glass laser,” Opt. Commun. 127, 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, J. L. Jackel, V. L. da Silva, and Y. Silberberg, “1.3  μm emission of neodymium and praseodymium in tellurite-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 109–113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. Dénoue, and J. L. Adam, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in BIGaZLuTMn fluoride glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1862–1867 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewi, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, and E. M. Vogel, “Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1448–1449 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).

1991 (1)

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Aggarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. J. Weber, “Science and technology of laser glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123, 208–222 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Cichosz, and B. J. Ttzebiatowska, “Influence of temperature and acceptor concentration on energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ and from Yb3+ to Er3+ in tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 295–302 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staver, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+,” J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077–1099 (1988).

1978 (1)

J. C. Michel, D. Morin, and F. Auzel, “Propriétés spectroscopiques et effet laser d’un verre tellurite et d’un verre phosphate dopés en néodyme,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 13, 859–866 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

W. K. Krupke, “Induced emission cross-sections in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-levels lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. L.

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. Dénoue, and J. L. Adam, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in BIGaZLuTMn fluoride glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1862–1867 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Aggarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Al-Saleh, M.

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anjos, V.

A. P. Silva, A. P. Carmo, V. Anjos, M. J. V. Bell, L. R. P. Kassab, and R. A. Pinto, “Temperature coefficient of optical path of tellurite glasses doped with gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 34, 239–243 (2011).

Auzel, F.

J. C. Michel, D. Morin, and F. Auzel, “Propriétés spectroscopiques et effet laser d’un verre tellurite et d’un verre phosphate dopés en néodyme,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 13, 859–866 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Azkargorta, J.

A. Miguel, J. Azkargorta, R. Morea, I. Iparraguirre, J. Gonzalo, J. Fermamdez, and R. Balda, “Spectral study of the stimulated emission of Nd3+ in fluorotellurite bulk glass,” Opt. Express 21, 9298–9307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “On the origin of bichromatic laser emission in Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Express 16, 11894–11906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Fernandez, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Azkargorta, M. Voda, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in lead–niobium–germanate bulk glass,” Opt. Mater. 25, 185–191 (2004).

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. Dénoue, and J. L. Adam, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in BIGaZLuTMn fluoride glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1862–1867 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baesso, M. L.

D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, and M. L. Baesso, “Laser emission at 1077  nm in Nd3+-doped calcium aluminosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 59–63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

A. Miguel, J. Azkargorta, R. Morea, I. Iparraguirre, J. Gonzalo, J. Fermamdez, and R. Balda, “Spectral study of the stimulated emission of Nd3+ in fluorotellurite bulk glass,” Opt. Express 21, 9298–9307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “On the origin of bichromatic laser emission in Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Express 16, 11894–11906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Fernandez, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Azkargorta, M. Voda, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in lead–niobium–germanate bulk glass,” Opt. Mater. 25, 185–191 (2004).

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. Dénoue, and J. L. Adam, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in BIGaZLuTMn fluoride glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1862–1867 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beasley, J. T.

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Aggarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bell, M. J. V.

A. P. Silva, A. P. Carmo, V. Anjos, M. J. V. Bell, L. R. P. Kassab, and R. A. Pinto, “Temperature coefficient of optical path of tellurite glasses doped with gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 34, 239–243 (2011).

L. R. P. Kassab, R. A. Kobayashi, M. J. V. Bell, A. P. Carmo, and T. Catunda, “Thermo-optical parameters of tellurite glasses doped with Yb3+,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40, 4073–4077 (2007).

Benayad, A.

Borges, H. V.

V. D. Del Cacho, A. L. Siarkowsi, N. Morimoto, H. V. Borges, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Fabrication and characterization of TeO2–ZnO rib waveguides,” ECS Transactions 31, 225–229 (2010).

Brasse, G.

Braud, A.

Caird, J. A.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staver, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+,” J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077–1099 (1988).

Camilo, M. E.

T. A. A. de Assumpção, M. E. Camilo, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Frequency upconversion properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2–ZnO glasses containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 536, S504–S506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Camy, P.

Cankaya, H.

H. Kalaycioglu, H. Cankaya, G. Ozen, L. Ovecoglu, and A. Sennaroglu, “Lasing at 1065  nm in bulk Nd3+-doped telluride–tungstate glass,” Opt. Commun. 281, 6056–6060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carmo, A. P.

