Abstract

We have experimentally demonstrated polarization-locked vector soliton generation in a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser by using a few-layer graphene deposited D-shaped fiber to act as a saturable absorber (SA). Due to the long light/graphene interaction length and the asymmetric structure, the SA used in this work has large polarization-dependent loss, and as a result, the stationary polarization-locked vector solitons can be generated, being different from the scalar solitons produced by the nonlinear polarization rotation technique. The formation mechanism of such solitons is studied and it is found that they are elliptically polarized solitons.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

B. Fu, L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Passive harmonic mode locking in erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 286, 304–308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Y. Pan, R. Gao, X. Zhu, X. Su, and S. Qu, “Mode-locked double-clad fiber laser with a carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Acta Phys. Sin. 62, 024209 (2013).

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. Song, and J. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Auditore, C. De Angelis, A. Locatelli, S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, M. Romagnoli, A. D. Capobianco, and G. Nalesso, “Graphene sustained nonlinear modes in dielectric waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 38, 631–633 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Song, L. Li, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Vector multi-soliton operation and interaction in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 10010–10018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sheng, M. Feng, W. Xin, T. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and J. Tian, “Actively manipulation of operation states in passively pulsed fiber lasers by using graphene saturable absorber on microfiber,” Opt. Express 21, 14859–14866 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, J. H. Liou, C. P. Yu, and G. R. Lin, “Using graphene nano-particle embedded in photonic crystal fiber for evanescent wave mode-locking of fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16763–16776 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y. W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 20062–20072 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G. R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20, 2460–2465 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y. W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D. I. Yeom, “Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express 20, 5652–5657 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. He, Z. B. Liu, D. N. Wang, M. Yang, C. Liao, and X. Zhao, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on reduced graphene oxide on microfiber for ultra-wide-band doublet pulse generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 984–989 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Scalar soliton generation in all-polarization-maintaining, graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2166–2168 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. He, Z. Liu, and D. N. Wang, “Wavelength-tunable, passively mode-locked fiber laser based on graphene and chirped fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2394–2396 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, Y. Jin, L. Yang, J. Yang, and X. Jiang, “Characteristics of electro-refractive modulating based on graphene-oxide-silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 22398–22405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Shen, “Polarization rotation vector solitons in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20, 27283–27289 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Du, S. Zhang, H. Li, Y. Meng, X. Li, and Y. Hao, “L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, and K. M. Abramski, “Fundamental and harmonic mode-locking in erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 3174–3178 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, S. Wu, J. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Nanosecond-pulsed erbium-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4466–4469 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, H. Wang, A. Luo, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50  nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 54–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12, 1482–1485 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, X. He, and D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3024–3026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3334–3338 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4, 297–301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi and S. Yamashita, “Deposition of carbon nanotubes around microfiber via evanescent light,” Opt. Express 17, 18364–18370 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhao, D. Tang, X. Wu, H. Zhang, and H. Tam, “Coexistence of polarization-locked and polarization-rotating vector solitons in a fiber laser with SESAM,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3059–3061 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2000

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, and K. M. Abramski, “Fundamental and harmonic mode-locking in erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 3174–3178 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Scalar soliton generation in all-polarization-maintaining, graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2166–2168 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N.

Auditore, A.

Avouris, P.

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4, 297–301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bae, M. K.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3334–3338 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boscolo, S.

Cai, Z.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tian, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.

Tjin, S.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Travers, J. C.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
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Wang, B.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. N.

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

W. Cao, H. Wang, A. Luo, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50  nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 54–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

J. Xu, S. Wu, J. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Nanosecond-pulsed erbium-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4466–4469 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

J. Xu, S. Wu, J. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Nanosecond-pulsed erbium-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4466–4469 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, Y. Pan, R. Gao, X. Zhu, X. Su, and S. Qu, “Mode-locked double-clad fiber laser with a carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Acta Phys. Sin. 62, 024209 (2013).

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

J. Xu, S. Wu, J. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Nanosecond-pulsed erbium-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4466–4469 (2012).
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Xia, F.

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4, 297–301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Xiao, X.

B. Fu, L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Passive harmonic mode locking in erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 286, 304–308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xin, W.

Xu, C.

Xu, H.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, S. Wu, J. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Nanosecond-pulsed erbium-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4466–4469 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

W. Cao, H. Wang, A. Luo, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50  nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 54–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

B. Fu, L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Passive harmonic mode locking in erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 286, 304–308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. Y.

Yang, J.

Yang, L.

Yang, M.

Yang, Q. H.

J. Xu, S. Wu, J. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Nanosecond-pulsed erbium-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4466–4469 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Yeom, D. I.

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12, 1482–1485 (2012).
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Yu, C. P.

