Abstract

The multicolor intense visible emission from Er3+ and Tm3+ ions codoped in TeO2PbO glass upon excitation at 1064nm radiation from a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser has been investigated. The optical parameters of erbium ions codoped in Tm3+TeO2PbO glass by using the Judd–Ofelt theory have been determined from the optical absorption spectra. No upconversion (UC) emission was seen in the singly doped Er3+-doped glass upon excitation at 1064 nm. Through the experiments, it has been found that, in the codoped glass, the UC luminescence from Er3+ (2.0 mol. %) in green and red regions corresponding to the H211/2I415/2, S43/2I415/2, and F49/2I415/2 transitions is strengthened about 40, 60, and 130 fold, respectively, at 2.0 mol. % Tm3+ ion concentration in codoped glass. The observed UC emissions and the enhancement observed in their intensity have been explained on the basis of efficient energy transfer and cross-relaxation energy transfer processes.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. R. N. Bhargava, D. Gallaghar, X. Hong, and A. Nurmikko, “Optical properties of manganese-doped nanocrystals of ZnS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 416–419 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Effect of crystal nature on upconversion luminescence in Er3+:ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 284–286 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Santos, M. Vermelho, E. Gouveia, M. Araujo, A. Gouveia-Neto, F. Cassanjes, S. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in Pr3+/Yb3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 344, 304–307 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Yang, L. Zhang, L. Wen, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/ Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3020–3026 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. W. B. Lozano, C. B. de Araujo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Enhanced frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped fluoroindate glass due to energy transfer from Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 311, 318–322 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Mechanisms and concentration dependence of Tm3+ blue and Er3+ green up-conversion in codoped glasses by red-laser pumping,” J. Lumin. 65, 247–255 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng, and H. Chen, “The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 241, 455–463 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. K. Rai, L. S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Spectroscopy, energy transfer, and frequency upconversion in Tm3+-doped TeO2−PbO glass,”J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043505 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. K. Rai, L. S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Infrared-to-green and blue upconversion in Tm3+-doped TeO2−PbO glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053514 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. K. Mohanty, V. K. Rai, Y. Dwivedi, and S. B. Rai, “Enhancement of upconversion intensity in Er3+-doped tellurite glass in presence of Yb3+,” Appl. Phys. B 104, 233–236 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. S. da Silva, L. P. Naranjo, L. R. P. Kassab, and C. B. de Araújo, “Photoluminescence from germanate glasses containing silicon nanocrystals and erbium ions,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 1015–1018 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. Medeiros Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 753–755 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. K. Giri, S. K. Singh, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, “SrAl4O7:Tm3+/Yb3+ nanocrystalline blue phosphor: structural, thermal and optical properties,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 271–277 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
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    [CrossRef]
  25. D. K. Mohanty and V. K. Rai, “Photoluminescence studies of Pr3+ doped lead germanate glass,”J. Fluoresc. 21, 1455–1460 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

D. S. da Silva, L. P. Naranjo, L. R. P. Kassab, and C. B. de Araújo, “Photoluminescence from germanate glasses containing silicon nanocrystals and erbium ions,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 1015–1018 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

D. K. Mohanty and V. K. Rai, “Photoluminescence studies of Pr3+ doped lead germanate glass,”J. Fluoresc. 21, 1455–1460 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Mohanty, V. K. Rai, Y. Dwivedi, and S. B. Rai, “Enhancement of upconversion intensity in Er3+-doped tellurite glass in presence of Yb3+,” Appl. Phys. B 104, 233–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

N. K. Giri, S. K. Singh, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, “SrAl4O7:Tm3+/Yb3+ nanocrystalline blue phosphor: structural, thermal and optical properties,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 271–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

V. K. Rai, L. S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Infrared-to-green and blue upconversion in Tm3+-doped TeO2−PbO glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

V. K. Rai, L. S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Spectroscopy, energy transfer, and frequency upconversion in Tm3+-doped TeO2−PbO glass,”J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+  and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

X. Shen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gau, “Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses,” Phys. Lett. A 332, 101–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, L. Zhang, L. Wen, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/ Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3020–3026 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng, and H. Chen, “The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 241, 455–463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Effect of crystal nature on upconversion luminescence in Er3+:ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 284–286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