A. P. Silva, A. P. Carmo, V. Anjos, M. J. V. Bell, L. R. P. Kassab, and R. A. Pinto, “Temperature coefficient of optical path of tellurite glasses doped with gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 34, 239–243 (2011).

L. R. P. Kassab, R. A. Kobayashi, M. J. V. Bell, A. P. Carmo, and T. Catunda, “Thermo-optical parameters of tellurite glasses doped with Yb3+,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40, 4073–4077 (2007).

Catunda, T.

L. R. P. Kassab, R. A. Kobayashi, M. J. V. Bell, A. P. Carmo, and T. Catunda, “Thermo-optical parameters of tellurite glasses doped with Yb3+,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40, 4073–4077 (2007).

Chase, L. L.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staver, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+,” J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077–1099 (1988).

Cichosz, L.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Cichosz, and B. J. Ttzebiatowska, “Influence of temperature and acceptor concentration on energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ and from Yb3+ to Er3+ in tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 295–302 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Clay, R. A.

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-levels lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, D. M.

L. R. P. Kassab, L. F. Freitas, T. A. A. de Assumpção, D. M. da Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, “Frequency upconversion properties of Ag: TeO2–ZnO nanocomposites codoped with Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions,” Appl. Phys. B 104, 1029–1034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, V. L.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, J. L. Jackel, V. L. da Silva, and Y. Silberberg, “1.3  μm emission of neodymium and praseodymium in tellurite-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 109–113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Daud, W. M.

A. A. Sidek, S. Rosmawati, Z. A. Talib, M. K. Halimah, and W. M. Daud, “Synthesis and optical properties of ZnO–TeO2 glass system,” Am. J. Appl. Sci. 6, 1489–1494 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

T. A. A. de Assumpção, M. E. Camilo, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Frequency upconversion properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2–ZnO glasses containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 536, S504–S506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. R. P. Kassab, L. F. Freitas, T. A. A. de Assumpção, D. M. da Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, “Frequency upconversion properties of Ag: TeO2–ZnO nanocomposites codoped with Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions,” Appl. Phys. B 104, 1029–1034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Assumpção, T. A. A.

T. A. A. de Assumpção, M. E. Camilo, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Frequency upconversion properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2–ZnO glasses containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 536, S504–S506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. R. P. Kassab, L. F. Freitas, T. A. A. de Assumpção, D. M. da Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, “Frequency upconversion properties of Ag: TeO2–ZnO nanocomposites codoped with Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions,” Appl. Phys. B 104, 1029–1034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Sousa, D. F.

D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, and M. L. Baesso, “Laser emission at 1077  nm in Nd3+-doped calcium aluminosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 59–63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Del Cacho, V. D.

V. D. Del Cacho, A. L. Siarkowsi, N. Morimoto, H. V. Borges, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Fabrication and characterization of TeO2–ZnO rib waveguides,” ECS Transactions 31, 225–229 (2010).

Dénoue, E.

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. Dénoue, and J. L. Adam, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in BIGaZLuTMn fluoride glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1862–1867 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J. L.

El-Mallawany, R. A. H.

R. A. H. El-Mallawany, Tellurite Glasses Handbook: Physical Properties and Data (CRC Press, 2001).

Fermamdez, J.

Fernandez, J.

J. Fernandez, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Azkargorta, M. Voda, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in lead–niobium–germanate bulk glass,” Opt. Mater. 25, 185–191 (2004).

Fernández, J.

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “On the origin of bichromatic laser emission in Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Express 16, 11894–11906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. Dénoue, and J. L. Adam, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in BIGaZLuTMn fluoride glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1862–1867 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Navarro, J. M.

J. Fernandez, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Azkargorta, M. Voda, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in lead–niobium–germanate bulk glass,” Opt. Mater. 25, 185–191 (2004).

Fernández-Navarro, J. M.

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Findlay, D.

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-levels lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Freitas, L. F.

L. R. P. Kassab, L. F. Freitas, T. A. A. de Assumpção, D. M. da Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, “Frequency upconversion properties of Ag: TeO2–ZnO nanocomposites codoped with Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions,” Appl. Phys. B 104, 1029–1034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ginther, R. C.

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Aggarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Golab, S.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Cichosz, and B. J. Ttzebiatowska, “Influence of temperature and acceptor concentration on energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ and from Yb3+ to Er3+ in tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 295–302 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

T. A. A. de Assumpção, M. E. Camilo, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Frequency upconversion properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2–ZnO glasses containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 536, S504–S506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalo, J.

Halimah, M. K.

