Abstract

We present a fiber Raman laser (FRL) based on a highly nonlinear fiber that emits pulses at 835 nm when synchronously pumped by a broadstripe semiconductor laser diode (LD) at 806 nm. The slope efficiency reaches 65% in a 600 m long fiber for a 100 ns long pulse. Our results show that broadstripe LDs are now sufficiently bright for the Raman gain to overcome the relatively high background loss at wavelengths as short as 835 nm, which we believe is the shortest reported to date for any diode-pumped FRL.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Namiki and Y. Emori, “Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3–16 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. N. Jang, R. Selvas, D. C. Hanna, and A. B. Grudinin, “Cladding-pumped Raman fiber amplifier,” in Proceedings of Topical Meeting on Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vancouver, Canada, July14–17, 2002, paper PDP2-1/2/3.
  3. C. A. Codemard, P. Dupriez, Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, and J. Nilsson, “High-power continuous-wave cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2290–2292 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. K. Sridharan, J. E. Heebner, M. J. Messerly, J. W. Dawson, R. J. Beach, and C. P. J. Barty, “Brightness enhancement in a high-peak-power cladding-pumped Raman fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2234–2236 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. A. Codemard, J. Ji, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “100  W CW cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser at 1120  nm,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801N (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36  kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12, 6088–6092 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B63–B92 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Bloembergen, “The stimulated Raman effect,” Am. J. Phys. 35, 989–1023 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. M. Dianov, “Advances in Raman fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1457–1462 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).
  11. S. I. Kablukov, E. I. Dontsova, E. A. Zlobina, I. N. Nemov, A. A. Vlasov, and S. A. Babin, “An LD-pumped Raman fiber laser operating below 1  μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 085103 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, W. J. M. Rothwell, and B. Wakefield, “Optical gain spectrum of GeO2-SiO2 Raman fibre amplifiers,” IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 136, 301–306 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. A. Clarkson and D. C. Hanna, “Two-mirror beam-shaping technique for high-power diode bars,” Opt. Lett. 21, 375–377 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, “Vector theory of stimulated Raman scattering and its application to fiber-based Raman amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1616–1631 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Fridman, M. Nixon, M. Dubinskii, A. A. Friesem, and N. Davidson, “Principal modes in fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 36, 388–390 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Mahgerefteh, H. Yu, D. L. Butler, J. Goldhar, D. Wang, E. Golovchenko, A. N. Phlipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and L. Joneckis, “Effect of randomly varying birefringence on the Raman gain in optical fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1997), Vol. 11, p. 447.
  17. S. Popov, E. Vanin, and G. Jacobsen, “Influence of polarization mode dispersion value in dispersion-compensating fibers on the polarization dependence of Raman gain,” Opt. Lett. 27, 848–850 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Polley and S. E. Ralph, “Raman amplification in multimode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 218–220 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Yao and J. Nilsson, “Fibre Raman laser directly pumped by multimode laser diode at 975  nm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and International Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/IQEC), Munich, Germany, May12–16, 2013, paper CJ-9.2.

2013

S. I. Kablukov, E. I. Dontsova, E. A. Zlobina, I. N. Nemov, A. A. Vlasov, and S. A. Babin, “An LD-pumped Raman fiber laser operating below 1  μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 085103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

C. A. Codemard, J. Ji, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “100  W CW cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser at 1120  nm,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801N (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B63–B92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

A. Polley and S. E. Ralph, “Raman amplification in multimode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 218–220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

2003

2002

2001

S. Namiki and Y. Emori, “Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

1989

S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, W. J. M. Rothwell, and B. Wakefield, “Optical gain spectrum of GeO2-SiO2 Raman fibre amplifiers,” IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 136, 301–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1967

N. Bloembergen, “The stimulated Raman effect,” Am. J. Phys. 35, 989–1023 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Ainslie, B. J.

S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, W. J. M. Rothwell, and B. Wakefield, “Optical gain spectrum of GeO2-SiO2 Raman fibre amplifiers,” IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 136, 301–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Babin, S. A.

