Abstract

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors using field enhancement in nanograting surfaces can overcome sensitivity limitations of conventional SPR biosensors. Nevertheless, the correlation of the local field enhancement established in such structures with sensitivity enhancement has not been extensively studied. We present a numerical study of the coupling effect between the various plasmon modes present in nanograting structures with various structural parameters. We give here a quantitative demonstration of the improvement in sensing performance of SPR biosensors by selective localization of the target molecules in the regions where the electromagnetic field intensity is locally enhanced.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Mannelli, V. Courtois, P. Lecaruyer, G. Roger, M. C. Millot, M. Goossens, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) system and real-time monitoring of DNA biochip for human genetic mutation diagnosis of DNA amplified samples,” Sens. Actuators B 119, 583–591 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Spoto and M. Minunni, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging: what next?” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 2682–2691 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Hottin, J. Moreau, G. Roger, J. Spadavecchia, M.-C. Millot, M. Goossens, and M. Canva, “Plasmonic DNA: towards genetic diagnosis chips,” Plasmonics 2, 201–215 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, “Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4740–4746 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 1399–1404 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108, 462–493 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Bardin, A. Bellemain, G. Roger, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance spectro-imaging sensor for biomolecular surface interaction characterization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2100–2105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Piliarik and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors: approaching their limits?” Opt. Express 17, 16505–16517 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. S. Live, O. R. Bolduc, and J.-F. O. Masson, “Propagating surface plasmon resonance on microhole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 82, 3780–3787 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Huang, J. Ye, S. Wang, T. Stakenborg, and L. Lagae, “Gold nanoring as a sensitive plasmonic biosensor for on-chip DNA detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173114 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Kubo and S. Fujikawa, “Au double nanopillars with nanogap for plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 11, 8–15 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. R. Beeram and F. P. Zamborini, “Selective attachment of antibodies to the edges of gold nanostructures for enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 11689–11691 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5, 2034–2038 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8, 867–871 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Live, A. Dhawan, K. Gibson, H.-P. Poirier-Richard, D. Graham, M. Canva, T. Vo-Dinh, and J.-F. Masson, “Angle-dependent resonance of localized and propagating surface plasmons in microhole arrays for enhanced biosensing,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 404, 2859–2868 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. D. Hoa, M. Tabrizian, and A. G. Kirk, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of surface plasmon enhancement from patterned immobilization on nanogratings,” J. Sens. 2009, 713641 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N.-H. Kim, W. K. Jung, and K. M. Byun, “Correlation analysis between plasmon field distribution and sensitivity enhancement in reflection- and transmission-type localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4982–4988 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Kim, “Effect of resonant localized plasmon coupling on the sensitivity enhancement of nanowire-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2307–2314 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnička, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, and J. Homola, “Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19, 9213–9220 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. M. Byun, S. M. Jang, S. J. Kim, and D. Kim, “Effect of target localization on the sensitivity of a localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on subwavelength metallic nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1027–1034 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Kyungjae, K. Dong Jun, K. Kyujung, M. Seyoung, and K. Donghyun, “Target-localized nanograting-based surface plasmon resonance detection toward label-free molecular biosensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1004–1014 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. D. Hoa, M. Martin, A. Jimenez, J. Beauvais, P. Charette, A. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Fabrication and characterization of patterned immobilization of quantum dots on metallic nano-gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 970–975 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. Feuz, P. Jönsson, M. P. Jonsson, and F. Höök, “Improving the limit of detection of nanoscale sensors by directed binding to high-sensitivity areas,” ACS Nano 4, 2167–2177 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Sannomiya, O. Scholder, K. Jefimovs, C. Hafner, and A. B. Dahlin, “Investigation of plasmon resonances in metal films with nanohole arrays for biosensing applications,” Small 7, 1653–1663 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. Feuz, M. P. Jonsson, and F. Höök, “Material-selective surface chemistry for nanoplasmonic sensors: optimizing sensitivity and controlling binding to local hot spots,” Nano Lett. 12, 873–879 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. P. Ho and W. W. Lam, “Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 96, 554–559 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Chamtouri, A. Dhawan, M. Besbes, J. Moreau, H. Ghalila, T. Vo-Dinh, and M. Canva, “Enhanced SPR sensitivity with nano-micro-ribbon grating—an exhaustive simulation mapping,” Plasmonics 9, 79–92 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P. Lecaruyer, E. Maillart, M. Canva, and J. Rolland, “Generalization of the Rouard method to an absorbing thin-film stack and application to surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8419–8423 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. P. Lalanne, “Convergence performance of the coupled-wave and the differential methods for thin gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1583–1591 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Sarkar, M. Chamtouri, J. Moreau, M. Besbes, and M. Canva, “Introducing 2D confined propagating plasmons for surface plasmon resonance sensing using arrays of metallic ribbons,” Sens. Actuators B 191, 115–121 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Besbes, J. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, S. Van Haver, O. Janssen, A. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. Van De Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. Van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 2, 07022 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  34. E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120, 357–366 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  36. W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 6227–6244 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  37. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  38. L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, P. C. Smith, B. D. Reiss, D. J. Peña, and M. J. Natan, “Surface plasmon resonance of colloidal Au-modified gold films,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 118–124 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. J. Chen, F. C. Chien, G. Y. Lin, and K. C. Lee, “Enhancement of the resolution of surface plasmonresonance biosensors by control of the size and distribution of nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1390–1392 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  40. B. Cui, Z. Yu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Large area 50  nm period grating by multiple nanoimprint lithography and spatial frequency doubling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 043118 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (2)