A. A. Sidek, S. Rosmawati, Z. A. Talib, M. K. Halimah, and W. M. Daud, “Synthesis and optical properties of ZnO–TeO2 glass system,” Am. J. Appl. Sci. 6, 1489–1494 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Iparraguirre, I.

A. Miguel, J. Azkargorta, R. Morea, I. Iparraguirre, J. Gonzalo, J. Fermamdez, and R. Balda, “Spectral study of the stimulated emission of Nd3+ in fluorotellurite bulk glass,” Opt. Express 21, 9298–9307 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, and J. Fernández, “On the origin of bichromatic laser emission in Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Express 16, 11894–11906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Fernandez, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Azkargorta, M. Voda, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in lead–niobium–germanate bulk glass,” Opt. Mater. 25, 185–191 (2004).

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. Dénoue, and J. L. Adam, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in BIGaZLuTMn fluoride glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1862–1867 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, J. L. Jackel, V. L. da Silva, and Y. Silberberg, “1.3  μm emission of neodymium and praseodymium in tellurite-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 109–113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+ doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).

Jiang, Z. H.

N. Lei, B. Xu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Ti–sapphire laser pumped Nd–tellurite glass laser,” Opt. Commun. 127, 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kalaycioglu, H.

H. Kalaycioglu, H. Cankaya, G. Ozen, L. Ovecoglu, and A. Sennaroglu, “Lasing at 1065  nm in bulk Nd3+-doped telluride–tungstate glass,” Opt. Commun. 281, 6056–6060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kassab, L. R. P.

T. A. A. de Assumpção, M. E. Camilo, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Frequency upconversion properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2–ZnO glasses containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 536, S504–S506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. R. P. Kassab, L. F. Freitas, T. A. A. de Assumpção, D. M. da Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, “Frequency upconversion properties of Ag: TeO2–ZnO nanocomposites codoped with Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions,” Appl. Phys. B 104, 1029–1034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Silva, A. P. Carmo, V. Anjos, M. J. V. Bell, L. R. P. Kassab, and R. A. Pinto, “Temperature coefficient of optical path of tellurite glasses doped with gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 34, 239–243 (2011).

V. D. Del Cacho, A. L. Siarkowsi, N. Morimoto, H. V. Borges, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Fabrication and characterization of TeO2–ZnO rib waveguides,” ECS Transactions 31, 225–229 (2010).

L. R. P. Kassab, R. A. Kobayashi, M. J. V. Bell, A. P. Carmo, and T. Catunda, “Thermo-optical parameters of tellurite glasses doped with Yb3+,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40, 4073–4077 (2007).

Kliewer, M. L.

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Aggarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, R. A.

L. R. P. Kassab, R. A. Kobayashi, M. J. V. Bell, A. P. Carmo, and T. Catunda, “Thermo-optical parameters of tellurite glasses doped with Yb3+,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40, 4073–4077 (2007).

Krupke, W. F.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staver, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+,” J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077–1099 (1988).

Krupke, W. K.

W. K. Krupke, “Induced emission cross-sections in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lei, N.

N. Lei, B. Xu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Ti–sapphire laser pumped Nd–tellurite glass laser,” Opt. Commun. 127, 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Machewi, D. P.

Ménard, V.

Michel, J. C.

J. C. Michel, D. Morin, and F. Auzel, “Propriétés spectroscopiques et effet laser d’un verre tellurite et d’un verre phosphate dopés en néodyme,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 13, 859–866 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miguel, A.

Moncorgé, R.

J. L. Doualan, L. B. Su, G. Brasse, A. Benayad, V. Ménard, Y. Y. Zhan, A. Braud, P. Camy, J. Xu, and R. Moncorgé, “Improvement of infrared laser properties of Nd:CaF2 crystals via codoping with Y3+ and Lu3+ buffer ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 3018–3021 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Moncorgé, “Current topics in rare-earth lasers,” in Spectroscopic Properties of Rare-Earths in Optical Materials, G. Liu and B. Jacquier, eds., Springer Series in Materials Science (Springer, 2005), Chap. 6, pp. 320–378.

Morea, R.

Morimoto, N.

V. D. Del Cacho, A. L. Siarkowsi, N. Morimoto, H. V. Borges, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Fabrication and characterization of TeO2–ZnO rib waveguides,” ECS Transactions 31, 225–229 (2010).

Morin, D.

