Abstract

We report on the crystal growth, optical spectroscopy, and room-temperature continuous-wave laser generation around 2 μm with co-doped (Ho,Tm):KLu(WO4)2 monoclinic crystals. Co-doped crystals at different doping levels were grown by the top-seeded solution growth slow-cooling method. We characterized the spectroscopy of Ho and Tm ions in KLuW in terms of polarized optical absorption, photoluminescence, and lifetime measurements. Continuous-wave laser operation at room-temperature at a wavelength of 2.06 μm was achieved with several crystals at different co-doping levels, establishing that the optimum doping ratio is 5.29×1019at./cm3 for Ho and 3.10×1020at./cm3 for Tm (0.5 at. %Ho, 5.0 at. %Tm:KLuW), reaching a maximum output power of 145 mW and a slope efficiency of 12.9%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Scholle, S. Lamrini, P. Koopmann, and P. Fuhrberg, “2  μm laser sources and their possible applications,” in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics, B. Pal, ed. (Intech, 2010), pp. 471–500.
  2. V. Sudesh and K. Asai, “Spectroscopic and diode-pumped-laser properties of Tm,Ho:YLF; Tm,Ho:LuLF; and Tm,Ho:LuAG crystals: a comparative study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1829–1837 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “High-power/high-brightness diode-pumped 1.9-μm thulium and resonantly pumped 2.1-μm holmium làsers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 629–635 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Scholle and P. Fuhrberg, “In-band pumping of high-power Ho:YAG lasers by laser diodes at 1.9  μm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuAA1.
  5. M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Suriñac, J. Massons, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230–236 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Kruple, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Efficient 2-μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, C. Zaldo, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy, and continuous-wave laser operation of Ho:KLu(WO4)2 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B (in press).
  10. V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ó. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2  μm for a Tm,Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 321–326 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Solé, O. Silvestre, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Physical properties of the 0.12 KLu(WO4)2–0.88  K2W2O7 solution and single crystal growth of KLuW,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1167–1173 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents,” J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600–603 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Rodriguez-Carvajal, “An introduction to the program,” Full prof 2000 (Laboratorie Léon Brillouin, CEA-CNRS, Saclay), France (2001).
  15. L. B. McCusker, R. B. Von Dreele, D. E. Cox, D. Louër, and P. Scardi, “Rietveld refinement guidelines,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 36–50 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. D. Shannon, “Crystal physics, diffraction, theoretical and general crystallography,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 32, 751–767 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic, KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 707–716 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscjerlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, M. Rico, and C. Zaldo, “Emission cross sections and spectroscopy of Ho3+ laser channels in KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 93–100 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. Jambunathan, A. Schmidt, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Continuous-wave co-lasing in a monoclinic co-doped (Ho,Tm):KLu(WO4)2 crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 799–803 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

V. Jambunathan, A. Schmidt, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Continuous-wave co-lasing in a monoclinic co-doped (Ho,Tm):KLu(WO4)2 crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 799–803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2  μm for a Tm,Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 321–326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. Solé, O. Silvestre, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Physical properties of the 0.12 KLu(WO4)2–0.88  K2W2O7 solution and single crystal growth of KLuW,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1167–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ó. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic, KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Efficient 2-μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Suriñac, J. Massons, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, M. Rico, and C. Zaldo, “Emission cross sections and spectroscopy of Ho3+ laser channels in KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 93–100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “High-power/high-brightness diode-pumped 1.9-μm thulium and resonantly pumped 2.1-μm holmium làsers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 629–635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. B. McCusker, R. B. Von Dreele, D. E. Cox, D. Louër, and P. Scardi, “Rietveld refinement guidelines,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 36–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents,” J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600–603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Kruple, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscjerlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. D. Shannon, “Crystal physics, diffraction, theoretical and general crystallography,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 32, 751–767 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aguilo, M.

M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, M. Rico, and C. Zaldo, “Emission cross sections and spectroscopy of Ho3+ laser channels in KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 93–100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aguiló, M.

