Abstract

We report on the demonstration of ion–photon entanglement and Bell inequality violation in a system of trapped Ba138+ ions. Entanglement between the Zeeman sublevels of the ground state of a single Ba138+ ion and the polarization state of a single 493 nm photon emitted by the ion with a fidelity of 0.84±0.01 was achieved, along with a Bell signal of 2.3, exceeding the classical limit of 2 by more than eight standard deviations. This system is a promising candidate for a loophole-free Bell inequality violation test using long-range ion–ion entanglement as the wavelengths of the transitions of Ba138+ are in the visible region and thus suitable for long-range transmission over fiber optic cable.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Hofling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491, 421–425 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. B. Gao, P. Fallahi, E. Togan, J. Miguel-Sanchez, and A. Imamoglu, “Observation of entanglement between a quantum dot spin and a single photon,” Nature 491, 426–430 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Juska, V. Dimastrodonato, L. O. Mereni, A. Gocalinska, and E. Pelucchi, “Towards quantum-dot arrays of entangled photon emitters,” Nat. Photonics 7, 527–531 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466, 730–734 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Neumann, N. Mizuochi, F. Rempp, P. Hemmer, H. Watanabe, S. Yamasaki, V. Jacques, T. Gaebel, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Multipartite entanglement among single spins in diamond,” Science 320, 1326–1329 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Bernien, L. Childress, L. Robledo, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Two-photon quantum interference from separate nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043604 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, “Entanglement of two individual neutral atoms using rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Steffen, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, N. Katz, E. Lucero, R. McDermott, M. Neeley, E. M. Weig, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Measurement of the entanglement of two superconducting qubits via state tomography,” Science 313, 1423–1425 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. J. Berkley, H. Xu, R. C. Ramos, M. A. Gubrud, F. W. Strauch, P. R. Johnson, J. R. Anderson, A. J. Dragt, C. J. Lobb, and F. C. Wellstood, “Entangled macroscopic quantum states in two superconducting qubits,” Science 300, 1548–1550 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. L. Moehring, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, K. C. Younge, D. N. Matsukevich, L.-M. Duan, and C. Monroe, “Entanglement of single-atom quantum bits at a distance,” Nature 449, 68–71 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. B. Blinov, D. L. Moehring, L.-M. Duan, and C. Monroe, “Observation of entanglement between a single trapped atom and a single photon,” Nature 428, 153–157 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstatter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Monroe, R. Raussendorf, A. Ruthven, K. R. Brown, P. Maunz, L.-M. Duan, and J. Kim, “Large scale modular quantum computer architecture with atomic memory and photonic interconnects,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 022317 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47, 777–780 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. S. Bell, “On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox,” Physics 1, 195–200 (1964).
  20. G. Weihs, T. Jennewein, C. Simon, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Violation of Bell’s inequality under strict Einstein locality conditions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5039–5043 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. A. Rowe, D. Kielpinski, V. Meyer, C. A. Sackett, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Experimental violation of a Bell’s inequality with efficient detection,” Nature 409, 791–794(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. Woo Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, D. L. Moehring, S. Olmschenk, and C. Monroe, “Bell inequality violation with two remote atomic qubits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 150404 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Waldherr, P. Neumann, S. F. Huelga, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Violation of a temporal Bell inequality for single spins in a diamond defect center,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 090401 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Ansmann, H. Wang, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, A. D. O’Connell, D. Sank, M. Weides, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Violation of Bell’s inequality in Josephson phase qubits,” Nature 461, 504–506 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Hasegawa, R. Loidl, G. Badurek, M. Baron, and H. Rauch, “Violation of a Bell-like inequality in single-neutron interferometry,” Nature 425, 45–48 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. Walther, M. Aspelmeyer, K. J. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental violation of a cluster state Bell inequality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 020403 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880–884 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. H. Bennett, D. P. DiVincenzo, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Mixed-state entanglement and quantum error correction,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824–3851 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Gurell, E. Biémont, K. Blagoev, V. Fivet, P. Lundin, S. Mannervik, L.-O. Norlin, P. Quinet, D. Rostohar, P. Royen, and P. Schef, “Laser-probing measurements and calculations of lifetimes of the 5d2d32 and 5d2d52 metastable levels in Ba ii,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 052506 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. Noel, M. R. Dietrich, N. Kurz, G. Shu, J. Wright, and B. B. Blinov, “Adiabatic passage in the presence of noise,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 023401 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. Wunderlich, T. Hannemann, T. Krber, H. Hffner, C. Roos, W. Hnsel, R. Blatt, and F. Schmidt-Kaler, “Robust state preparation of a single trapped ion by adiabatic passage,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1541–1549 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. E. H. Pinnington, R. W. Berends, and M. Lumsden, “Studies of laser-induced fluorescence in fast beams of sr+ and ba+ ions,” J. Phys. B 28, 2095–2103 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. A. Sackett, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, C. Langer, V. Meyer, C. J. Myatt, M. Rowe, Q. A. Turchette, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and C. Monroe, “Experimental entanglement of four particles,” Nature 404, 256–259 (2000).
  35. C. Simon and W. T. M. Irvine, “Robust long-distance entanglement and a loophole-free Bell test with ions and photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 110405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  36. C.-K. Chou, G. Shu, T. Noel, J. Wright, R. Graham, and B. Blinov, “Trapping ions in a 2-pi parabolic mirror,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 58, 157 (2013).
  37. B. Leng Chuah, N. C. Lewty, and M. D. Barrett, “State detection using coherent Raman repumping and two-color Raman transfers,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 013411 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  38. L. Slodička, G. Hétet, N. Röck, P. Schindler, M. Hennrich, and R. Blatt, “Atom-atom entanglement by single-photon detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083603 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  39. C. Monroe, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, 1117 John S. Toll Building 082, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA (personal communication, 2013).