J. C. Michel, D. Morin, and F. Auzel, “Propriétés spectroscopiques et effet laser d’un verre tellurite et d’un verre phosphate dopés en néodyme,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 13, 859–866 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+ doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).

Nunes, L. A. O.

D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, and M. L. Baesso, “Laser emission at 1077  nm in Nd3+-doped calcium aluminosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 59–63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ovecoglu, L.

H. Kalaycioglu, H. Cankaya, G. Ozen, L. Ovecoglu, and A. Sennaroglu, “Lasing at 1065  nm in bulk Nd3+-doped telluride–tungstate glass,” Opt. Commun. 281, 6056–6060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozen, G.

H. Kalaycioglu, H. Cankaya, G. Ozen, L. Ovecoglu, and A. Sennaroglu, “Lasing at 1065  nm in bulk Nd3+-doped telluride–tungstate glass,” Opt. Commun. 281, 6056–6060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staver, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+,” J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077–1099 (1988).

Petrin, R. R.

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Aggarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, R. A.

A. P. Silva, A. P. Carmo, V. Anjos, M. J. V. Bell, L. R. P. Kassab, and R. A. Pinto, “Temperature coefficient of optical path of tellurite glasses doped with gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 34, 239–243 (2011).

Powell, R. C.

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Aggarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, A. J.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staver, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+,” J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077–1099 (1988).

Rohling, J. H.

D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, and M. L. Baesso, “Laser emission at 1077  nm in Nd3+-doped calcium aluminosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 59–63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosmawati, S.

A. A. Sidek, S. Rosmawati, Z. A. Talib, M. K. Halimah, and W. M. Daud, “Synthesis and optical properties of ZnO–TeO2 glass system,” Am. J. Appl. Sci. 6, 1489–1494 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Cichosz, and B. J. Ttzebiatowska, “Influence of temperature and acceptor concentration on energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ and from Yb3+ to Er3+ in tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 295–302 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, T.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sennaroglu, A.

H. Kalaycioglu, H. Cankaya, G. Ozen, L. Ovecoglu, and A. Sennaroglu, “Lasing at 1065  nm in bulk Nd3+-doped telluride–tungstate glass,” Opt. Commun. 281, 6056–6060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+ doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).

Siarkowsi, A. L.

V. D. Del Cacho, A. L. Siarkowsi, N. Morimoto, H. V. Borges, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Fabrication and characterization of TeO2–ZnO rib waveguides,” ECS Transactions 31, 225–229 (2010).

Sidek, A. A.

A. A. Sidek, S. Rosmawati, Z. A. Talib, M. K. Halimah, and W. M. Daud, “Synthesis and optical properties of ZnO–TeO2 glass system,” Am. J. Appl. Sci. 6, 1489–1494 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, J. L. Jackel, V. L. da Silva, and Y. Silberberg, “1.3  μm emission of neodymium and praseodymium in tellurite-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 109–113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Silva, A. P.

A. P. Silva, A. P. Carmo, V. Anjos, M. J. V. Bell, L. R. P. Kassab, and R. A. Pinto, “Temperature coefficient of optical path of tellurite glasses doped with gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 34, 239–243 (2011).

Snitzer, E.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, J. L. Jackel, V. L. da Silva, and Y. Silberberg, “1.3  μm emission of neodymium and praseodymium in tellurite-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 109–113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).

J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewi, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, and E. M. Vogel, “Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1448–1449 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Staver, P. R.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staver, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+,” J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077–1099 (1988).

Su, L. B.

Talib, Z. A.

A. A. Sidek, S. Rosmawati, Z. A. Talib, M. K. Halimah, and W. M. Daud, “Synthesis and optical properties of ZnO–TeO2 glass system,” Am. J. Appl. Sci. 6, 1489–1494 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ttzebiatowska, B. J.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Cichosz, and B. J. Ttzebiatowska, “Influence of temperature and acceptor concentration on energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ and from Yb3+ to Er3+ in tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 295–302 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Voda, M.

J. Fernandez, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Azkargorta, M. Voda, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in lead–niobium–germanate bulk glass,” Opt. Mater. 25, 185–191 (2004).

Vogel, E. M.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, J. L. Jackel, V. L. da Silva, and Y. Silberberg, “1.3  μm emission of neodymium and praseodymium in tellurite-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 109–113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).

J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewi, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, and E. M. Vogel, “Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1448–1449 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. S.

J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewi, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, and E. M. Vogel, “Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1448–1449 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, J. L. Jackel, V. L. da Silva, and Y. Silberberg, “1.3  μm emission of neodymium and praseodymium in tellurite-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 109–113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Science and technology of laser glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123, 208–222 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wetter, N. U.

