Abstract

The propagation characteristics in a new microstructured single-core holey fiber-based plasmonic sensor are investigated using a finite element method. The fiber is specifically designed for sensing analytes with small refractive index values, like water solutions. The proposed structure is made by a silica core with a small air hole in the center, surrounded by six air holes placed at the vertices of a hexagon and four or five smaller air holes between some large air holes, and further enclosed by gold and water layers. The presence of the four small holes impedes the resonant interaction (at 0.623 μm) between one of the pair of twofold degenerate core modes with a plasmon mode and introduces two new core modes in resonance with the plasmon modes when the phase matching (at 0.618 μm) or loss matching (at 0.632 μm) conditions are satisfied. The addition of such four small air holes to a previously studied sensor structure produces a stronger transmission loss (1266.8dB/cm) of a core guided mode at the resonant coupling due to efficient interaction with a plasmon mode near the loss matching point in the red part of the visible spectrum (0.632 μm). The advantages of the configuration with five small air holes are a better spectral resolution, a smaller value of the FWHM parameter, a higher value of the signal-to-noise ratio, and a higher amplitude sensitivity. Our sensors are capable of detecting large ranges of refractive indices with accuracy of 1.0×105 refractive index units.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. A. Popescu, N. N. Puscas, and G. Perrone, “Power absorption efficiency of a new microstructured plasmon optical fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 3039–3046 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (2)

V. A. Popescu, “A very high amplitude sensitivity of a new multi-core holey fiber-based plasmonic sensor,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 27, 1350038 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Popescu, N. N. Puscas, and G. Perrone, “New characteristics of a resonant coupling between an analyte-filled core mode and a supermode of a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensor,” Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (5)

V. A. Popescu, N. N. Puscas, and G. Perrone, “Power absorption efficiency of a new microstructured plasmon optical fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 3039–3046 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Shuai, L. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Liu, “A multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor with large detection range and high linearity,” Opt. Express 20, 5974–5986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Popescu, “A new resonant coupling between an analyte-filled core mode and a supermode of a multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 26, 1250207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Odhner and D. T. Jacobs, “Refractive index of liquid D2O for visible wavelengths,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 57, 166–168 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Popescu, “Power absorption efficiency in superconducting fiber optical waveguides,” J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 25, 1–6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Skorobogatiy, “Microstructured and photonic bandgap fibers for applications in the resonant bio- and chemical sensors,” J. Sens. 2009, 524237 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biochemical species,” Chem. Rev. 108, 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Verma, A. K. Sharma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based tapered fiber optic sensor with different taper profiles,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

1983 (1)

Ademgil, H.

E. Akowuah, T. Gorman, H. Ademgil, S. Haxha, G. Robinson, and J. Oliver, “A novel compact photonic crystal fibre surface plasmon resonance biosensor for an aqueous environment,” in Photonic Crystals: Innovative Systems, Lasers and Waveguides (InTech, 2012), Chap. 6, pp. 81–96.

Akowuah, E.

E. Akowuah, T. Gorman, H. Ademgil, S. Haxha, G. Robinson, and J. Oliver, “A novel compact photonic crystal fibre surface plasmon resonance biosensor for an aqueous environment,” in Photonic Crystals: Innovative Systems, Lasers and Waveguides (InTech, 2012), Chap. 6, pp. 81–96.

Alexander, R. W.

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Daimon, M.

Fassi Fehri, M.

Gauvreau, B.

Ghatak, A. K.

A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

Gorman, T.

E. Akowuah, T. Gorman, H. Ademgil, S. Haxha, G. Robinson, and J. Oliver, “A novel compact photonic crystal fibre surface plasmon resonance biosensor for an aqueous environment,” in Photonic Crystals: Innovative Systems, Lasers and Waveguides (InTech, 2012), Chap. 6, pp. 81–96.

Gupta, B. D.

R. K. Verma, A. K. Sharma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based tapered fiber optic sensor with different taper profiles,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sharma, R. Rajan, and B. D. Gupta, “Influence of dopants on the performance of a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Opt. Commun. 274, 320–326 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hassani, A.

Haxha, S.

E. Akowuah, T. Gorman, H. Ademgil, S. Haxha, G. Robinson, and J. Oliver, “A novel compact photonic crystal fibre surface plasmon resonance biosensor for an aqueous environment,” in Photonic Crystals: Innovative Systems, Lasers and Waveguides (InTech, 2012), Chap. 6, pp. 81–96.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biochemical species,” Chem. Rev. 108, 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, D. T.