2014

C. Monroe, R. Raussendorf, A. Ruthven, K. R. Brown, P. Maunz, L.-M. Duan, and J. Kim, “Large scale modular quantum computer architecture with atomic memory and photonic interconnects,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 022317 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

G. Juska, V. Dimastrodonato, L. O. Mereni, A. Gocalinska, and E. Pelucchi, “Towards quantum-dot arrays of entangled photon emitters,” Nat. Photonics 7, 527–531 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, Y. O. Dudin, and A. Kuzmich, “Entanglement between light and an optical atomic excitation,” Nature 498, 466–469 (2013).

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. Woo Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Chou, G. Shu, T. Noel, J. Wright, R. Graham, and B. Blinov, “Trapping ions in a 2-pi parabolic mirror,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 58, 157 (2013).

L. Slodička, G. Hétet, N. Röck, P. Schindler, M. Hennrich, and R. Blatt, “Atom-atom entanglement by single-photon detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

T. Noel, M. R. Dietrich, N. Kurz, G. Shu, J. Wright, and B. B. Blinov, “Adiabatic passage in the presence of noise,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 023401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Bernien, L. Childress, L. Robledo, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Two-photon quantum interference from separate nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043604 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Hofling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491, 421–425 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Gao, P. Fallahi, E. Togan, J. Miguel-Sanchez, and A. Imamoglu, “Observation of entanglement between a quantum dot spin and a single photon,” Nature 491, 426–430 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstatter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Eichler, C. Lang, J. M. Fink, J. Govenius, S. Filipp, and A. Wallraff, “Observation of entanglement between itinerant microwave photons and a superconducting qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 240501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