P. Santos, M. Vermelho, E. Gouveia, M. Araujo, A. Gouveia-Neto, F. Cassanjes, S. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in Pr3+/Yb3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 344, 304–307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kenyon, “Recent developments in rare-earth doped materials for optoelectronics,” Prog. Quantum Electron 26, 225–284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Lozano, C. B. de Araujo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Enhanced frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped fluoroindate glass due to energy transfer from Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 311, 318–322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. Medeiros Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 753–755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Mechanisms and concentration dependence of Tm3+ blue and Er3+ green up-conversion in codoped glasses by red-laser pumping,” J. Lumin. 65, 247–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, and H. Toratani, “Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in Er3+, Tm3+ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. N. Bhargava, D. Gallaghar, X. Hong, and A. Nurmikko, “Optical properties of manganese-doped nanocrystals of ZnS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+- and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703–4709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Maigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride–thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).

C. Y. Chen, R. R. Petrin, D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, and J. L. Adam, “Concentration-dependent energy-transfer processes in Er3+ and Tm3+-doped heavy-metal fluoride glass,” Opt. Lett. 14, 432–434 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–519 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. L.

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Maigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride–thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).

C. Y. Chen, R. R. Petrin, D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, and J. L. Adam, “Concentration-dependent energy-transfer processes in Er3+ and Tm3+-doped heavy-metal fluoride glass,” Opt. Lett. 14, 432–434 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ando, N.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+- and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703–4709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Araujo, M.

P. Santos, M. Vermelho, E. Gouveia, M. Araujo, A. Gouveia-Neto, F. Cassanjes, S. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in Pr3+/Yb3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 344, 304–307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bhargava, R. N.

R. N. Bhargava, D. Gallaghar, X. Hong, and A. Nurmikko, “Optical properties of manganese-doped nanocrystals of ZnS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Biner, D.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, J. C.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+  and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Capobianco, J. A.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+  and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cassanjes, F.

P. Santos, M. Vermelho, E. Gouveia, M. Araujo, A. Gouveia-Neto, F. Cassanjes, S. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in Pr3+/Yb3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 344, 304–307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, H.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng, and H. Chen, “The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 241, 455–463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng, and H. Chen, “The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 241, 455–463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cuccia, L. A.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+  and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, D. S.

D. S. da Silva, L. P. Naranjo, L. R. P. Kassab, and C. B. de Araújo, “Photoluminescence from germanate glasses containing silicon nanocrystals and erbium ions,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 1015–1018 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dai, S.

J. Yang, L. Zhang, L. Wen, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/ Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3020–3026 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, C. B.

V. K. Rai, L. S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Infrared-to-green and blue upconversion in Tm3+-doped TeO2−PbO glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rai, L. S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Spectroscopy, energy transfer, and frequency upconversion in Tm3+-doped TeO2−PbO glass,”J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Lozano, C. B. de Araujo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Enhanced frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped fluoroindate glass due to energy transfer from Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 311, 318–322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, M. T.

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. Medeiros Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 753–755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

D. S. da Silva, L. P. Naranjo, L. R. P. Kassab, and C. B. de Araújo, “Photoluminescence from germanate glasses containing silicon nanocrystals and erbium ions,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 1015–1018 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dwivedi, Y.

D. K. Mohanty, V. K. Rai, Y. Dwivedi, and S. B. Rai, “Enhancement of upconversion intensity in Er3+-doped tellurite glass in presence of Yb3+,” Appl. Phys. B 104, 233–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Friend, C. S.

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Effect of crystal nature on upconversion luminescence in Er3+:ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 284–286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, B.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng, and H. Chen, “The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 241, 455–463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gallaghar, D.

R. N. Bhargava, D. Gallaghar, X. Hong, and A. Nurmikko, “Optical properties of manganese-doped nanocrystals of ZnS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gau, Y.

X. Shen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gau, “Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses,” Phys. Lett. A 332, 101–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giri, N. K.