V. Jambunathan, A. Schmidt, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Continuous-wave co-lasing in a monoclinic co-doped (Ho,Tm):KLu(WO4)2 crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 799–803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, O. Silvestre, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Physical properties of the 0.12 KLu(WO4)2–0.88  K2W2O7 solution and single crystal growth of KLuW,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1167–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic, KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ó. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Efficient 2-μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Suriñac, J. Massons, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents,” J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600–603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, C. Zaldo, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy, and continuous-wave laser operation of Ho:KLu(WO4)2 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B (in press).

Asai, K.

Aznar, A.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Suriñac, J. Massons, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T. A.

A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2  μm for a Tm,Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 321–326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Budni, P. A.

P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “High-power/high-brightness diode-pumped 1.9-μm thulium and resonantly pumped 2.1-μm holmium làsers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 629–635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bursukova, M. A.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscjerlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carvajal, J. J.

V. Jambunathan, A. Schmidt, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Continuous-wave co-lasing in a monoclinic co-doped (Ho,Tm):KLu(WO4)2 crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 799–803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, C. Zaldo, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy, and continuous-wave laser operation of Ho:KLu(WO4)2 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B (in press).

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Kruple, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chicklis, E. P.

P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “High-power/high-brightness diode-pumped 1.9-μm thulium and resonantly pumped 2.1-μm holmium làsers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 629–635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cox, D. E.

L. B. McCusker, R. B. Von Dreele, D. E. Cox, D. Louër, and P. Scardi, “Rietveld refinement guidelines,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 36–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, F.

M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, M. Rico, and C. Zaldo, “Emission cross sections and spectroscopy of Ho3+ laser channels in KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 93–100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents,” J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600–603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Díaz, F.

V. Jambunathan, A. Schmidt, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Continuous-wave co-lasing in a monoclinic co-doped (Ho,Tm):KLu(WO4)2 crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 799–803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, O. Silvestre, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Physical properties of the 0.12 KLu(WO4)2–0.88  K2W2O7 solution and single crystal growth of KLuW,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1167–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic, KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ó. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Efficient 2-μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Suriñac, J. Massons, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, C. Zaldo, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy, and continuous-wave laser operation of Ho:KLu(WO4)2 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B (in press).

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscjerlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fuhrberg, P.

K. Scholle and P. Fuhrberg, “In-band pumping of high-power Ho:YAG lasers by laser diodes at 1.9  μm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuAA1.

K. Scholle, S. Lamrini, P. Koopmann, and P. Fuhrberg, “2  μm laser sources and their possible applications,” in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics, B. Pal, ed. (Intech, 2010), pp. 471–500.

Fusari, F.

A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2  μm for a Tm,Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 321–326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Galan, M.

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Efficient 2-μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gavaldà, J.

R. Solé, O. Silvestre, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Physical properties of the 0.12 KLu(WO4)2–0.88  K2W2O7 solution and single crystal growth of KLuW,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1167–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents,” J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600–603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

V. Jambunathan, A. Schmidt, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Continuous-wave co-lasing in a monoclinic co-doped (Ho,Tm):KLu(WO4)2 crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 799–803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ó. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Efficient 2-μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, C. Zaldo, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy, and continuous-wave laser operation of Ho:KLu(WO4)2 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B (in press).

Güell, F.

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic, KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscjerlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jambunathan, V.

V. Jambunathan, A. Schmidt, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Continuous-wave co-lasing in a monoclinic co-doped (Ho,Tm):KLu(WO4)2 crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 799–803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, C. Zaldo, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy, and continuous-wave laser operation of Ho:KLu(WO4)2 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B (in press).

Kisel, V. E.

A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2  μm for a Tm,Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 321–326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klopp, P.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koopmann, P.

K. Scholle, S. Lamrini, P. Koopmann, and P. Fuhrberg, “2  μm laser sources and their possible applications,” in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics, B. Pal, ed. (Intech, 2010), pp. 471–500.

Kruple, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Kruple, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2  μm for a Tm,Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 321–326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kurilchik, S. V.

A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2  μm for a Tm,Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 321–326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Kruple, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lagatsky, A.

A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2  μm for a Tm,Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 321–326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lamrini, S.

