Abstract

Newly generated frequencies during bulk continuum generation with femtosecond pump pulses do not fluctuate statistically and show strong correlations in spectrum and time. When a femtosecond continuum is used as probe light for transient spectroscopic measurements, these correlations result in a seemingly low noise level but large-scale pseudo-structures that obscure the interpretation. We investigate the correlations for continua generated in YAG and calcium fluoride plates and incorporate the results into the design of our pump–probe setup. The high degree of correlation to the next pulse is utilized through chopping of the pump and referencing between successive laser shots. To suppress the adverse effect of the high degree of correlation to other wavelengths, we extend the detection by multichannel referencing with a second camera. The combination of both referencing schemes renders a precise spectral calibration unnecessary and increases the sensitivity of our spectrometer by a factor of 5 down to 20 μOD. This is already very close to the shot noise limit. To demonstrate the improvements, we present and discuss measurements on two different molecular solutions.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Manzoni, D. Polli, and G. Cerullo, “Two-color pump-probe system broadly tunable over the visible and the near infrared with sub-30  fs temporal resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Cerullo, C. Manzoni, L. Lüer, and D. Polli, “Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 4. Broadband pump–probe spectroscopy system with sub-20  fs temporal resolution for the study of energy transfer processes in photosynthesis,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 135–144 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  6. U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50  fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 215–231 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  28. G. Buntinx, R. Naskrecki, and O. Poizat, “Subpicosecond transient absorption analysis of the photophysics of 2,2’-bipyridine and 4,4’-bipyridine in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 19380–19388 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Seel, E. Wildermuth, and W. Zinth, “A multichannel detection system for application in ultra-fast spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 449–452 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  36. E. Riedle, M. Bradler, M. Wenninger, C. F. Sailer, and I. Pugliesi, “Electronic transient spectroscopy from the deep UV to the NIR: unambiguous disentanglement of complex processes,” Faraday Discuss. 163, 139–158 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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  38. B. K. Shah, M. A. J. Rodgers, and D. C. Neckers, “The S2→ S1 internal conversion of benzophenone and p-iodobenzophenone,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 6087–6089 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. Aloise, C. Ruckebusch, L. Blanchet, J. Rehault, G. Buntinx, and J. P. Huvenne, “The benzophenone S1(n, π*) → T1(n, π*) states intersystem crossing reinvestigated by ultrafast absorption spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 224–231 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  40. N. Krebs, I. Pugliesi, J. Hauer, and E. Riedle, “Two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy in the ultraviolet with sub-20  fs pump pulses and 250–720  nm supercontinuum probe,” New. J. Phys. 15, 085016 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (6)

D. Majus and A. Dubietis, “Statistical properties of ultrafast supercontinuum generated by femtosecond Gaussian and Bessel beams: a comparative study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 994–999 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. B. Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real time noise and wavelength correlations in octave-spanning supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 18452–18460 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Lang, S. Mosquera-Vazquez, D. Lovy, P. Sherin, V. Markovic, and E. Vauthey, “Broadband ultraviolet-visible transient absorption spectroscopy in the nanosecond to microsecond time domain with sub-nanosecond time resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Riedle, M. Bradler, M. Wenninger, C. F. Sailer, and I. Pugliesi, “Electronic transient spectroscopy from the deep UV to the NIR: unambiguous disentanglement of complex processes,” Faraday Discuss. 163, 139–158 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Merz, M. Wenninger, M. Weinberger, E. Riedle, H. A. Wagenknecht, and M. Schütz, “Conformational control of benzophenone-sensitized charge transfer in dinucleotides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 18607–18619 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Krebs, I. Pugliesi, J. Hauer, and E. Riedle, “Two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy in the ultraviolet with sub-20  fs pump pulses and 250–720  nm supercontinuum probe,” New. J. Phys. 15, 085016 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2010).