S. I. Kablukov, E. I. Dontsova, E. A. Zlobina, I. N. Nemov, A. A. Vlasov, and S. A. Babin, “An LD-pumped Raman fiber laser operating below 1  μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 085103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. J.

Beach, R. J.

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, “The stimulated Raman effect,” Am. J. Phys. 35, 989–1023 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Butler, D. L.

D. Mahgerefteh, H. Yu, D. L. Butler, J. Goldhar, D. Wang, E. Golovchenko, A. N. Phlipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and L. Joneckis, “Effect of randomly varying birefringence on the Raman gain in optical fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1997), Vol. 11, p. 447.

Clarkson, W. A.

Codemard, C. A.

C. A. Codemard, J. Ji, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “100  W CW cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser at 1120  nm,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801N (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Codemard, P. Dupriez, Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, and J. Nilsson, “High-power continuous-wave cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2290–2292 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davey, S. T.

S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, W. J. M. Rothwell, and B. Wakefield, “Optical gain spectrum of GeO2-SiO2 Raman fibre amplifiers,” IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 136, 301–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, N.

Dawson, J. W.

Dianov, E. M.

Dontsova, E. I.

S. I. Kablukov, E. I. Dontsova, E. A. Zlobina, I. N. Nemov, A. A. Vlasov, and S. A. Babin, “An LD-pumped Raman fiber laser operating below 1  μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 085103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dubinskii, M.

Dupriez, P.

Emori, Y.

S. Namiki and Y. Emori, “Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fridman, M.

Friesem, A. A.

Goldhar, J.

D. Mahgerefteh, H. Yu, D. L. Butler, J. Goldhar, D. Wang, E. Golovchenko, A. N. Phlipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and L. Joneckis, “Effect of randomly varying birefringence on the Raman gain in optical fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1997), Vol. 11, p. 447.

Golovchenko, E.

D. Mahgerefteh, H. Yu, D. L. Butler, J. Goldhar, D. Wang, E. Golovchenko, A. N. Phlipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and L. Joneckis, “Effect of randomly varying birefringence on the Raman gain in optical fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1997), Vol. 11, p. 447.

Grudinin, A. B.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. N. Jang, R. Selvas, D. C. Hanna, and A. B. Grudinin, “Cladding-pumped Raman fiber amplifier,” in Proceedings of Topical Meeting on Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vancouver, Canada, July14–17, 2002, paper PDP2-1/2/3.

Hanna, D. C.

W. A. Clarkson and D. C. Hanna, “Two-mirror beam-shaping technique for high-power diode bars,” Opt. Lett. 21, 375–377 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. N. Jang, R. Selvas, D. C. Hanna, and A. B. Grudinin, “Cladding-pumped Raman fiber amplifier,” in Proceedings of Topical Meeting on Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vancouver, Canada, July14–17, 2002, paper PDP2-1/2/3.

Heebner, J. E.

Ibsen, M.

Jacobsen, G.

Jang, J. N.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. N. Jang, R. Selvas, D. C. Hanna, and A. B. Grudinin, “Cladding-pumped Raman fiber amplifier,” in Proceedings of Topical Meeting on Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vancouver, Canada, July14–17, 2002, paper PDP2-1/2/3.

Jeong, Y.

Ji, J.

C. A. Codemard, J. Ji, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “100  W CW cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser at 1120  nm,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801N (2010).
[CrossRef]

Joneckis, L.

D. Mahgerefteh, H. Yu, D. L. Butler, J. Goldhar, D. Wang, E. Golovchenko, A. N. Phlipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and L. Joneckis, “Effect of randomly varying birefringence on the Raman gain in optical fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1997), Vol. 11, p. 447.

Kablukov, S. I.

S. I. Kablukov, E. I. Dontsova, E. A. Zlobina, I. N. Nemov, A. A. Vlasov, and S. A. Babin, “An LD-pumped Raman fiber laser operating below 1  μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 085103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Mahgerefteh, D.