Zettl, A.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Y. F. Song, L. Li, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Vector multi-soliton operation and interaction in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 10010–10018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Shen, “Polarization rotation vector solitons in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20, 27283–27289 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3334–3338 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhao, D. Tang, X. Wu, H. Zhang, and H. Tam, “Coexistence of polarization-locked and polarization-rotating vector solitons in a fiber laser with SESAM,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3059–3061 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and H. Tam, “Induced solitons formed by cross-polarization coupling in a birefringent cavity fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2317–2319 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and N. Xiang, “Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 12618–12623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhao, D. Tang, H. Zhang, and X. Wu, “Polarization rotation locking of vector solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 16, 10053–10058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

J. Du, S. Zhang, H. Li, Y. Meng, X. Li, and Y. Hao, “L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

B. Fu, L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Passive harmonic mode locking in erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 286, 304–308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12, 1482–1485 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3334–3338 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhao, D. Tang, X. Wu, H. Zhang, and H. Tam, “Coexistence of polarization-locked and polarization-rotating vector solitons in a fiber laser with SESAM,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3059–3061 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and N. Xiang, “Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 12618–12623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and H. Tam, “Induced solitons formed by cross-polarization coupling in a birefringent cavity fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2317–2319 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhao, D. Tang, H. Zhang, and X. Wu, “Polarization rotation locking of vector solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 16, 10053–10058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

Zhou, M.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

B. Fu, L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Passive harmonic mode locking in erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 286, 304–308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

S. Wang, Y. Pan, R. Gao, X. Zhu, X. Su, and S. Qu, “Mode-locked double-clad fiber laser with a carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Acta Phys. Sin. 62, 024209 (2013).

ACS Nano

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Acta Phys. Sin.

S. Wang, Y. Pan, R. Gao, X. Zhu, X. Su, and S. Qu, “Mode-locked double-clad fiber laser with a carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Acta Phys. Sin. 62, 024209 (2013).

Adv. Funct. Mater.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010).
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D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010).
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G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
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IEEE Photon. J.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1295–1305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1790–1792 (2011).
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J. Appl. Phys.

G. W. Hanson, “Quasi-transverse electromagnetic modes supported by a graphene parallel-plate waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 084314 (2008).
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J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Phys. Lett.

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. Song, and J. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Du, S. Zhang, H. Li, Y. Meng, X. Li, and Y. Hao, “L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, H. Wang, A. Luo, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50  nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 54–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12, 1482–1485 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Res.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4, 297–301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
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Opt. Commun.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, and K. M. Abramski, “Fundamental and harmonic mode-locking in erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 3174–3178 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, S. Wu, J. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Nanosecond-pulsed erbium-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4466–4469 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Fu, L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Passive harmonic mode locking in erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 286, 304–308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3334–3338 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

L. Zhao, D. Tang, H. Zhang, and X. Wu, “Polarization rotation locking of vector solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 16, 10053–10058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and N. Xiang, “Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 12618–12623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi and S. Yamashita, “Deposition of carbon nanotubes around microfiber via evanescent light,” Opt. Express 17, 18364–18370 (2009).
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P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G. R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20, 2460–2465 (2012).
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S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y. W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D. I. Yeom, “Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express 20, 5652–5657 (2012).
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C. Xu, Y. Jin, L. Yang, J. Yang, and X. Jiang, “Characteristics of electro-refractive modulating based on graphene-oxide-silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 22398–22405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Shen, “Polarization rotation vector solitons in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20, 27283–27289 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Song, L. Li, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Vector multi-soliton operation and interaction in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 10010–10018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sheng, M. Feng, W. Xin, T. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and J. Tian, “Actively manipulation of operation states in passively pulsed fiber lasers by using graphene saturable absorber on microfiber,” Opt. Express 21, 14859–14866 (2013).
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Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, J. H. Liou, C. P. Yu, and G. R. Lin, “Using graphene nano-particle embedded in photonic crystal fiber for evanescent wave mode-locking of fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16763–16776 (2013).
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M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y. W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 20062–20072 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The upper photo is the surface of the D-shaped fiber, and the lower pictures are the cross section and mode field. (b) Microscope image of the surface with few-layer graphene.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measurement system for PDL of the graphene-based SA. (b) The measured PDL as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic experimental setup for the measurement of polarization-dependent absorption of the graphene-based SA. (b) The measured nonlinear absorption of the graphene-based SA for TE mode and TM mode.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup of the few-layer graphene deposited D-shaped fiber mode-locked laser.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Output optical spectrums for CW and passively mode-locked fiber lasers. (b) Mode-locked pulse shape (experimental data) with Sech2 fit.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Typical laser output pulse trains. (b) RF spectrum measured around the fundamental repetition rate, and the inset is the RF spectrum with high-order harmonic of the repetition rate.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Pulse trains of the polarization-locked vector soliton. (b) Optical spectrums of the polarization-locked vector soliton.

Equations (2)

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n^×(E2E1)=0(TE),
n^·(D2D1)=0(TM),

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