A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, A. Weigel, J. L. Pérez-Lustres, J. Lange, A. Müller, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond pump/supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy: optimized setup and signal analysis for single-shot spectral referencing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 113106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50  fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. J. M. Johnson, V. I. Prokhorenko, and R. J. D. Miller, “Stable UV to IR supercontinuum generation in calcium fluoride with conserved circular polarization states,” Opt. Express 17, 21488–21496 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20  fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Aloise, C. Ruckebusch, L. Blanchet, J. Rehault, G. Buntinx, and J. P. Huvenne, “The benzophenone S1(n, π*) → T1(n, π*) states intersystem crossing reinvestigated by ultrafast absorption spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 224–231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

G. Duvanel, N. Banerji, and E. Vauthey, “Excited-state dynamics of donor-acceptor bridged systems containing a boron-dipyrromethene chromophore: interplay between charge separation and reorientational motion,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 5361–5369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 1–4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, C. Manzoni, L. Lüer, and D. Polli, “Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 4. Broadband pump–probe spectroscopy system with sub-20  fs temporal resolution for the study of energy transfer processes in photosynthesis,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 135–144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Polli, L. Lüer, and G. Cerullo, “High-time-resolution pump–probe system with broadband detection for the study of time-domain vibrational dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C. Manzoni, D. Polli, and G. Cerullo, “Two-color pump-probe system broadly tunable over the visible and the near infrared with sub-30  fs temporal resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, N. Gisin, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser noise reduction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

B. K. Shah, M. A. J. Rodgers, and D. C. Neckers, “The S2→ S1 internal conversion of benzophenone and p-iodobenzophenone,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 6087–6089 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ando, D. Kataoka, H. Matsuda, H. Miyasaka, and T. Okada, “Ultrafast excited state deactivation of triphenylmethane dyes,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 2024–2035 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Tzankov, I. Buchvarov, and T. Fiebig, “Broadband optical parametric amplification in the near UV–VIS,” Opt. Commun. 203, 107–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Opatrny, “Mode structure and photon number correlations in squeezed quantum pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053813 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

N. P. Ernsting, S. A. Kovalenko, T. Senyushkina, J. Saam, and V. Farztdinov, “Wave-packet-assisted decomposition of femtosecond transient ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra: application to excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 3443–3453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, H. Satzger, W. Zinth, and J. Wachtveitl, “Noncollinear optical parametric amplifier with output parameters improved by the application of a white light continuum generated in CaF2,” Opt. Commun. 194, 443–448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. A. van Hal, R. A. J. Janssen, G. Lanzani, G. Cerullo, M. Zavelani-Rossi, and S. De Silvestri, “Full temporal resolution of the two-step photoinduced energy-electron transfer in a fullerene-oligothiophene-fullerene triad using sub-10  fs pump-probe spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 345, 33–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

S. A. Kovalenko, A. L. Dobryakov, J. Ruthmann, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of condensed phases with chirped supercontinuum probing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2369–2384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637–650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Spälter, N. Korolkova, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of multimode quantum correlations in fiber optical solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 786–789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Seel, E. Wildermuth, and W. Zinth, “A multichannel detection system for application in ultra-fast spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 449–452 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. Buntinx, R. Naskrecki, and O. Poizat, “Subpicosecond transient absorption analysis of the photophysics of 2,2’-bipyridine and 4,4’-bipyridine in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 19380–19388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. A. Moon, “Optimization of signal-to-noise ratios in pump-probe spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1775–1778 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. L. Rodgers and W. A. Nicewander, “Thirteen ways to look at the correlation coefficient,” Am. Stat. 42, 59–66 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. Mokhtari, L. Fini, and J. Chesnoy, “Ultrafast conformation equilibration in triphenyl methane dyes analyzed by time resolved induced photoabsorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 3429–3435 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, and A. Bergman, “Picosecond recovery dynamics in malachite green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1920 (1)

K. Pearson, “Notes on the history of correlations,” Biometrika 13, 25–45 (1920).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, R.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 1–4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2006).

Aloise, S.

S. Aloise, C. Ruckebusch, L. Blanchet, J. Rehault, G. Buntinx, and J. P. Huvenne, “The benzophenone S1(n, π*) → T1(n, π*) states intersystem crossing reinvestigated by ultrafast absorption spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 224–231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ando, Y.

Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ando, D. Kataoka, H. Matsuda, H. Miyasaka, and T. Okada, “Ultrafast excited state deactivation of triphenylmethane dyes,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 2024–2035 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Banerji, N.

G. Duvanel, N. Banerji, and E. Vauthey, “Excited-state dynamics of donor-acceptor bridged systems containing a boron-dipyrromethene chromophore: interplay between charge separation and reorientational motion,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 5361–5369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baum, P.

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bejot, P.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 1–4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, N. Gisin, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser noise reduction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, A.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, and A. Bergman, “Picosecond recovery dynamics in malachite green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Blanchet, L.

S. Aloise, C. Ruckebusch, L. Blanchet, J. Rehault, G. Buntinx, and J. P. Huvenne, “The benzophenone S1(n, π*) → T1(n, π*) states intersystem crossing reinvestigated by ultrafast absorption spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 224–231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bradler, M.