T. A. A. de Assumpção, M. E. Camilo, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Frequency upconversion properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2–ZnO glasses containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 536, S504–S506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

Xu, B.

N. Lei, B. Xu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Ti–sapphire laser pumped Nd–tellurite glass laser,” Opt. Commun. 127, 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Zhan, Y. Y.

Am. J. Appl. Sci. (1)

A. A. Sidek, S. Rosmawati, Z. A. Talib, M. K. Halimah, and W. M. Daud, “Synthesis and optical properties of ZnO–TeO2 glass system,” Am. J. Appl. Sci. 6, 1489–1494 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. F. de Sousa, L. A. O. Nunes, J. H. Rohling, and M. L. Baesso, “Laser emission at 1077  nm in Nd3+-doped calcium aluminosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 59–63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. R. P. Kassab, L. F. Freitas, T. A. A. de Assumpção, D. M. da Silva, and C. B. de Araújo, “Frequency upconversion properties of Ag: TeO2–ZnO nanocomposites codoped with Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions,” Appl. Phys. B 104, 1029–1034 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ECS Transactions (1)

V. D. Del Cacho, A. L. Siarkowsi, N. Morimoto, H. V. Borges, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Fabrication and characterization of TeO2–ZnO rib waveguides,” ECS Transactions 31, 225–229 (2010).

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

W. K. Krupke, “Induced emission cross-sections in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Aggarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Azkargorta, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Fernández, E. Dénoue, and J. L. Adam, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in BIGaZLuTMn fluoride glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1862–1867 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

T. A. A. de Assumpção, M. E. Camilo, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Frequency upconversion properties of Tm3+ doped TeO2–ZnO glasses containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 536, S504–S506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (4)

M. J. Weber, “Science and technology of laser glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123, 208–222 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Cichosz, and B. J. Ttzebiatowska, “Influence of temperature and acceptor concentration on energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ and from Yb3+ to Er3+ in tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 295–302 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, J. L. Jackel, V. L. da Silva, and Y. Silberberg, “1.3  μm emission of neodymium and praseodymium in tellurite-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 109–113 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, M. Al-Saleh, J. Fernández, and R. Balda, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in tellurite bulk glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 990–992 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

L. R. P. Kassab, R. A. Kobayashi, M. J. V. Bell, A. P. Carmo, and T. Catunda, “Thermo-optical parameters of tellurite glasses doped with Yb3+,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40, 4073–4077 (2007).

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staver, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+,” J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1077–1099 (1988).

Opt. Commun. (2)

N. Lei, B. Xu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Ti–sapphire laser pumped Nd–tellurite glass laser,” Opt. Commun. 127, 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Kalaycioglu, H. Cankaya, G. Ozen, L. Ovecoglu, and A. Sennaroglu, “Lasing at 1065  nm in bulk Nd3+-doped telluride–tungstate glass,” Opt. Commun. 281, 6056–6060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (3)

A. P. Silva, A. P. Carmo, V. Anjos, M. J. V. Bell, L. R. P. Kassab, and R. A. Pinto, “Temperature coefficient of optical path of tellurite glasses doped with gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 34, 239–243 (2011).

J. Fernandez, I. Iparraguirre, R. Balda, J. Azkargorta, M. Voda, and J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, “Laser action and upconversion of Nd3+ in lead–niobium–germanate bulk glass,” Opt. Mater. 25, 185–191 (2004).

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).

Phys. Lett. (1)

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Other (3)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) UV-VIS-NIR absorbance and (b) FTIR transmittance spectra for a sample doped with 1%Nd (1.9×1019ions/cm3) and 1.64 mm thickness.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Near-infrared luminescence of the TZO glass doped with 1% Nd2O3 (wt).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Luminescence decay of the TZO glass doped with 1% Nd2O3 (wt).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Laser output versus absorbed pump power curves obtained after pumping the TZO glass sample around 806 nm, for the output coupler transmissions of 0.8%, 2.7%, and 8%.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Laser Cavity Parameters of Several Nd3+ Tellurite Glasses Reported in the Literaturea

Equations (4)

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σem(λ)=λ48πcn2Δλ·A(F43/2I49/2),
Pth=aT+b,
η1=aT1+b,
a=hυLS2ηqσemηeτRηRεpηp,b=aL,a=bL,andb=1ηqηeεpηp,

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