D. Mahgerefteh, H. Yu, D. L. Butler, J. Goldhar, D. Wang, E. Golovchenko, A. N. Phlipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and L. Joneckis, “Effect of randomly varying birefringence on the Raman gain in optical fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1997), Vol. 11, p. 447.

Menyuk, C. R.

D. Mahgerefteh, H. Yu, D. L. Butler, J. Goldhar, D. Wang, E. Golovchenko, A. N. Phlipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and L. Joneckis, “Effect of randomly varying birefringence on the Raman gain in optical fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1997), Vol. 11, p. 447.

Messerly, M. J.

Namiki, S.

S. Namiki and Y. Emori, “Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nemov, I. N.

S. I. Kablukov, E. I. Dontsova, E. A. Zlobina, I. N. Nemov, A. A. Vlasov, and S. A. Babin, “An LD-pumped Raman fiber laser operating below 1  μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 085103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B63–B92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Codemard, J. Ji, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “100  W CW cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser at 1120  nm,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801N (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Codemard, P. Dupriez, Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, and J. Nilsson, “High-power continuous-wave cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2290–2292 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36  kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12, 6088–6092 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. N. Jang, R. Selvas, D. C. Hanna, and A. B. Grudinin, “Cladding-pumped Raman fiber amplifier,” in Proceedings of Topical Meeting on Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vancouver, Canada, July14–17, 2002, paper PDP2-1/2/3.

T. Yao and J. Nilsson, “Fibre Raman laser directly pumped by multimode laser diode at 975  nm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and International Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/IQEC), Munich, Germany, May12–16, 2013, paper CJ-9.2.

Nixon, M.

Payne, D. N.

Phlipetskii, A. N.

D. Mahgerefteh, H. Yu, D. L. Butler, J. Goldhar, D. Wang, E. Golovchenko, A. N. Phlipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and L. Joneckis, “Effect of randomly varying birefringence on the Raman gain in optical fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1997), Vol. 11, p. 447.

Polley, A.

A. Polley and S. E. Ralph, “Raman amplification in multimode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 218–220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S.

Ralph, S. E.

A. Polley and S. E. Ralph, “Raman amplification in multimode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 218–220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Rothwell, W. J. M.

S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, W. J. M. Rothwell, and B. Wakefield, “Optical gain spectrum of GeO2-SiO2 Raman fibre amplifiers,” IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 136, 301–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

C. A. Codemard, J. Ji, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “100  W CW cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser at 1120  nm,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801N (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Codemard, P. Dupriez, Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, and J. Nilsson, “High-power continuous-wave cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2290–2292 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36  kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12, 6088–6092 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. N. Jang, R. Selvas, D. C. Hanna, and A. B. Grudinin, “Cladding-pumped Raman fiber amplifier,” in Proceedings of Topical Meeting on Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vancouver, Canada, July14–17, 2002, paper PDP2-1/2/3.

Selvas, R.

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. N. Jang, R. Selvas, D. C. Hanna, and A. B. Grudinin, “Cladding-pumped Raman fiber amplifier,” in Proceedings of Topical Meeting on Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vancouver, Canada, July14–17, 2002, paper PDP2-1/2/3.

Sridharan, A. K.

Vanin, E.

Vlasov, A. A.

S. I. Kablukov, E. I. Dontsova, E. A. Zlobina, I. N. Nemov, A. A. Vlasov, and S. A. Babin, “An LD-pumped Raman fiber laser operating below 1  μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 085103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wakefield, B.

S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, W. J. M. Rothwell, and B. Wakefield, “Optical gain spectrum of GeO2-SiO2 Raman fibre amplifiers,” IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 136, 301–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

D. Mahgerefteh, H. Yu, D. L. Butler, J. Goldhar, D. Wang, E. Golovchenko, A. N. Phlipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and L. Joneckis, “Effect of randomly varying birefringence on the Raman gain in optical fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1997), Vol. 11, p. 447.