E. Riedle, M. Bradler, M. Wenninger, C. F. Sailer, and I. Pugliesi, “Electronic transient spectroscopy from the deep UV to the NIR: unambiguous disentanglement of complex processes,” Faraday Discuss. 163, 139–158 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

Buchvarov, I.

P. Tzankov, I. Buchvarov, and T. Fiebig, “Broadband optical parametric amplification in the near UV–VIS,” Opt. Commun. 203, 107–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buntinx, G.

S. Aloise, C. Ruckebusch, L. Blanchet, J. Rehault, G. Buntinx, and J. P. Huvenne, “The benzophenone S1(n, π*) → T1(n, π*) states intersystem crossing reinvestigated by ultrafast absorption spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 224–231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Buntinx, R. Naskrecki, and O. Poizat, “Subpicosecond transient absorption analysis of the photophysics of 2,2’-bipyridine and 4,4’-bipyridine in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 19380–19388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

D. Polli, L. Lüer, and G. Cerullo, “High-time-resolution pump–probe system with broadband detection for the study of time-domain vibrational dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, C. Manzoni, L. Lüer, and D. Polli, “Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 4. Broadband pump–probe spectroscopy system with sub-20  fs temporal resolution for the study of energy transfer processes in photosynthesis,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 135–144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Manzoni, D. Polli, and G. Cerullo, “Two-color pump-probe system broadly tunable over the visible and the near infrared with sub-30  fs temporal resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. van Hal, R. A. J. Janssen, G. Lanzani, G. Cerullo, M. Zavelani-Rossi, and S. De Silvestri, “Full temporal resolution of the two-step photoinduced energy-electron transfer in a fullerene-oligothiophene-fullerene triad using sub-10  fs pump-probe spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 345, 33–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chesnoy, J.

A. Mokhtari, L. Fini, and J. Chesnoy, “Ultrafast conformation equilibration in triphenyl methane dyes analyzed by time resolved induced photoabsorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 3429–3435 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

De Silvestri, S.

P. A. van Hal, R. A. J. Janssen, G. Lanzani, G. Cerullo, M. Zavelani-Rossi, and S. De Silvestri, “Full temporal resolution of the two-step photoinduced energy-electron transfer in a fullerene-oligothiophene-fullerene triad using sub-10  fs pump-probe spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 345, 33–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dias, F.

T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. B. Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real time noise and wavelength correlations in octave-spanning supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 18452–18460 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2010).

Dobryakov, A. L.

A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, A. Weigel, J. L. Pérez-Lustres, J. Lange, A. Müller, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond pump/supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy: optimized setup and signal analysis for single-shot spectral referencing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 113106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Kovalenko, A. L. Dobryakov, J. Ruthmann, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of condensed phases with chirped supercontinuum probing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2369–2384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

Dudley, J. M.

T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. B. Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real time noise and wavelength correlations in octave-spanning supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 18452–18460 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2010).

Duvanel, G.

G. Duvanel, N. Banerji, and E. Vauthey, “Excited-state dynamics of donor-acceptor bridged systems containing a boron-dipyrromethene chromophore: interplay between charge separation and reorientational motion,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 5361–5369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ernsting, N. P.

A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, A. Weigel, J. L. Pérez-Lustres, J. Lange, A. Müller, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond pump/supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy: optimized setup and signal analysis for single-shot spectral referencing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 113106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Ernsting, S. A. Kovalenko, T. Senyushkina, J. Saam, and V. Farztdinov, “Wave-packet-assisted decomposition of femtosecond transient ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra: application to excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 3443–3453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Kovalenko, A. L. Dobryakov, J. Ruthmann, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of condensed phases with chirped supercontinuum probing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2369–2384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Farztdinov, V.

N. P. Ernsting, S. A. Kovalenko, T. Senyushkina, J. Saam, and V. Farztdinov, “Wave-packet-assisted decomposition of femtosecond transient ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra: application to excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 3443–3453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fiebig, T.

P. Tzankov, I. Buchvarov, and T. Fiebig, “Broadband optical parametric amplification in the near UV–VIS,” Opt. Commun. 203, 107–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fini, L.

A. Mokhtari, L. Fini, and J. Chesnoy, “Ultrafast conformation equilibration in triphenyl methane dyes analyzed by time resolved induced photoabsorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 3429–3435 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. B. Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real time noise and wavelength correlations in octave-spanning supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 18452–18460 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2010).