M. Chamtouri, A. Dhawan, M. Besbes, J. Moreau, H. Ghalila, T. Vo-Dinh, and M. Canva, “Enhanced SPR sensitivity with nano-micro-ribbon grating—an exhaustive simulation mapping,” Plasmonics 9, 79–92 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Sarkar, M. Chamtouri, J. Moreau, M. Besbes, and M. Canva, “Introducing 2D confined propagating plasmons for surface plasmon resonance sensing using arrays of metallic ribbons,” Sens. Actuators B 191, 115–121 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

L. Feuz, M. P. Jonsson, and F. Höök, “Material-selective surface chemistry for nanoplasmonic sensors: optimizing sensitivity and controlling binding to local hot spots,” Nano Lett. 12, 873–879 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Spoto and M. Minunni, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging: what next?” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 2682–2691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, J. Ye, S. Wang, T. Stakenborg, and L. Lagae, “Gold nanoring as a sensitive plasmonic biosensor for on-chip DNA detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Live, A. Dhawan, K. Gibson, H.-P. Poirier-Richard, D. Graham, M. Canva, T. Vo-Dinh, and J.-F. Masson, “Angle-dependent resonance of localized and propagating surface plasmons in microhole arrays for enhanced biosensing,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 404, 2859–2868 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

N.-H. Kim, W. K. Jung, and K. M. Byun, “Correlation analysis between plasmon field distribution and sensitivity enhancement in reflection- and transmission-type localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4982–4988 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Kubo and S. Fujikawa, “Au double nanopillars with nanogap for plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 11, 8–15 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnička, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, and J. Homola, “Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19, 9213–9220 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Sannomiya, O. Scholder, K. Jefimovs, C. Hafner, and A. B. Dahlin, “Investigation of plasmon resonances in metal films with nanohole arrays for biosensing applications,” Small 7, 1653–1663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

M. Kyungjae, K. Dong Jun, K. Kyujung, M. Seyoung, and K. Donghyun, “Target-localized nanograting-based surface plasmon resonance detection toward label-free molecular biosensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1004–1014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Feuz, P. Jönsson, M. P. Jonsson, and F. Höök, “Improving the limit of detection of nanoscale sensors by directed binding to high-sensitivity areas,” ACS Nano 4, 2167–2177 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Live, O. R. Bolduc, and J.-F. O. Masson, “Propagating surface plasmon resonance on microhole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 82, 3780–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

F. Bardin, A. Bellemain, G. Roger, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance spectro-imaging sensor for biomolecular surface interaction characterization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2100–2105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors: approaching their limits?” Opt. Express 17, 16505–16517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 1399–1404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Beeram and F. P. Zamborini, “Selective attachment of antibodies to the edges of gold nanostructures for enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 11689–11691 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Hoa, M. Tabrizian, and A. G. Kirk, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of surface plasmon enhancement from patterned immobilization on nanogratings,” J. Sens. 2009, 713641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Byun, S. M. Jang, S. J. Kim, and D. Kim, “Effect of target localization on the sensitivity of a localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on subwavelength metallic nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1027–1034 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

X. D. Hoa, M. Martin, A. Jimenez, J. Beauvais, P. Charette, A. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Fabrication and characterization of patterned immobilization of quantum dots on metallic nano-gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108, 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