B. Leng Chuah, N. C. Lewty, and M. D. Barrett, “State detection using coherent Raman repumping and two-color Raman transfers,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 013411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Waldherr, P. Neumann, S. F. Huelga, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Violation of a temporal Bell inequality for single spins in a diamond defect center,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 090401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466, 730–734 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilk, A. Gaëtan, C. Evellin, J. Wolters, Y. Miroshnychenko, P. Grangier, and A. Browaeys, “Entanglement of two individual neutral atoms using rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 010502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Ansmann, H. Wang, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, A. D. O’Connell, D. Sank, M. Weides, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Violation of Bell’s inequality in Josephson phase qubits,” Nature 461, 504–506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. N. Matsukevich, P. Maunz, D. L. Moehring, S. Olmschenk, and C. Monroe, “Bell inequality violation with two remote atomic qubits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 150404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Rosenfeld, F. Hocke, F. Henkel, M. Krug, J. Volz, M. Weber, and H. Weinfurter, “Towards long-distance atom-photon entanglement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 260403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Neumann, N. Mizuochi, F. Rempp, P. Hemmer, H. Watanabe, S. Yamasaki, V. Jacques, T. Gaebel, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Multipartite entanglement among single spins in diamond,” Science 320, 1326–1329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. L. Moehring, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, K. C. Younge, D. N. Matsukevich, L.-M. Duan, and C. Monroe, “Entanglement of single-atom quantum bits at a distance,” Nature 449, 68–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Wunderlich, T. Hannemann, T. Krber, H. Hffner, C. Roos, W. Hnsel, R. Blatt, and F. Schmidt-Kaler, “Robust state preparation of a single trapped ion by adiabatic passage,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1541–1549 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Gurell, E. Biémont, K. Blagoev, V. Fivet, P. Lundin, S. Mannervik, L.-O. Norlin, P. Quinet, D. Rostohar, P. Royen, and P. Schef, “Laser-probing measurements and calculations of lifetimes of the 5d2d32 and 5d2d52 metastable levels in Ba ii,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 052506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Steffen, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, N. Katz, E. Lucero, R. McDermott, M. Neeley, E. M. Weig, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Measurement of the entanglement of two superconducting qubits via state tomography,” Science 313, 1423–1425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. W. Chou, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, S. V. Polyakov, J. van Enk, and H. J. Kimble, “Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles,” Nature 438, 828–832 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Walther, M. Aspelmeyer, K. J. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental violation of a cluster state Bell inequality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 020403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. B. Blinov, D. L. Moehring, L.-M. Duan, and C. Monroe, “Observation of entanglement between a single trapped atom and a single photon,” Nature 428, 153–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. J. Berkley, H. Xu, R. C. Ramos, M. A. Gubrud, F. W. Strauch, P. R. Johnson, J. R. Anderson, A. J. Dragt, C. J. Lobb, and F. C. Wellstood, “Entangled macroscopic quantum states in two superconducting qubits,” Science 300, 1548–1550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hasegawa, R. Loidl, G. Badurek, M. Baron, and H. Rauch, “Violation of a Bell-like inequality in single-neutron interferometry,” Nature 425, 45–48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Simon and W. T. M. Irvine, “Robust long-distance entanglement and a loophole-free Bell test with ions and photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 110405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. A. Rowe, D. Kielpinski, V. Meyer, C. A. Sackett, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Experimental violation of a Bell’s inequality with efficient detection,” Nature 409, 791–794(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. A. Sackett, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, C. Langer, V. Meyer, C. J. Myatt, M. Rowe, Q. A. Turchette, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and C. Monroe, “Experimental entanglement of four particles,” Nature 404, 256–259 (2000).

1998

G. Weihs, T. Jennewein, C. Simon, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Violation of Bell’s inequality under strict Einstein locality conditions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5039–5043 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. H. Bennett, D. P. DiVincenzo, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Mixed-state entanglement and quantum error correction,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824–3851 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

E. H. Pinnington, R. W. Berends, and M. Lumsden, “Studies of laser-induced fluorescence in fast beams of sr+ and ba+ ions,” J. Phys. B 28, 2095–2103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1969

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880–884 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1964

J. S. Bell, “On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox,” Physics 1, 195–200 (1964).

1935

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47, 777–780 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Abe, E.

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Hofling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491, 421–425 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. R.

A. J. Berkley, H. Xu, R. C. Ramos, M. A. Gubrud, F. W. Strauch, P. R. Johnson, J. R. Anderson, A. J. Dragt, C. J. Lobb, and F. C. Wellstood, “Entangled macroscopic quantum states in two superconducting qubits,” Science 300, 1548–1550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, M.