Gisin, N.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, N. Gisin, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser noise reduction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Godin, T.

Hauer, J.

N. Krebs, I. Pugliesi, J. Hauer, and E. Riedle, “Two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy in the ultraviolet with sub-20  fs pump pulses and 250–720  nm supercontinuum probe,” New. J. Phys. 15, 085016 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

R. Huber, H. Satzger, W. Zinth, and J. Wachtveitl, “Noncollinear optical parametric amplifier with output parameters improved by the application of a white light continuum generated in CaF2,” Opt. Commun. 194, 443–448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huvenne, J. P.

S. Aloise, C. Ruckebusch, L. Blanchet, J. Rehault, G. Buntinx, and J. P. Huvenne, “The benzophenone S1(n, π*) → T1(n, π*) states intersystem crossing reinvestigated by ultrafast absorption spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 224–231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, and A. Bergman, “Picosecond recovery dynamics in malachite green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, R. A. J.

P. A. van Hal, R. A. J. Janssen, G. Lanzani, G. Cerullo, M. Zavelani-Rossi, and S. De Silvestri, “Full temporal resolution of the two-step photoinduced energy-electron transfer in a fullerene-oligothiophene-fullerene triad using sub-10  fs pump-probe spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 345, 33–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. J. M.

Kasparian, J.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 1–4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, N. Gisin, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser noise reduction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ando, D. Kataoka, H. Matsuda, H. Miyasaka, and T. Okada, “Ultrafast excited state deactivation of triphenylmethane dyes,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 2024–2035 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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S. Spälter, N. Korolkova, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of multimode quantum correlations in fiber optical solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 786–789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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S. Spälter, N. Korolkova, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of multimode quantum correlations in fiber optical solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 786–789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, A. Weigel, J. L. Pérez-Lustres, J. Lange, A. Müller, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond pump/supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy: optimized setup and signal analysis for single-shot spectral referencing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 113106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Ernsting, S. A. Kovalenko, T. Senyushkina, J. Saam, and V. Farztdinov, “Wave-packet-assisted decomposition of femtosecond transient ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra: application to excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 3443–3453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Kovalenko, A. L. Dobryakov, J. Ruthmann, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of condensed phases with chirped supercontinuum probing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2369–2384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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N. Krebs, I. Pugliesi, J. Hauer, and E. Riedle, “Two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy in the ultraviolet with sub-20  fs pump pulses and 250–720  nm supercontinuum probe,” New. J. Phys. 15, 085016 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. B. Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real time noise and wavelength correlations in octave-spanning supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 18452–18460 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2010).

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B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2010).

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B. Lang, S. Mosquera-Vazquez, D. Lovy, P. Sherin, V. Markovic, and E. Vauthey, “Broadband ultraviolet-visible transient absorption spectroscopy in the nanosecond to microsecond time domain with sub-nanosecond time resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lange, J.

A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, A. Weigel, J. L. Pérez-Lustres, J. Lange, A. Müller, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond pump/supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy: optimized setup and signal analysis for single-shot spectral referencing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 113106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lanzani, G.

P. A. van Hal, R. A. J. Janssen, G. Lanzani, G. Cerullo, M. Zavelani-Rossi, and S. De Silvestri, “Full temporal resolution of the two-step photoinduced energy-electron transfer in a fullerene-oligothiophene-fullerene triad using sub-10  fs pump-probe spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 345, 33–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Larger, L.

T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. B. Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real time noise and wavelength correlations in octave-spanning supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 18452–18460 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2010).

Leuchs, G.

S. Spälter, N. Korolkova, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of multimode quantum correlations in fiber optical solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 786–789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lochbrunner, S.

C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20  fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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B. Lang, S. Mosquera-Vazquez, D. Lovy, P. Sherin, V. Markovic, and E. Vauthey, “Broadband ultraviolet-visible transient absorption spectroscopy in the nanosecond to microsecond time domain with sub-nanosecond time resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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G. Cerullo, C. Manzoni, L. Lüer, and D. Polli, “Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 4. Broadband pump–probe spectroscopy system with sub-20  fs temporal resolution for the study of energy transfer processes in photosynthesis,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 135–144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Polli, L. Lüer, and G. Cerullo, “High-time-resolution pump–probe system with broadband detection for the study of time-domain vibrational dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Manzoni, C.