J. Hottin, J. Moreau, G. Roger, J. Spadavecchia, M.-C. Millot, M. Goossens, and M. Canva, “Plasmonic DNA: towards genetic diagnosis chips,” Plasmonics 2, 201–215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Besbes, J. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, S. Van Haver, O. Janssen, A. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. Van De Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. Van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Cui, Z. Yu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Large area 50  nm period grating by multiple nanoimprint lithography and spatial frequency doubling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 043118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

P. Lecaruyer, E. Maillart, M. Canva, and J. Rolland, “Generalization of the Rouard method to an absorbing thin-film stack and application to surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8419–8423 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Mannelli, V. Courtois, P. Lecaruyer, G. Roger, M. C. Millot, M. Goossens, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) system and real-time monitoring of DNA biochip for human genetic mutation diagnosis of DNA amplified samples,” Sens. Actuators B 119, 583–591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Kim, “Effect of resonant localized plasmon coupling on the sensitivity enhancement of nanowire-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2307–2314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5, 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho and W. W. Lam, “Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 96, 554–559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, “Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4740–4746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, P. C. Smith, B. D. Reiss, D. J. Peña, and M. J. Natan, “Surface plasmon resonance of colloidal Au-modified gold films,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 118–124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 6227–6244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F.

M. Besbes, J. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, S. Van Haver, O. Janssen, A. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. Van De Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. Van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bardin, F.

F. Bardin, A. Bellemain, G. Roger, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance spectro-imaging sensor for biomolecular surface interaction characterization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2100–2105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 6227–6244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beauvais, J.

X. D. Hoa, M. Martin, A. Jimenez, J. Beauvais, P. Charette, A. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Fabrication and characterization of patterned immobilization of quantum dots on metallic nano-gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beeram, S. R.

S. R. Beeram and F. P. Zamborini, “Selective attachment of antibodies to the edges of gold nanostructures for enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 11689–11691 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bellemain, A.

F. Bardin, A. Bellemain, G. Roger, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance spectro-imaging sensor for biomolecular surface interaction characterization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2100–2105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Besbes, M.

M. Chamtouri, A. Dhawan, M. Besbes, J. Moreau, H. Ghalila, T. Vo-Dinh, and M. Canva, “Enhanced SPR sensitivity with nano-micro-ribbon grating—an exhaustive simulation mapping,” Plasmonics 9, 79–92 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Sarkar, M. Chamtouri, J. Moreau, M. Besbes, and M. Canva, “Introducing 2D confined propagating plasmons for surface plasmon resonance sensing using arrays of metallic ribbons,” Sens. Actuators B 191, 115–121 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Besbes, J. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, S. Van Haver, O. Janssen, A. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. Van De Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. Van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

M. Besbes, J. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, S. Van Haver, O. Janssen, A. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. Van De Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. Van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bolduc, O. R.

L. S. Live, O. R. Bolduc, and J.-F. O. Masson, “Propagating surface plasmon resonance on microhole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 82, 3780–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Byun, K. M.

Canva, M.

M. Sarkar, M. Chamtouri, J. Moreau, M. Besbes, and M. Canva, “Introducing 2D confined propagating plasmons for surface plasmon resonance sensing using arrays of metallic ribbons,” Sens. Actuators B 191, 115–121 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Chamtouri, A. Dhawan, M. Besbes, J. Moreau, H. Ghalila, T. Vo-Dinh, and M. Canva, “Enhanced SPR sensitivity with nano-micro-ribbon grating—an exhaustive simulation mapping,” Plasmonics 9, 79–92 (2014).
[CrossRef]

L. Live, A. Dhawan, K. Gibson, H.-P. Poirier-Richard, D. Graham, M. Canva, T. Vo-Dinh, and J.-F. Masson, “Angle-dependent resonance of localized and propagating surface plasmons in microhole arrays for enhanced biosensing,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 404, 2859–2868 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Bardin, A. Bellemain, G. Roger, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance spectro-imaging sensor for biomolecular surface interaction characterization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2100–2105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hottin, J. Moreau, G. Roger, J. Spadavecchia, M.-C. Millot, M. Goossens, and M. Canva, “Plasmonic DNA: towards genetic diagnosis chips,” Plasmonics 2, 201–215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Mannelli, V. Courtois, P. Lecaruyer, G. Roger, M. C. Millot, M. Goossens, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) system and real-time monitoring of DNA biochip for human genetic mutation diagnosis of DNA amplified samples,” Sens. Actuators B 119, 583–591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lecaruyer, E. Maillart, M. Canva, and J. Rolland, “Generalization of the Rouard method to an absorbing thin-film stack and application to surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8419–8423 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chamtouri, M.