M. Ansmann, H. Wang, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, A. D. O’Connell, D. Sank, M. Weides, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Violation of Bell’s inequality in Josephson phase qubits,” Nature 461, 504–506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Steffen, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, N. Katz, E. Lucero, R. McDermott, M. Neeley, E. M. Weig, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Measurement of the entanglement of two superconducting qubits via state tomography,” Science 313, 1423–1425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aspelmeyer, M.

P. Walther, M. Aspelmeyer, K. J. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental violation of a cluster state Bell inequality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 020403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Badurek, G.

Y. Hasegawa, R. Loidl, G. Badurek, M. Baron, and H. Rauch, “Violation of a Bell-like inequality in single-neutron interferometry,” Nature 425, 45–48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baron, M.

Y. Hasegawa, R. Loidl, G. Badurek, M. Baron, and H. Rauch, “Violation of a Bell-like inequality in single-neutron interferometry,” Nature 425, 45–48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, M. D.

B. Leng Chuah, N. C. Lewty, and M. D. Barrett, “State detection using coherent Raman repumping and two-color Raman transfers,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 013411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bell, J. S.

J. S. Bell, “On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox,” Physics 1, 195–200 (1964).

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, D. P. DiVincenzo, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Mixed-state entanglement and quantum error correction,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824–3851 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berends, R. W.

E. H. Pinnington, R. W. Berends, and M. Lumsden, “Studies of laser-induced fluorescence in fast beams of sr+ and ba+ ions,” J. Phys. B 28, 2095–2103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Berkley, A. J.

A. J. Berkley, H. Xu, R. C. Ramos, M. A. Gubrud, F. W. Strauch, P. R. Johnson, J. R. Anderson, A. J. Dragt, C. J. Lobb, and F. C. Wellstood, “Entangled macroscopic quantum states in two superconducting qubits,” Science 300, 1548–1550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bernien, H.

H. Bernien, L. Childress, L. Robledo, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Two-photon quantum interference from separate nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043604 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, J.

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. Woo Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bialczak, R. C.

M. Ansmann, H. Wang, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, A. D. O’Connell, D. Sank, M. Weides, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Violation of Bell’s inequality in Josephson phase qubits,” Nature 461, 504–506 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Steffen, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, N. Katz, E. Lucero, R. McDermott, M. Neeley, E. M. Weig, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Measurement of the entanglement of two superconducting qubits via state tomography,” Science 313, 1423–1425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biémont, E.

J. Gurell, E. Biémont, K. Blagoev, V. Fivet, P. Lundin, S. Mannervik, L.-O. Norlin, P. Quinet, D. Rostohar, P. Royen, and P. Schef, “Laser-probing measurements and calculations of lifetimes of the 5d2d32 and 5d2d52 metastable levels in Ba ii,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 052506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blagoev, K.

J. Gurell, E. Biémont, K. Blagoev, V. Fivet, P. Lundin, S. Mannervik, L.-O. Norlin, P. Quinet, D. Rostohar, P. Royen, and P. Schef, “Laser-probing measurements and calculations of lifetimes of the 5d2d32 and 5d2d52 metastable levels in Ba ii,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 052506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, R.

L. Slodička, G. Hétet, N. Röck, P. Schindler, M. Hennrich, and R. Blatt, “Atom-atom entanglement by single-photon detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 083603 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstatter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wunderlich, T. Hannemann, T. Krber, H. Hffner, C. Roos, W. Hnsel, R. Blatt, and F. Schmidt-Kaler, “Robust state preparation of a single trapped ion by adiabatic passage,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1541–1549 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blinov, B.

C.-K. Chou, G. Shu, T. Noel, J. Wright, R. Graham, and B. Blinov, “Trapping ions in a 2-pi parabolic mirror,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 58, 157 (2013).

Blinov, B. B.