N. K. Giri, S. K. Singh, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, “SrAl4O7:Tm3+/Yb3+ nanocrystalline blue phosphor: structural, thermal and optical properties,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 271–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia, E.

P. Santos, M. Vermelho, E. Gouveia, M. Araujo, A. Gouveia-Neto, F. Cassanjes, S. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in Pr3+/Yb3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 344, 304–307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia-Neto, A.

P. Santos, M. Vermelho, E. Gouveia, M. Araujo, A. Gouveia-Neto, F. Cassanjes, S. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in Pr3+/Yb3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 344, 304–307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. Medeiros Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 753–755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, J.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H. U.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, L.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng, and H. Chen, “The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 241, 455–463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanada, T.

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Mechanisms and concentration dependence of Tm3+ blue and Er3+ green up-conversion in codoped glasses by red-laser pumping,” J. Lumin. 65, 247–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hirama, K.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+- and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703–4709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hong, X.

R. N. Bhargava, D. Gallaghar, X. Hong, and A. Nurmikko, “Optical properties of manganese-doped nanocrystals of ZnS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

J. Yang, L. Zhang, L. Wen, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/ Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3020–3026 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

J. Yang, L. Zhang, L. Wen, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/ Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3020–3026 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).

Kapoor, R.

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Effect of crystal nature on upconversion luminescence in Er3+:ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 284–286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kassab, L. R. P.

D. S. da Silva, L. P. Naranjo, L. R. P. Kassab, and C. B. de Araújo, “Photoluminescence from germanate glasses containing silicon nanocrystals and erbium ions,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 1015–1018 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kenyon, A. J.

A. J. Kenyon, “Recent developments in rare-earth doped materials for optoelectronics,” Prog. Quantum Electron 26, 225–284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, K. W.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lozano, W. B.

W. B. Lozano, C. B. de Araujo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Enhanced frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped fluoroindate glass due to energy transfer from Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 311, 318–322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maigou, V.

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Maigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride–thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).

Medeiros Neto, J. A.

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. Medeiros Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 753–755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Menezes, L. S.

V. K. Rai, L. S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Infrared-to-green and blue upconversion in Tm3+-doped TeO2−PbO glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rai, L. S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Spectroscopy, energy transfer, and frequency upconversion in Tm3+-doped TeO2−PbO glass,”J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

W. B. Lozano, C. B. de Araujo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Enhanced frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped fluoroindate glass due to energy transfer from Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 311, 318–322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Santos, M. Vermelho, E. Gouveia, M. Araujo, A. Gouveia-Neto, F. Cassanjes, S. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in Pr3+/Yb3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 344, 304–307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. Medeiros Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 753–755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mita, Y.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+- and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703–4709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mohanty, D. K.

D. K. Mohanty, V. K. Rai, Y. Dwivedi, and S. B. Rai, “Enhancement of upconversion intensity in Er3+-doped tellurite glass in presence of Yb3+,” Appl. Phys. B 104, 233–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Mohanty and V. K. Rai, “Photoluminescence studies of Pr3+ doped lead germanate glass,”J. Fluoresc. 21, 1455–1460 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Naranjo, L. P.

D. S. da Silva, L. P. Naranjo, L. R. P. Kassab, and C. B. de Araújo, “Photoluminescence from germanate glasses containing silicon nanocrystals and erbium ions,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 1015–1018 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nie, Q.

X. Shen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gau, “Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses,” Phys. Lett. A 332, 101–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A.

R. N. Bhargava, D. Gallaghar, X. Hong, and A. Nurmikko, “Optical properties of manganese-doped nanocrystals of ZnS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–519 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, A. S.

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. Medeiros Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 753–755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Patra, A.

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Effect of crystal nature on upconversion luminescence in Er3+:ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 284–286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peng, T.

X. Shen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gau, “Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses,” Phys. Lett. A 332, 101–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petrin, R. R.

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Maigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride–thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).

C. Y. Chen, R. R. Petrin, D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, and J. L. Adam, “Concentration-dependent energy-transfer processes in Er3+ and Tm3+-doped heavy-metal fluoride glass,” Opt. Lett. 14, 432–434 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Effect of crystal nature on upconversion luminescence in Er3+:ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 284–286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rai, D. K.