G. Cerullo, C. Manzoni, L. Lüer, and D. Polli, “Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 4. Broadband pump–probe spectroscopy system with sub-20  fs temporal resolution for the study of energy transfer processes in photosynthesis,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 135–144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Manzoni, D. Polli, and G. Cerullo, “Two-color pump-probe system broadly tunable over the visible and the near infrared with sub-30  fs temporal resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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B. Lang, S. Mosquera-Vazquez, D. Lovy, P. Sherin, V. Markovic, and E. Vauthey, “Broadband ultraviolet-visible transient absorption spectroscopy in the nanosecond to microsecond time domain with sub-nanosecond time resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, H.

Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ando, D. Kataoka, H. Matsuda, H. Miyasaka, and T. Okada, “Ultrafast excited state deactivation of triphenylmethane dyes,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 2024–2035 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Megerle, U.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50  fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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W. Mendenhall and T. Sincich, Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences, 3rd ed. (MacMillan, 1988).

Merolla, J. M.

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2010).

Merz, T.

T. Merz, M. Wenninger, M. Weinberger, E. Riedle, H. A. Wagenknecht, and M. Schütz, “Conformational control of benzophenone-sensitized charge transfer in dinucleotides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 18607–18619 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. J. D.

Miyasaka, H.

Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ando, D. Kataoka, H. Matsuda, H. Miyasaka, and T. Okada, “Ultrafast excited state deactivation of triphenylmethane dyes,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 2024–2035 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mokhtari, A.

A. Mokhtari, L. Fini, and J. Chesnoy, “Ultrafast conformation equilibration in triphenyl methane dyes analyzed by time resolved induced photoabsorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 3429–3435 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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J. A. Moon, “Optimization of signal-to-noise ratios in pump-probe spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1775–1778 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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B. Lang, S. Mosquera-Vazquez, D. Lovy, P. Sherin, V. Markovic, and E. Vauthey, “Broadband ultraviolet-visible transient absorption spectroscopy in the nanosecond to microsecond time domain with sub-nanosecond time resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Müller, A.

A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, A. Weigel, J. L. Pérez-Lustres, J. Lange, A. Müller, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond pump/supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy: optimized setup and signal analysis for single-shot spectral referencing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 113106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. B. Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real time noise and wavelength correlations in octave-spanning supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 18452–18460 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2010).

Nagasawa, Y.

Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ando, D. Kataoka, H. Matsuda, H. Miyasaka, and T. Okada, “Ultrafast excited state deactivation of triphenylmethane dyes,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 2024–2035 (2002).
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G. Buntinx, R. Naskrecki, and O. Poizat, “Subpicosecond transient absorption analysis of the photophysics of 2,2’-bipyridine and 4,4’-bipyridine in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 19380–19388 (1996).
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B. K. Shah, M. A. J. Rodgers, and D. C. Neckers, “The S2→ S1 internal conversion of benzophenone and p-iodobenzophenone,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 6087–6089 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nesbitt, D. J.

C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20  fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. L. Rodgers and W. A. Nicewander, “Thirteen ways to look at the correlation coefficient,” Am. Stat. 42, 59–66 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

Y. Nagasawa, Y. Ando, D. Kataoka, H. Matsuda, H. Miyasaka, and T. Okada, “Ultrafast excited state deactivation of triphenylmethane dyes,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 2024–2035 (2002).
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T. Opatrny, “Mode structure and photon number correlations in squeezed quantum pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053813 (2002).
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K. Pearson, “Notes on the history of correlations,” Biometrika 13, 25–45 (1920).
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A. L. Dobryakov, S. A. Kovalenko, A. Weigel, J. L. Pérez-Lustres, J. Lange, A. Müller, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond pump/supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy: optimized setup and signal analysis for single-shot spectral referencing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 113106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poizat, O.

G. Buntinx, R. Naskrecki, and O. Poizat, “Subpicosecond transient absorption analysis of the photophysics of 2,2’-bipyridine and 4,4’-bipyridine in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 19380–19388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Polli, D.

G. Cerullo, C. Manzoni, L. Lüer, and D. Polli, “Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 4. Broadband pump–probe spectroscopy system with sub-20  fs temporal resolution for the study of energy transfer processes in photosynthesis,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 135–144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Polli, L. Lüer, and G. Cerullo, “High-time-resolution pump–probe system with broadband detection for the study of time-domain vibrational dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Manzoni, D. Polli, and G. Cerullo, “Two-color pump-probe system broadly tunable over the visible and the near infrared with sub-30  fs temporal resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorenko, V. I.

Pugliesi, I.