K. Scholle, S. Lamrini, P. Koopmann, and P. Fuhrberg, “2  μm laser sources and their possible applications,” in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics, B. Pal, ed. (Intech, 2010), pp. 471–500.

Lemons, M. L.

P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “High-power/high-brightness diode-pumped 1.9-μm thulium and resonantly pumped 2.1-μm holmium làsers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 629–635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ó. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Efficient 2-μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Louër, D.

L. B. McCusker, R. B. Von Dreele, D. E. Cox, D. Louër, and P. Scardi, “Rietveld refinement guidelines,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 36–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Massons, J.

R. Solé, O. Silvestre, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Physical properties of the 0.12 KLu(WO4)2–0.88  K2W2O7 solution and single crystal growth of KLuW,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1167–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Suriñac, J. Massons, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, M. Rico, and C. Zaldo, “Emission cross sections and spectroscopy of Ho3+ laser channels in KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 93–100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mateos, X.

V. Jambunathan, A. Schmidt, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Continuous-wave co-lasing in a monoclinic co-doped (Ho,Tm):KLu(WO4)2 crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 799–803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ó. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Efficient 2-μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Suriñac, J. Massons, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, C. Zaldo, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy, and continuous-wave laser operation of Ho:KLu(WO4)2 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B (in press).

McCusker, L. B.

L. B. McCusker, R. B. Von Dreele, D. E. Cox, D. Louër, and P. Scardi, “Rietveld refinement guidelines,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 36–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mitzscjerlich, P.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscjerlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mosto, J. R.

P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “High-power/high-brightness diode-pumped 1.9-μm thulium and resonantly pumped 2.1-μm holmium làsers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 629–635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nikolov, V.

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents,” J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600–603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pavlyuk, A. A.

A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2  μm for a Tm,Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 321–326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Kruple, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

V. Jambunathan, A. Schmidt, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Continuous-wave co-lasing in a monoclinic co-doped (Ho,Tm):KLu(WO4)2 crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 799–803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ó. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Efficient 2-μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, C. Zaldo, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy, and continuous-wave laser operation of Ho:KLu(WO4)2 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B (in press).

Pujol, M. C.

V. Jambunathan, A. Schmidt, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Continuous-wave co-lasing in a monoclinic co-doped (Ho,Tm):KLu(WO4)2 crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 799–803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic, KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ó. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Efficient 2-μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Suriñac, J. Massons, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, M. Rico, and C. Zaldo, “Emission cross sections and spectroscopy of Ho3+ laser channels in KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 93–100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, C. Zaldo, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy, and continuous-wave laser operation of Ho:KLu(WO4)2 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B (in press).

Rico, M.

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic, KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, M. Rico, and C. Zaldo, “Emission cross sections and spectroscopy of Ho3+ laser channels in KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 93–100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rivier, S.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ó. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.

J. Rodriguez-Carvajal, “An introduction to the program,” Full prof 2000 (Laboratorie Léon Brillouin, CEA-CNRS, Saclay), France (2001).

Ruiz, X.

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents,” J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600–603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scardi, P.

L. B. McCusker, R. B. Von Dreele, D. E. Cox, D. Louër, and P. Scardi, “Rietveld refinement guidelines,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 36–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, A.

V. Jambunathan, A. Schmidt, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Continuous-wave co-lasing in a monoclinic co-doped (Ho,Tm):KLu(WO4)2 crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 799–803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scholle, K.

K. Scholle and P. Fuhrberg, “In-band pumping of high-power Ho:YAG lasers by laser diodes at 1.9  μm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CTuAA1.

K. Scholle, S. Lamrini, P. Koopmann, and P. Fuhrberg, “2  μm laser sources and their possible applications,” in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics, B. Pal, ed. (Intech, 2010), pp. 471–500.

Shannon, R. D.

R. D. Shannon, “Crystal physics, diffraction, theoretical and general crystallography,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 32, 751–767 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2  μm for a Tm,Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 321–326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silvestre, O.