M. Sarkar, M. Chamtouri, J. Moreau, M. Besbes, and M. Canva, “Introducing 2D confined propagating plasmons for surface plasmon resonance sensing using arrays of metallic ribbons,” Sens. Actuators B 191, 115–121 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Chamtouri, A. Dhawan, M. Besbes, J. Moreau, H. Ghalila, T. Vo-Dinh, and M. Canva, “Enhanced SPR sensitivity with nano-micro-ribbon grating—an exhaustive simulation mapping,” Plasmonics 9, 79–92 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-H.

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5, 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Charette, P.

X. D. Hoa, M. Martin, A. Jimenez, J. Beauvais, P. Charette, A. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Fabrication and characterization of patterned immobilization of quantum dots on metallic nano-gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. J.

Chien, F. C.

Chou, S. Y.

B. Cui, Z. Yu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Large area 50  nm period grating by multiple nanoimprint lithography and spatial frequency doubling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 043118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Corn, R. M.

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, “Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4740–4746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Courtois, V.

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M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 1399–1404 (2009).
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J. Hottin, J. Moreau, G. Roger, J. Spadavecchia, M.-C. Millot, M. Goossens, and M. Canva, “Plasmonic DNA: towards genetic diagnosis chips,” Plasmonics 2, 201–215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Mannelli, V. Courtois, P. Lecaruyer, G. Roger, M. C. Millot, M. Goossens, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) system and real-time monitoring of DNA biochip for human genetic mutation diagnosis of DNA amplified samples,” Sens. Actuators B 119, 583–591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J.

Sambles, J. R.

W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 6227–6244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sannomiya, T.

T. Sannomiya, O. Scholder, K. Jefimovs, C. Hafner, and A. B. Dahlin, “Investigation of plasmon resonances in metal films with nanohole arrays for biosensing applications,” Small 7, 1653–1663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sarkar, M.

M. Sarkar, M. Chamtouri, J. Moreau, M. Besbes, and M. Canva, “Introducing 2D confined propagating plasmons for surface plasmon resonance sensing using arrays of metallic ribbons,” Sens. Actuators B 191, 115–121 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5, 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120, 357–366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scholder, O.

T. Sannomiya, O. Scholder, K. Jefimovs, C. Hafner, and A. B. Dahlin, “Investigation of plasmon resonances in metal films with nanohole arrays for biosensing applications,” Small 7, 1653–1663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seideman, T.

M. Besbes, J. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, S. Van Haver, O. Janssen, A. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. Van De Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. Van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seyoung, M.

M. Kyungjae, K. Dong Jun, K. Kyujung, M. Seyoung, and K. Donghyun, “Target-localized nanograting-based surface plasmon resonance detection toward label-free molecular biosensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1004–1014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sherry, L. J.

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5, 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. C.

L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, P. C. Smith, B. D. Reiss, D. J. Peña, and M. J. Natan, “Surface plasmon resonance of colloidal Au-modified gold films,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 118–124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spadavecchia, J.

J. Hottin, J. Moreau, G. Roger, J. Spadavecchia, M.-C. Millot, M. Goossens, and M. Canva, “Plasmonic DNA: towards genetic diagnosis chips,” Plasmonics 2, 201–215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spoto, G.

G. Spoto and M. Minunni, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging: what next?” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 2682–2691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stakenborg, T.

C. Huang, J. Ye, S. Wang, T. Stakenborg, and L. Lagae, “Gold nanoring as a sensitive plasmonic biosensor for on-chip DNA detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M. E.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sukharev, M.

M. Besbes, J. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, S. Van Haver, O. Janssen, A. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. Van De Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. Van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tabrizian, M.

X. D. Hoa, M. Tabrizian, and A. G. Kirk, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of surface plasmon enhancement from patterned immobilization on nanogratings,” J. Sens. 2009, 713641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Hoa, M. Martin, A. Jimenez, J. Beauvais, P. Charette, A. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Fabrication and characterization of patterned immobilization of quantum dots on metallic nano-gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, L. B.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Urbach, H.

M. Besbes, J. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, S. Van Haver, O. Janssen, A. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. Van De Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. Van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van De Nes, A.