N. K. Giri, S. K. Singh, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, “SrAl4O7:Tm3+/Yb3+ nanocrystalline blue phosphor: structural, thermal and optical properties,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 271–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rai, S. B.

D. K. Mohanty, V. K. Rai, Y. Dwivedi, and S. B. Rai, “Enhancement of upconversion intensity in Er3+-doped tellurite glass in presence of Yb3+,” Appl. Phys. B 104, 233–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Giri, S. K. Singh, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, “SrAl4O7:Tm3+/Yb3+ nanocrystalline blue phosphor: structural, thermal and optical properties,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 271–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rai, V. K.

D. K. Mohanty and V. K. Rai, “Photoluminescence studies of Pr3+ doped lead germanate glass,”J. Fluoresc. 21, 1455–1460 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Mohanty, V. K. Rai, Y. Dwivedi, and S. B. Rai, “Enhancement of upconversion intensity in Er3+-doped tellurite glass in presence of Yb3+,” Appl. Phys. B 104, 233–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rai, L. S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Infrared-to-green and blue upconversion in Tm3+-doped TeO2−PbO glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rai, L. S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Spectroscopy, energy transfer, and frequency upconversion in Tm3+-doped TeO2−PbO glass,”J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S.

P. Santos, M. Vermelho, E. Gouveia, M. Araujo, A. Gouveia-Neto, F. Cassanjes, S. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in Pr3+/Yb3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 344, 304–307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Santos, P.

P. Santos, M. Vermelho, E. Gouveia, M. Araujo, A. Gouveia-Neto, F. Cassanjes, S. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in Pr3+/Yb3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 344, 304–307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X.

X. Shen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gau, “Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses,” Phys. Lett. A 332, 101–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shikida, A.

X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, and H. Toratani, “Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in Er3+, Tm3+ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shionoya, S.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+- and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703–4709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sibley, W. A.

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Maigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride–thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).

C. Y. Chen, R. R. Petrin, D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, and J. L. Adam, “Concentration-dependent energy-transfer processes in Er3+ and Tm3+-doped heavy-metal fluoride glass,” Opt. Lett. 14, 432–434 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S. K.

N. K. Giri, S. K. Singh, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, “SrAl4O7:Tm3+/Yb3+ nanocrystalline blue phosphor: structural, thermal and optical properties,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 271–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soga, N.

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Mechanisms and concentration dependence of Tm3+ blue and Er3+ green up-conversion in codoped glasses by red-laser pumping,” J. Lumin. 65, 247–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sombra, A. S. B.

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. Medeiros Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 753–755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Song, F.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng, and H. Chen, “The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 241, 455–463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng, and H. Chen, “The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 241, 455–463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suscavage, M. J.

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Maigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride–thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).

Suyver, J. F.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Mechanisms and concentration dependence of Tm3+ blue and Er3+ green up-conversion in codoped glasses by red-laser pumping,” J. Lumin. 65, 247–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng, and H. Chen, “The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 241, 455–463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, S.

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Mechanisms and concentration dependence of Tm3+ blue and Er3+ green up-conversion in codoped glasses by red-laser pumping,” J. Lumin. 65, 247–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng, and H. Chen, “The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 241, 455–463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toratani, H.

X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, and H. Toratani, “Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in Er3+, Tm3+ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Van Veen, M. K.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vermelho, M.

P. Santos, M. Vermelho, E. Gouveia, M. Araujo, A. Gouveia-Neto, F. Cassanjes, S. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in Pr3+/Yb3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 344, 304–307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vetrone, F.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+  and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wen, L.

J. Yang, L. Zhang, L. Wen, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/ Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3020–3026 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T.

X. Shen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gau, “Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses,” Phys. Lett. A 332, 101–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+- and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703–4709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yanagita, H.

X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, and H. Toratani, “Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in Er3+, Tm3+ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, L. Zhang, L. Wen, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/ Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3020–3026 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D. C.

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Maigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride–thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).