N. Krebs, I. Pugliesi, J. Hauer, and E. Riedle, “Two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy in the ultraviolet with sub-20  fs pump pulses and 250–720  nm supercontinuum probe,” New. J. Phys. 15, 085016 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Riedle, M. Bradler, M. Wenninger, C. F. Sailer, and I. Pugliesi, “Electronic transient spectroscopy from the deep UV to the NIR: unambiguous disentanglement of complex processes,” Faraday Discuss. 163, 139–158 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50  fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Rehault, J.

S. Aloise, C. Ruckebusch, L. Blanchet, J. Rehault, G. Buntinx, and J. P. Huvenne, “The benzophenone S1(n, π*) → T1(n, π*) states intersystem crossing reinvestigated by ultrafast absorption spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 224–231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riedle, E.

N. Krebs, I. Pugliesi, J. Hauer, and E. Riedle, “Two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy in the ultraviolet with sub-20  fs pump pulses and 250–720  nm supercontinuum probe,” New. J. Phys. 15, 085016 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Merz, M. Wenninger, M. Weinberger, E. Riedle, H. A. Wagenknecht, and M. Schütz, “Conformational control of benzophenone-sensitized charge transfer in dinucleotides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 18607–18619 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Riedle, M. Bradler, M. Wenninger, C. F. Sailer, and I. Pugliesi, “Electronic transient spectroscopy from the deep UV to the NIR: unambiguous disentanglement of complex processes,” Faraday Discuss. 163, 139–158 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50  fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20  fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. L. Rodgers and W. A. Nicewander, “Thirteen ways to look at the correlation coefficient,” Am. Stat. 42, 59–66 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, M. A. J.

B. K. Shah, M. A. J. Rodgers, and D. C. Neckers, “The S2→ S1 internal conversion of benzophenone and p-iodobenzophenone,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 6087–6089 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruckebusch, C.

S. Aloise, C. Ruckebusch, L. Blanchet, J. Rehault, G. Buntinx, and J. P. Huvenne, “The benzophenone S1(n, π*) → T1(n, π*) states intersystem crossing reinvestigated by ultrafast absorption spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 224–231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruthmann, J.

S. A. Kovalenko, A. L. Dobryakov, J. Ruthmann, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of condensed phases with chirped supercontinuum probing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2369–2384 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saam, J.

N. P. Ernsting, S. A. Kovalenko, T. Senyushkina, J. Saam, and V. Farztdinov, “Wave-packet-assisted decomposition of femtosecond transient ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra: application to excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 3443–3453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sailer, C. F.

E. Riedle, M. Bradler, M. Wenninger, C. F. Sailer, and I. Pugliesi, “Electronic transient spectroscopy from the deep UV to the NIR: unambiguous disentanglement of complex processes,” Faraday Discuss. 163, 139–158 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50  fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salem, A. B.

Salmon, E.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 1–4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Satzger, H.

R. Huber, H. Satzger, W. Zinth, and J. Wachtveitl, “Noncollinear optical parametric amplifier with output parameters improved by the application of a white light continuum generated in CaF2,” Opt. Commun. 194, 443–448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schriever, C.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, “Sub-50  fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 215–231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, E. Riedle, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20  fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schütz, M.

T. Merz, M. Wenninger, M. Weinberger, E. Riedle, H. A. Wagenknecht, and M. Schütz, “Conformational control of benzophenone-sensitized charge transfer in dinucleotides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 18607–18619 (2013).
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M. Seel, E. Wildermuth, and W. Zinth, “A multichannel detection system for application in ultra-fast spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 449–452 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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N. P. Ernsting, S. A. Kovalenko, T. Senyushkina, J. Saam, and V. Farztdinov, “Wave-packet-assisted decomposition of femtosecond transient ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra: application to excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 3443–3453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shah, B. K.

B. K. Shah, M. A. J. Rodgers, and D. C. Neckers, “The S2→ S1 internal conversion of benzophenone and p-iodobenzophenone,” J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 6087–6089 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, and A. Bergman, “Picosecond recovery dynamics in malachite green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sherin, P.

B. Lang, S. Mosquera-Vazquez, D. Lovy, P. Sherin, V. Markovic, and E. Vauthey, “Broadband ultraviolet-visible transient absorption spectroscopy in the nanosecond to microsecond time domain with sub-nanosecond time resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sincich, T.

W. Mendenhall and T. Sincich, Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences, 3rd ed. (MacMillan, 1988).

Sizmann, A.