M. Besbes, J. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, S. Van Haver, O. Janssen, A. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. Van De Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. Van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5, 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Haver, S.

M. Besbes, J. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, S. Van Haver, O. Janssen, A. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. Van De Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. Van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Labeke, D.

M. Besbes, J. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, S. Van Haver, O. Janssen, A. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. Van De Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. Van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vo-Dinh, T.

M. Chamtouri, A. Dhawan, M. Besbes, J. Moreau, H. Ghalila, T. Vo-Dinh, and M. Canva, “Enhanced SPR sensitivity with nano-micro-ribbon grating—an exhaustive simulation mapping,” Plasmonics 9, 79–92 (2014).
[CrossRef]

L. Live, A. Dhawan, K. Gibson, H.-P. Poirier-Richard, D. Graham, M. Canva, T. Vo-Dinh, and J.-F. Masson, “Angle-dependent resonance of localized and propagating surface plasmons in microhole arrays for enhanced biosensing,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 404, 2859–2868 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

C. Huang, J. Ye, S. Wang, T. Stakenborg, and L. Lagae, “Gold nanoring as a sensitive plasmonic biosensor for on-chip DNA detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, G. J.

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, “Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4740–4746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiley, B. J.

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5, 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5, 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

M. Besbes, J. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, S. Van Haver, O. Janssen, A. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. Van De Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. Van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

C. Huang, J. Ye, S. Wang, T. Stakenborg, and L. Lagae, “Gold nanoring as a sensitive plasmonic biosensor for on-chip DNA detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

B. Cui, Z. Yu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Large area 50  nm period grating by multiple nanoimprint lithography and spatial frequency doubling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 043118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zamborini, F. P.

S. R. Beeram and F. P. Zamborini, “Selective attachment of antibodies to the edges of gold nanostructures for enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 11689–11691 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

L. Feuz, P. Jönsson, M. P. Jonsson, and F. Höök, “Improving the limit of detection of nanoscale sensors by directed binding to high-sensitivity areas,” ACS Nano 4, 2167–2177 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

L. Live, A. Dhawan, K. Gibson, H.-P. Poirier-Richard, D. Graham, M. Canva, T. Vo-Dinh, and J.-F. Masson, “Angle-dependent resonance of localized and propagating surface plasmons in microhole arrays for enhanced biosensing,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 404, 2859–2868 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

L. S. Live, O. R. Bolduc, and J.-F. O. Masson, “Propagating surface plasmon resonance on microhole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 82, 3780–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, “Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4740–4746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Huang, J. Ye, S. Wang, T. Stakenborg, and L. Lagae, “Gold nanoring as a sensitive plasmonic biosensor for on-chip DNA detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Cui, Z. Yu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Large area 50  nm period grating by multiple nanoimprint lithography and spatial frequency doubling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 043118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (3)

M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 1399–1404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Bardin, A. Bellemain, G. Roger, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance spectro-imaging sensor for biomolecular surface interaction characterization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2100–2105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Hoa, M. Martin, A. Jimenez, J. Beauvais, P. Charette, A. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Fabrication and characterization of patterned immobilization of quantum dots on metallic nano-gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 970–975 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (2)

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108, 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kyungjae, K. Dong Jun, K. Kyujung, M. Seyoung, and K. Donghyun, “Target-localized nanograting-based surface plasmon resonance detection toward label-free molecular biosensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1004–1014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. R. Beeram and F. P. Zamborini, “Selective attachment of antibodies to the edges of gold nanostructures for enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 11689–11691 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120, 357–366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. (1)

M. Besbes, J. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, S. Van Haver, O. Janssen, A. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. Van De Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. Van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

G. Spoto and M. Minunni, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging: what next?” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 2682–2691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sens. (1)

X. D. Hoa, M. Tabrizian, and A. G. Kirk, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of surface plasmon enhancement from patterned immobilization on nanogratings,” J. Sens. 2009, 713641 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

L. J. Sherry, S.-H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5, 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Kubo and S. Fujikawa, “Au double nanopillars with nanogap for plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 11, 8–15 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Feuz, M. P. Jonsson, and F. Höök, “Material-selective surface chemistry for nanoplasmonic sensors: optimizing sensitivity and controlling binding to local hot spots,” Nano Lett. 12, 873–879 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8, 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 235402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 6227–6244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Plasmonics (2)