T. Noel, M. R. Dietrich, N. Kurz, G. Shu, J. Wright, and B. B. Blinov, “Adiabatic passage in the presence of noise,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 023401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Blinov, D. L. Moehring, L.-M. Duan, and C. Monroe, “Observation of entanglement between a single trapped atom and a single photon,” Nature 428, 153–157 (2004).
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M. A. Rowe, D. Kielpinski, V. Meyer, C. A. Sackett, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Experimental violation of a Bell’s inequality with efficient detection,” Nature 409, 791–794(2001).
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E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466, 730–734 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steffen, M.

M. Steffen, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, N. Katz, E. Lucero, R. McDermott, M. Neeley, E. M. Weig, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Measurement of the entanglement of two superconducting qubits via state tomography,” Science 313, 1423–1425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strauch, F. W.

A. J. Berkley, H. Xu, R. C. Ramos, M. A. Gubrud, F. W. Strauch, P. R. Johnson, J. R. Anderson, A. J. Dragt, C. J. Lobb, and F. C. Wellstood, “Entangled macroscopic quantum states in two superconducting qubits,” Science 300, 1548–1550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stute, A.

A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstatter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Togan, E.

W. B. Gao, P. Fallahi, E. Togan, J. Miguel-Sanchez, and A. Imamoglu, “Observation of entanglement between a quantum dot spin and a single photon,” Nature 491, 426–430 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466, 730–734 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trifonov, A. S.

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466, 730–734 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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C. A. Sackett, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, C. Langer, V. Meyer, C. J. Myatt, M. Rowe, Q. A. Turchette, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and C. Monroe, “Experimental entanglement of four particles,” Nature 404, 256–259 (2000).

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H. Bernien, L. Childress, L. Robledo, M. Markham, D. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Two-photon quantum interference from separate nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043604 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. Woo Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013).
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C. W. Chou, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, S. V. Polyakov, J. van Enk, and H. J. Kimble, “Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles,” Nature 438, 828–832 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

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G. Waldherr, P. Neumann, S. F. Huelga, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Violation of a temporal Bell inequality for single spins in a diamond defect center,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 090401 (2011).
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C. Eichler, C. Lang, J. M. Fink, J. Govenius, S. Filipp, and A. Wallraff, “Observation of entanglement between itinerant microwave photons and a superconducting qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 240501 (2012).
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W. Rosenfeld, F. Hocke, F. Henkel, M. Krug, J. Volz, M. Weber, and H. Weinfurter, “Towards long-distance atom-photon entanglement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 260403 (2008).
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M. Ansmann, H. Wang, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, A. D. O’Connell, D. Sank, M. Weides, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Violation of Bell’s inequality in Josephson phase qubits,” Nature 461, 504–506 (2009).
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M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. Woo Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. Woo Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013).
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[CrossRef]

P. Neumann, N. Mizuochi, F. Rempp, P. Hemmer, H. Watanabe, S. Yamasaki, V. Jacques, T. Gaebel, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Multipartite entanglement among single spins in diamond,” Science 320, 1326–1329 (2008).
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A. J. Berkley, H. Xu, R. C. Ramos, M. A. Gubrud, F. W. Strauch, P. R. Johnson, J. R. Anderson, A. J. Dragt, C. J. Lobb, and F. C. Wellstood, “Entangled macroscopic quantum states in two superconducting qubits,” Science 300, 1548–1550 (2003).
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P. Neumann, N. Mizuochi, F. Rempp, P. Hemmer, H. Watanabe, S. Yamasaki, V. Jacques, T. Gaebel, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Multipartite entanglement among single spins in diamond,” Science 320, 1326–1329 (2008).
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D. L. Moehring, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, K. C. Younge, D. N. Matsukevich, L.-M. Duan, and C. Monroe, “Entanglement of single-atom quantum bits at a distance,” Nature 449, 68–71 (2007).
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M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. Woo Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013).
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E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466, 730–734 (2010).
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C. Wunderlich, T. Hannemann, T. Krber, H. Hffner, C. Roos, W. Hnsel, R. Blatt, and F. Schmidt-Kaler, “Robust state preparation of a single trapped ion by adiabatic passage,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1541–1549 (2007).
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Nature

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466, 730–734 (2010).
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A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstatter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
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C. A. Sackett, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, C. Langer, V. Meyer, C. J. Myatt, M. Rowe, Q. A. Turchette, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and C. Monroe, “Experimental entanglement of four particles,” Nature 404, 256–259 (2000).