S. Spälter, N. Korolkova, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of multimode quantum correlations in fiber optical solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 786–789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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S. Spälter, N. Korolkova, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of multimode quantum correlations in fiber optical solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 786–789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stefani, A.

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2010).

Stentz, A. J.

Sylvestre, T.

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Tzankov, P.

P. Tzankov, I. Buchvarov, and T. Fiebig, “Broadband optical parametric amplification in the near UV–VIS,” Opt. Commun. 203, 107–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Hal, P. A.

P. A. van Hal, R. A. J. Janssen, G. Lanzani, G. Cerullo, M. Zavelani-Rossi, and S. De Silvestri, “Full temporal resolution of the two-step photoinduced energy-electron transfer in a fullerene-oligothiophene-fullerene triad using sub-10  fs pump-probe spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 345, 33–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vauthey, E.

B. Lang, S. Mosquera-Vazquez, D. Lovy, P. Sherin, V. Markovic, and E. Vauthey, “Broadband ultraviolet-visible transient absorption spectroscopy in the nanosecond to microsecond time domain with sub-nanosecond time resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 073107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Duvanel, N. Banerji, and E. Vauthey, “Excited-state dynamics of donor-acceptor bridged systems containing a boron-dipyrromethene chromophore: interplay between charge separation and reorientational motion,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 5361–5369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wachtveitl, J.

R. Huber, H. Satzger, W. Zinth, and J. Wachtveitl, “Noncollinear optical parametric amplifier with output parameters improved by the application of a white light continuum generated in CaF2,” Opt. Commun. 194, 443–448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wagenknecht, H. A.

T. Merz, M. Wenninger, M. Weinberger, E. Riedle, H. A. Wagenknecht, and M. Schütz, “Conformational control of benzophenone-sensitized charge transfer in dinucleotides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 18607–18619 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Weinberger, M.

T. Merz, M. Wenninger, M. Weinberger, E. Riedle, H. A. Wagenknecht, and M. Schütz, “Conformational control of benzophenone-sensitized charge transfer in dinucleotides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 18607–18619 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wenninger, M.

T. Merz, M. Wenninger, M. Weinberger, E. Riedle, H. A. Wagenknecht, and M. Schütz, “Conformational control of benzophenone-sensitized charge transfer in dinucleotides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 18607–18619 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Riedle, M. Bradler, M. Wenninger, C. F. Sailer, and I. Pugliesi, “Electronic transient spectroscopy from the deep UV to the NIR: unambiguous disentanglement of complex processes,” Faraday Discuss. 163, 139–158 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, B.

T. Godin, B. Wetzel, T. Sylvestre, L. Larger, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, A. B. Salem, M. Zghal, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real time noise and wavelength correlations in octave-spanning supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 18452–18460 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2010).

Wildermuth, E.

M. Seel, E. Wildermuth, and W. Zinth, “A multichannel detection system for application in ultra-fast spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 449–452 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Wolf, J.-P.

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 1–4 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

Zghal, M.

Zinth, W.

R. Huber, H. Satzger, W. Zinth, and J. Wachtveitl, “Noncollinear optical parametric amplifier with output parameters improved by the application of a white light continuum generated in CaF2,” Opt. Commun. 194, 443–448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Seel, E. Wildermuth, and W. Zinth, “A multichannel detection system for application in ultra-fast spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 449–452 (1997).
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P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spectral correlation and noise reduction in laser filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 1–4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Bejot, J. Kasparian, N. Gisin, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser noise reduction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biometrika (1)

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Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

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P. A. van Hal, R. A. J. Janssen, G. Lanzani, G. Cerullo, M. Zavelani-Rossi, and S. De Silvestri, “Full temporal resolution of the two-step photoinduced energy-electron transfer in a fullerene-oligothiophene-fullerene triad using sub-10  fs pump-probe spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 345, 33–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Faraday Discuss. (1)

E. Riedle, M. Bradler, M. Wenninger, C. F. Sailer, and I. Pugliesi, “Electronic transient spectroscopy from the deep UV to the NIR: unambiguous disentanglement of complex processes,” Faraday Discuss. 163, 139–158 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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G. Buntinx, R. Naskrecki, and O. Poizat, “Subpicosecond transient absorption analysis of the photophysics of 2,2’-bipyridine and 4,4’-bipyridine in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 19380–19388 (1996).
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N. P. Ernsting, S. A. Kovalenko, T. Senyushkina, J. Saam, and V. Farztdinov, “Wave-packet-assisted decomposition of femtosecond transient ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra: application to excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 3443–3453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Seel, E. Wildermuth, and W. Zinth, “A multichannel detection system for application in ultra-fast spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 449–452 (1997).
[CrossRef]