H. Odhner and D. T. Jacobs, “Refractive index of liquid D2O for visible wavelengths,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 57, 166–168 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A.

Liu, D.

B. Shuai, L. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Liu, “A multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor with large detection range and high linearity,” Opt. Express 20, 5974–5986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Masumura, A.

Odhner, H.

H. Odhner and D. T. Jacobs, “Refractive index of liquid D2O for visible wavelengths,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 57, 166–168 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, J.

E. Akowuah, T. Gorman, H. Ademgil, S. Haxha, G. Robinson, and J. Oliver, “A novel compact photonic crystal fibre surface plasmon resonance biosensor for an aqueous environment,” in Photonic Crystals: Innovative Systems, Lasers and Waveguides (InTech, 2012), Chap. 6, pp. 81–96.

Ordal, M. A.

Perrone, G.

V. A. Popescu, N. N. Puscas, and G. Perrone, “New characteristics of a resonant coupling between an analyte-filled core mode and a supermode of a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensor,” Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Popescu, N. N. Puscas, and G. Perrone, “Power absorption efficiency of a new microstructured plasmon optical fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 3039–3046 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, V. A.

V. A. Popescu, “A very high amplitude sensitivity of a new multi-core holey fiber-based plasmonic sensor,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 27, 1350038 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Popescu, N. N. Puscas, and G. Perrone, “New characteristics of a resonant coupling between an analyte-filled core mode and a supermode of a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensor,” Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Popescu, “A new resonant coupling between an analyte-filled core mode and a supermode of a multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 26, 1250207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Popescu, N. N. Puscas, and G. Perrone, “Power absorption efficiency of a new microstructured plasmon optical fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 3039–3046 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Popescu, “Power absorption efficiency in superconducting fiber optical waveguides,” J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 25, 1–6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Puscas, N. N.

V. A. Popescu, N. N. Puscas, and G. Perrone, “New characteristics of a resonant coupling between an analyte-filled core mode and a supermode of a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensor,” Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Popescu, N. N. Puscas, and G. Perrone, “Power absorption efficiency of a new microstructured plasmon optical fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 3039–3046 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rajan, R.

A. K. Sharma, R. Rajan, and B. D. Gupta, “Influence of dopants on the performance of a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Opt. Commun. 274, 320–326 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, G.

E. Akowuah, T. Gorman, H. Ademgil, S. Haxha, G. Robinson, and J. Oliver, “A novel compact photonic crystal fibre surface plasmon resonance biosensor for an aqueous environment,” in Photonic Crystals: Innovative Systems, Lasers and Waveguides (InTech, 2012), Chap. 6, pp. 81–96.

Sharma, A. K.

R. K. Verma, A. K. Sharma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based tapered fiber optic sensor with different taper profiles,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sharma, R. Rajan, and B. D. Gupta, “Influence of dopants on the performance of a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Opt. Commun. 274, 320–326 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shuai, B.

Skorobogatiy, M.

Thyagarajan, K.

A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

Verma, R. K.

R. K. Verma, A. K. Sharma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based tapered fiber optic sensor with different taper profiles,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Xia, L.

B. Shuai, L. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Liu, “A multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor with large detection range and high linearity,” Opt. Express 20, 5974–5986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

B. Shuai, L. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Liu, “A multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor with large detection range and high linearity,” Opt. Express 20, 5974–5986 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C.

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biochemical species,” Chem. Rev. 108, 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

V. A. Popescu, N. N. Puscas, and G. Perrone, “New characteristics of a resonant coupling between an analyte-filled core mode and a supermode of a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensor,” Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Eng. Data (1)

H. Odhner and D. T. Jacobs, “Refractive index of liquid D2O for visible wavelengths,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 57, 166–168 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Sens. (1)

M. Skorobogatiy, “Microstructured and photonic bandgap fibers for applications in the resonant bio- and chemical sensors,” J. Sens. 2009, 524237 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. (1)

V. A. Popescu, “Power absorption efficiency in superconducting fiber optical waveguides,” J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 25, 1–6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mod. Phys. Lett. B (2)

V. A. Popescu, “A new resonant coupling between an analyte-filled core mode and a supermode of a multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 26, 1250207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Popescu, “A very high amplitude sensitivity of a new multi-core holey fiber-based plasmonic sensor,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 27, 1350038 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

Y. Zhang, L. Xia, C. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Liu, D. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Microstructured fiber based plasmonic index sensor with optimized accuracy and calibration relation in large dynamic range,” Opt. Commun. 284, 4161–4166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sharma, R. Rajan, and B. D. Gupta, “Influence of dopants on the performance of a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Opt. Commun. 274, 320–326 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Verma, A. K. Sharma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based tapered fiber optic sensor with different taper profiles,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Other (2)

E. Akowuah, T. Gorman, H. Ademgil, S. Haxha, G. Robinson, and J. Oliver, “A novel compact photonic crystal fibre surface plasmon resonance biosensor for an aqueous environment,” in Photonic Crystals: Innovative Systems, Lasers and Waveguides (InTech, 2012), Chap. 6, pp. 81–96.