R. Solé, O. Silvestre, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Physical properties of the 0.12 KLu(WO4)2–0.88  K2W2O7 solution and single crystal growth of KLuW,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1167–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic, KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silvestre, Ó.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ó. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Kruple, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Solans, X.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Suriñac, J. Massons, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents,” J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600–603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Solé, R.

R. Solé, O. Silvestre, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Physical properties of the 0.12 KLu(WO4)2–0.88  K2W2O7 solution and single crystal growth of KLuW,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1167–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Diaz, “Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents,” J. Cryst. Growth 169, 600–603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Solé, R. M.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, Ó. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sudesh, V.

Suriñac, S.

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Suriñac, J. Massons, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Viera, G.

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Efficient 2-μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Von Dreele, R. B.

L. B. McCusker, R. B. Von Dreele, D. E. Cox, D. Louër, and P. Scardi, “Rietveld refinement guidelines,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 36–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yasukevich, A. S.

A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2  μm for a Tm,Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 321–326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zaldo, C.

M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, M. Rico, and C. Zaldo, “Emission cross sections and spectroscopy of Ho3+ laser channels in KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 93–100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, C. Zaldo, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy, and continuous-wave laser operation of Ho:KLu(WO4)2 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B (in press).

Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A (1)

R. D. Shannon, “Crystal physics, diffraction, theoretical and general crystallography,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 32, 751–767 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic, KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2  μm for a Tm,Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 321–326 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscjerlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, J. Massons, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, M. Rico, and C. Zaldo, “Emission cross sections and spectroscopy of Ho3+ laser channels in KGd(WO4)2 single crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 93–100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Kruple, “Infrared cross-section measurement for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, V. Petrov, J. Liu, M. C. Pujol, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Efficient 2-μm continuous-wave laser oscillation of Tm3+:KLu(WO4)2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 1008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. A. Budni, M. L. Lemons, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “High-power/high-brightness diode-pumped 1.9-μm thulium and resonantly pumped 2.1-μm holmium làsers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 629–635 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (2)

M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, A. Aznar, X. Solans, S. Suriñac, J. Massons, F. Díaz, and M. Aguiló, “Structural redetermination, thermal expansion and refractive indices of KLu(WO4)2,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 39, 230–236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. B. McCusker, R. B. Von Dreele, D. E. Cox, D. Louër, and P. Scardi, “Rietveld refinement guidelines,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 36–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

R. Solé, O. Silvestre, J. Massons, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Physical properties of the 0.12 KLu(WO4)2–0.88  K2W2O7 solution and single crystal growth of KLuW,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1167–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photograph of a KLu0.875Ho0.025Tm0.1(WO4)2 single crystal.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Evolution of the unit cell parameters (a,b,c), the volume (V), and the angle (β) between a and c as functions of the Ho- and Tm-concentrations (x and y) in KLu1xyHoxTmyW.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Polarized room-temperature absorption of (Ho,Tm):KLuW in the 330–2200 nm range.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absorption cross-sections of the H36H43 Tm transition for different polarizations.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized photoluminescence spectra due to Tm emission around 1.8 μm and Ho emission around 2 μm in KLuW recorded for different Ho,Tm doping ratios excited at 802 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Evolution of the normalized relative intensity of the 2 μm Ho emission from measured spectra and (b) evolution of the net energy transfer efficiency from calculated values for different Ho–Tm doping ratios.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Average room-temperature absorption cross-section and calculated emission cross-section by the RM and FL methods of Ho around 2 μm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(Ho,Tm):KLuW laser performance for different co-doping ratio of the crystals.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(Ho,Tm):KLuW laser spectrum centered at 2061 nm, observed for all samples investigated.

Tables (4)

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Table 1. Summary of the Growth Features and Composition for the Co-doped KLuW Crystals Grown

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Table 2. Stark Level Energies for Ho and Tm in KLuW

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Table 3. Spectroscopic Properties of Ho:Tm:KLuW Crystalsa

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Table 4. Summary of the (Ho,Tm):KLuW Laser Results Obtained in this Work

Equations (1)

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fHo=NHo·igi·eEik·TNHo·igi·eEik·T+NTmjgj·eEjk·T,

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