New. J. Phys. (1)

N. Krebs, I. Pugliesi, J. Hauer, and E. Riedle, “Two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy in the ultraviolet with sub-20  fs pump pulses and 250–720  nm supercontinuum probe,” New. J. Phys. 15, 085016 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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R. Huber, H. Satzger, W. Zinth, and J. Wachtveitl, “Noncollinear optical parametric amplifier with output parameters improved by the application of a white light continuum generated in CaF2,” Opt. Commun. 194, 443–448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Tzankov, I. Buchvarov, and T. Fiebig, “Broadband optical parametric amplification in the near UV–VIS,” Opt. Commun. 203, 107–113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. (1)

G. Cerullo, C. Manzoni, L. Lüer, and D. Polli, “Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 4. Broadband pump–probe spectroscopy system with sub-20  fs temporal resolution for the study of energy transfer processes in photosynthesis,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6, 135–144 (2007).
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Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

T. Merz, M. Wenninger, M. Weinberger, E. Riedle, H. A. Wagenknecht, and M. Schütz, “Conformational control of benzophenone-sensitized charge transfer in dinucleotides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 18607–18619 (2013).
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D. Polli, L. Lüer, and G. Cerullo, “High-time-resolution pump–probe system with broadband detection for the study of time-domain vibrational dynamics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 103108 (2007).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2010).

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R. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) S2k/S2k+1 spectrum of a test measurement (black, 500 pairs averaged) without a sample, obtained with a CaF2 continuum and simulated spectrum for uncorrelated continuum pulses (gray). (b) Various transient absorption spectra of malachite green after S2 excitation for time delays around 10 ps including the expected signal from the extrapolated fit (black).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Single-filament continuum generation in YAG and CaF2 crystals and their use as probe light in a multichannel transient absorption spectrometer with two-camera referencing. (b) shows the spectrum, stability, and transmission through a BG20 filter for both continuum halves (black and orange dotted).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral correlations between various wavelengths of a continuum generated in a 4 mm YAG plate with (a) 300 nJ and (b) 600 nJ pump pulses for 1000 consecutive continua. The upper graph shows the correlation of the 500 nm part to other wavelengths.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Spectral and (b) temporal correlations of continuum generation in CaF2. The dashed line in the upper panel of (b) shows the correlation level (γ=0.93) of one laser pulse to the next [26].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral correlations for a CaF2 continuum (a) of S/S spectra (referencing to the subsequent pulses), (b) of S/R spectra for referencing to the reference camera, and (c) of (S/S)/(R/R) spectra for referencing to subsequent continuum spectra and a reference camera. (d) “Spectral” correlation between single pixels for homogeneous illumination with a pulsed LED. The values of 1 to +1 for the correlation coefficient are indicated in the color scale.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Temporal correlations for (a)–(c) a CaF2 continuum and for (d) a pulsed LED. All details equivalent to Fig. 5. Note the expanded color scale.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Spectral correlations between the continuum “halves” on the sample and reference camera (black dashed) and between consecutive continuum pulses (gray).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Selected transient absorption spectra of malachite green measured (a) with the one-camera/chopper method and (b) with the two-camera/chopper referencing. The black line in both graphs is the transient spectrum obtained from the global fit at 10.6 ps. The gray curve in (b) is the transient spectrum without pumping (baseline).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Transient absorption spectra of compound 1 from [37] dissolved in H2O with just (a) pump chopping and (b) two-camera/chopper referencing. Note the logarithmic time scale starting at 1 ps.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Confidence interval for optical density achieved with the one- and two-camera/chopper referencing.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔOD(λ,Δt)=log(S*(λ,Δt)S0(λ)).
γX,Y=cov(X,Y)σX·σY=i=1n(xiX¯)·(yiY¯)i=1n(xiX¯)2·i=1n(yiY¯)2.
Si*=T*(Δt)·AS·IiSi=T0·AS·IiRi=T0·AR·Ii.
ΔOD(λ,Δt)=log(T*(λ,Δt)T0(λ))=log(T*(Δt)ASIiT0ASIj·T0ARIjT0ARIi)=log(Si*Sj·RjRi).
ΔOD(λ,Δt)=log(T*(λ,Δt)T0(λ))=log(S*S/RR).

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