C. Y. Chen, R. R. Petrin, D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, and J. L. Adam, “Concentration-dependent energy-transfer processes in Er3+ and Tm3+-doped heavy-metal fluoride glass,” Opt. Lett. 14, 432–434 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng, and H. Chen, “The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 241, 455–463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

J. Yang, L. Zhang, L. Wen, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/ Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3020–3026 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X.

X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, and H. Toratani, “Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in Er3+, Tm3+ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

D. K. Mohanty, V. K. Rai, Y. Dwivedi, and S. B. Rai, “Enhancement of upconversion intensity in Er3+-doped tellurite glass in presence of Yb3+,” Appl. Phys. B 104, 233–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. da Silva, L. P. Naranjo, L. R. P. Kassab, and C. B. de Araújo, “Photoluminescence from germanate glasses containing silicon nanocrystals and erbium ions,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 1015–1018 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Giri, S. K. Singh, D. K. Rai, and S. B. Rai, “SrAl4O7:Tm3+/Yb3+ nanocrystalline blue phosphor: structural, thermal and optical properties,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 271–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. Medeiros Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 753–755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Effect of crystal nature on upconversion luminescence in Er3+:ZrO2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 284–286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

P. Santos, M. Vermelho, E. Gouveia, M. Araujo, A. Gouveia-Neto, F. Cassanjes, S. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in Pr3+/Yb3+- and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 344, 304–307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+  and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

J. Yang, L. Zhang, L. Wen, S. Dai, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/ Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3020–3026 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rai, L. S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Spectroscopy, energy transfer, and frequency upconversion in Tm3+-doped TeO2−PbO glass,”J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rai, L. S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Infrared-to-green and blue upconversion in Tm3+-doped TeO2−PbO glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053514 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+- and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4703–4709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–519 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluoresc. (1)

D. K. Mohanty and V. K. Rai, “Photoluminescence studies of Pr3+ doped lead germanate glass,”J. Fluoresc. 21, 1455–1460 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (2)

S. Tanabe, K. Suzuki, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Mechanisms and concentration dependence of Tm3+ blue and Er3+ green up-conversion in codoped glasses by red-laser pumping,” J. Lumin. 65, 247–255 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. Van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion spectroscopy and properties of NaYF4 doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and/or Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 117, 1–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

W. B. Lozano, C. B. de Araujo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Enhanced frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped fluoroindate glass due to energy transfer from Tm3+,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 311, 318–322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Zou, A. Shikida, H. Yanagita, and H. Toratani, “Mechanisms of upconversion fluorescences in Er3+, Tm3+ codoped fluorozircoaluminate glasses” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng, and H. Chen, “The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 241, 455–463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

X. Shen, Q. Nie, T. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gau, “Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses,” Phys. Lett. A 332, 101–106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Maigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, “Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride–thorium fluoride glass,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 80–90 (1989).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. N. Bhargava, D. Gallaghar, X. Hong, and A. Nurmikko, “Optical properties of manganese-doped nanocrystals of ZnS,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 416–419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron (1)

A. J. Kenyon, “Recent developments in rare-earth doped materials for optoelectronics,” Prog. Quantum Electron 26, 225–284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. J. Digonnet, ed., Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Dekker, 1993).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorption spectrum of (1.5mol.%Tm+2.0mol.%Er) doped in TPO glass.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Upconversion (UC) spectra of (a) 0.2mol.%Tm3++2.0mol.%Er3+, (b) 1.0mol.%Tm3++2.0mol.%Er3+, (c) 2.0mol.%Tm3++2.0mol.%Er3+, codoped in TPO glass upon excitation at 1064nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Log–log plot of the UC emission intensity versus laser intensity in the codoped glass corresponding to the G14H36 transition in (2.0mol.%Tm3++2.0mol.%Er3+) codoped glass.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of the Er3+ UC emission intensity with the Tm3+ concentration in the codoped sample.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Energy level scheme of Tm3+ and Er3+.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical Transitions with their respective Transition Energies, Transition Probabilities, Branching Ratios, Radiative Lifetime, and Total Radiative Lifetime for Erbium Ions in Codoped Glass

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

(70xy)TeO2+30PbO+xTm2O3+yEr2O3,

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