M. A. Rowe, D. Kielpinski, V. Meyer, C. A. Sackett, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Experimental violation of a Bell’s inequality with efficient detection,” Nature 409, 791–794(2001).
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M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. Woo Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Ansmann, H. Wang, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, A. D. O’Connell, D. Sank, M. Weides, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, and J. M. Martinis, “Violation of Bell’s inequality in Josephson phase qubits,” Nature 461, 504–506 (2009).
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C. Monroe, R. Raussendorf, A. Ruthven, K. R. Brown, P. Maunz, L.-M. Duan, and J. Kim, “Large scale modular quantum computer architecture with atomic memory and photonic interconnects,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 022317 (2014).
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Phys. Rev. Lett.

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[CrossRef]

G. Waldherr, P. Neumann, S. F. Huelga, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Violation of a temporal Bell inequality for single spins in a diamond defect center,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 090401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

W. Rosenfeld, F. Hocke, F. Henkel, M. Krug, J. Volz, M. Weber, and H. Weinfurter, “Towards long-distance atom-photon entanglement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 260403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Science

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[CrossRef]

A. J. Berkley, H. Xu, R. C. Ramos, M. A. Gubrud, F. W. Strauch, P. R. Johnson, J. R. Anderson, A. J. Dragt, C. J. Lobb, and F. C. Wellstood, “Entangled macroscopic quantum states in two superconducting qubits,” Science 300, 1548–1550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Neumann, N. Mizuochi, F. Rempp, P. Hemmer, H. Watanabe, S. Yamasaki, V. Jacques, T. Gaebel, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Multipartite entanglement among single spins in diamond,” Science 320, 1326–1329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Monroe, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, 1117 John S. Toll Building 082, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA (personal communication, 2013).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Example of Zeeman qubit rotations of the ground state. After initialization to a single Zeeman sublevel of the ground state, the rf signal is applied for the indicated time followed by 97% efficient transfer of the mJ=(1/2) ground state to the D5/2 level. Thus, a shelving efficiency near 1 corresponds to the ion in the mJ=(1/2) ground state, while a shelving efficiency near 0 corresponds to the ion in the mJ=+(1/2) ground state.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental procedure: (a) the ion is Doppler cooled for 30 μs by 493 and 650 nm beams. (b) State initialization is performed with 10 μs of optical pumping by a σ-polarized 493 nm beam followed by (c) an 18 μs rf π pulse resonant with the 6.82 MHz ground-state separation. (d) The ion is weakly excited with the σ-polarized beam. (e) The excited ion decays emitting a σ-polarized or π-polarized photon, resulting in the corresponding ground-state sublevel. (f) Ion detection is performed using the 1762 nm shelving beam, followed by turning on the cooling lasers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured conditional probabilities P(P|bright) and P(P|dark) (a) as a function of the photon qubit measurement basis angle by rotating the half-waveplate while leaving the ion qubit unrotated and (b) versus the ion-qubit phase, ϕI, between the rotations for rotation of each qubit by a polar angle of π/2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Correlation Function Measurements and Calculated Bell Signals

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S=|P(θa,θb)P(θa,θb)|+|P(θa,θb)+P(θa,θb)|2,
P(θa,θb)=f00(θa,θb)+f11(θa,θb)f01(θa,θb)f10(θa,θb)
F=Φ+|ρ|Φ+=12(ρ11+ρ44+ρ14+ρ41),
ρ14+ρ41=ρ11+ρ44ρ22ρ33ρ23ρ32ρ11+ρ44ρ22ρ332ρ22ρ33.
F12(ρ11+ρ442ρ22ρ33+ρ11+ρ44ρ22ρ33).
S=2(ρ11+ρ44ρ22ρ33+ρ11+ρ44ρ22ρ33).

Metrics