M. Chamtouri, A. Dhawan, M. Besbes, J. Moreau, H. Ghalila, T. Vo-Dinh, and M. Canva, “Enhanced SPR sensitivity with nano-micro-ribbon grating—an exhaustive simulation mapping,” Plasmonics 9, 79–92 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Hottin, J. Moreau, G. Roger, J. Spadavecchia, M.-C. Millot, M. Goossens, and M. Canva, “Plasmonic DNA: towards genetic diagnosis chips,” Plasmonics 2, 201–215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (4)

I. Mannelli, V. Courtois, P. Lecaruyer, G. Roger, M. C. Millot, M. Goossens, and M. Canva, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) system and real-time monitoring of DNA biochip for human genetic mutation diagnosis of DNA amplified samples,” Sens. Actuators B 119, 583–591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho and W. W. Lam, “Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 96, 554–559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sarkar, M. Chamtouri, J. Moreau, M. Besbes, and M. Canva, “Introducing 2D confined propagating plasmons for surface plasmon resonance sensing using arrays of metallic ribbons,” Sens. Actuators B 191, 115–121 (2014).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, P. C. Smith, B. D. Reiss, D. J. Peña, and M. J. Natan, “Surface plasmon resonance of colloidal Au-modified gold films,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 118–124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

T. Sannomiya, O. Scholder, K. Jefimovs, C. Hafner, and A. B. Dahlin, “Investigation of plasmon resonances in metal films with nanohole arrays for biosensing applications,” Small 7, 1653–1663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Left) (a) Conventional flat-SPR biosensors substrate based on SF10 prism and gold thin film and (b) nanostructured SPR substrate based on 1D nanoribbon grating. (Right) Distribution of biomolecules (c) uniform on the entire surface, (d) on the top, (e) on the bottom, and (f) on the side of the structures. The incident wavelength is λ0=850nm, and the incident angle θ is variable.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Biosensitivity maps ΔR(%/nm) for different cases of biomolecule distribution: (a) uniform on the entire surface of the nanograting surface. (b) On the top, (c) on the bottom, and (d) on the side of the structures. K1 and K2 values vary from 0.01 to 0.5, with a step size of 0.005. No interpolation of data were used. Color bar was saturated in order to better emphasize the high sensing configurations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Curves extracted from the biosensitivity maps illustrated in Fig. 2 (a) for ridge configurations, K1=0.02 and K2 varying, and (b) for groove configurations, K2=0.02 and K1 varying. Continuous curves denote biosensitivity ΔR(%/nm) for uniform (black), top (red), bottom (green), and side (blue) target localization, whereas the dashed pink curve indicates the sum of the contribution top + bottom + side. For the sake of comparison, the dashed gray curve represents the response level of a conventional biosensor with optimum thickness of flat surface. Insets show the contribution of the different areas to the overall response of the flat surface ΔR (% of flat surface) as a function of the amount of surface coverage in (% of flat surface) for two specific configurations, K1+K2=0.32 (Λ198nm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Maps of sensitivity enhancement factor per unit of localized target, SEF, corresponding to the different target localization configurations: (a) uniform distribution (b) on the top, (c) on the bottom, and (d) on the sidewalls.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) (Left axis) SEF curves extracted from maps of Fig. 4. Continuous curves are associated to the “ridge configuration” and plotted as a function of K2 at fixed K1=0.02 corresponding to the different target localization configurations: (black) uniform distribution (red) on the top, (green) on the bottom, and (blue) on the side. Dots (right axis) denote the averaged normal intensity of the normalized electric field, along (black) the entire structured surface, (red) the top, (blue) the side, and (green) the bottom of the ridge. (b) Profiles of the normal component of the electric field are also plotted for different configurations, as labeled on the figure.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Reflectivity curves of the structured sensor surface as a function of the incident internal angle for K1=0.2 and various values of K2 (0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.47, 0.5). Reflectivity curves of flat surface (in dashed gray) are taken for reference. (b) Normalized FWHM (black dots) and normalized plasmon momentum Ksp in units of μm1 (continuous blue curve) are plotted as a function of K2, for K1=0.02.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

SEF curves induced by the localization of the target on the top of the grating ridge. Curves are plotted as a function of K2 for various values of K1 ranging from 0.01 to 0.4. The corresponding intensity of the normalized electric field is plotted (dots) as a function of K2. Profiles of the normal component of the electric field are given for different configurations, as labeled on the figure.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SEF=normalized sensitivityGCF.
GCF=LΛ,
E^n2=1L0LEn2dl,
Ksp=2πnpsinΘresλ0,

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