A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1999).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Cross section of a microstructured optical fiber made by a small air hole (radius r1) in the center of the structure; six air holes (radii r2=r3=r4=r5=r6=r7), which are placed at the vertices of a hexagon with vertex-to-vertex distance d; and four small air holes (radii r8=r9=r10=r11), which are infiltrated between some large air holes and are inserted in a SiO2 core (radius r12), which is surrounded by a gold layer (thickness r13r12), and a very thick distilled water layer. (b) Same cross section as in (a) but with a new small air hole (radius r14).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Contour plot of the z component Sz(x,y) of the Poynting vector for the (a) first core guided, (b) first plasmon, (c) second core guided, and (d) second plasmon modes in a microstructured optical fiber [Fig. 1(a)] at the resonant wavelength. The analyte is distilled water, r1=0.5μm, r2=r3=r4=r5=r6=r7=0.6μm, r8=r9=r10=r11=0.3μm, r12=3μm, r13=3.04μm, and d=2μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Radial (positive y direction) cross section of the z component Sz(x,y) of the Poynting vector for the (a) first core guided mode and (b) first plasmon mode near the phase matching point and also for (c) the second core guided mode and (d) the second plasmon mode (d) near the loss matching point.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of the effective index versus the wavelength for the first and the second core and plasmon modes in a microstructured optical fiber [Fig. 1(a)] near the phase matching point (λ=0.618μm) and loss matching point (λ=0.632μm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Contour plot of the z component Sz(x,y) of the Poynting vector for the (a) second core guided and (b) second plasmon modes in a microstructured optical fiber [Fig. 1(b)] at the resonant wavelength. The analyte is distilled water, r1=0.5μm, r2=r3=r4=r5=r6=r7=0.6μm, r8=r9=r10=r11=r14=0.3μm, r12=3.04μm, r13=3.08μm, and d=2μm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Cross section of the z component Sz(x,y) of the Poynting vector in the y direction at x=0 for the (a) second core and (b) plasmon modes near the loss matching point (λ=0.6507μm).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of the effective index versus the wavelength for the first and the second core and plasmon modes in a microstructured optical fiber [Fig. 1(b)] near the phase matching point (λ=0.627μm) and loss matching point (λ=0.6507μm). The FWHM bandwidth is 33 nm for the first core mode and 22 nm for the second core mode.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Real part of the effective index versus the wavelength and (b) loss spectra for the second core and plasmon modes in a microstructured optical fiber [Fig. 1(b)] near the loss matching point (λ=0.6303μm for D2O and λ=0.6507μm for H2O). The analyte is distilled water or heavy water.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Amplitude sensitivity and the (b) real and (c) imaginary parts of the group refractive index ng for the second core mode in a microstructured optical fiber [Fig. 1(b)] near the loss matching point (λ=0.6507μm).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Effective Index for the First (I) and the Second (II) Core Guided and Plasmon Modes, Difference Δ(β/k)r between the Real Parts of the Effective Indices of Core and Plasmon Modes, and Difference Δ(β/k)i between the Imaginary Parts of the Same Modesa

Tables Icon

Table 2. Power Fraction Carried in the Distilled Water, Gold, and SiO2 Layers by the First (I) and Second (II) of the Core Guided Modesa

Tables Icon

Table 3. Resonant Wavelength λ (μm), Spectral Resolution SRλ (RIU), Loss α (dB/cm, and Propagation Length L (μm) of the Second Core Guided Mode for Values na2Δna, naΔna, na+Δna, and na+2Δna of the Analyte Refractive Index Where Δna=0.003901RIU

Tables Icon

Table 4. Values of δλres(nm), δλ0.5(nm), SNR, Sλ (nmRIU1), SRλ (RIU), SRA (RIU1), SRA (RIU), α(dB/cm), L(μm), and λ(μm)a

Equations (1)

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n=1.0244+3329.2λ2+0.0026048T1.630Tλ20.000007248T2+0.00000000615T3,

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