Williams, D. L.

S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, W. J. M. Rothwell, and B. Wakefield, “Optical gain spectrum of GeO2-SiO2 Raman fibre amplifiers,” IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 136, 301–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yao, T.

T. Yao and J. Nilsson, “Fibre Raman laser directly pumped by multimode laser diode at 975  nm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and International Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/IQEC), Munich, Germany, May12–16, 2013, paper CJ-9.2.

Yu, H.

D. Mahgerefteh, H. Yu, D. L. Butler, J. Goldhar, D. Wang, E. Golovchenko, A. N. Phlipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and L. Joneckis, “Effect of randomly varying birefringence on the Raman gain in optical fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1997), Vol. 11, p. 447.

Zlobina, E. A.

S. I. Kablukov, E. I. Dontsova, E. A. Zlobina, I. N. Nemov, A. A. Vlasov, and S. A. Babin, “An LD-pumped Raman fiber laser operating below 1  μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 085103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys.

N. Bloembergen, “The stimulated Raman effect,” Am. J. Phys. 35, 989–1023 (1967).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron.

S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, W. J. M. Rothwell, and B. Wakefield, “Optical gain spectrum of GeO2-SiO2 Raman fibre amplifiers,” IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron. 136, 301–306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. Namiki and Y. Emori, “Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Polley and S. E. Ralph, “Raman amplification in multimode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 218–220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Phys. Lett.

S. I. Kablukov, E. I. Dontsova, E. A. Zlobina, I. N. Nemov, A. A. Vlasov, and S. A. Babin, “An LD-pumped Raman fiber laser operating below 1  μm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 085103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

C. A. Codemard, J. Ji, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “100  W CW cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser at 1120  nm,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801N (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, J. N. Jang, R. Selvas, D. C. Hanna, and A. B. Grudinin, “Cladding-pumped Raman fiber amplifier,” in Proceedings of Topical Meeting on Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vancouver, Canada, July14–17, 2002, paper PDP2-1/2/3.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

D. Mahgerefteh, H. Yu, D. L. Butler, J. Goldhar, D. Wang, E. Golovchenko, A. N. Phlipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and L. Joneckis, “Effect of randomly varying birefringence on the Raman gain in optical fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1997), Vol. 11, p. 447.

T. Yao and J. Nilsson, “Fibre Raman laser directly pumped by multimode laser diode at 975  nm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and International Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/IQEC), Munich, Germany, May12–16, 2013, paper CJ-9.2.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental FRL in ring configuration. PBS, polarizing beam splitter; HNLF, highly nonlinear fiber; SMF, standard single-mode fiber; BPF, bandpass filter, 32% transmission at 835 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectrum of multiorder waveplate when placed before the fiber launching end (resolution 2 nm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Laser output spectrum at highest output power for 100 ns pulse duration with 944 m long HNLF (resolution 2 nm). (b) Output signal peak power versus launched pump peak power for 50 ns pulse duration, 944 m fiber length (black solid line), and 600 m fiber length (red-dashed line). The correction factors B from Eq. (1) are also stated for the individual data points (see text).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Bursts of pump input and laser output pulses close to the lasing threshold. (a) 50 pump pulses of 50 ns duration, (b) 20 pump pulses of 100 ns duration, (c) 50 laser output pulses of 50 ns duration, and (d) 20 laser output pulses of 100 ns duration.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Output laser peak power versus launched pump peak power for (a) 944 m and (b) 600 m fiber length, 50 ns pulse duration (black solid line), and 100 ns pulse durations (red-dashed line).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calculated signal output power from a cw copumped Raman laser in a ring cavity with 944 m (black solid curves) and 600 m (black-dashed curves) long HNLF for copolarized as well as unpolarized waves, together with experimental results for 100 ns pulsewidth.

Equations (1)

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B=N×Pmaxi=1NPi.

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