Abstract

The mode characteristics are demonstrated for InAlGaAs/InP circular nanolasers bonded on silicon wafer, which consist of a core height of 800 nm coated by silica/aluminum on the bottom and sidewalls. The lasing mode spectra agree well with the simulated mode spectra obtained by the 3D FDTD technique for 750 and 450 nm radius nanolasers. For the 250 nm radius nanoresonator, resonant modes with Q factors 400–790 are numerically predicted with a mode wavelength interval up to 200 nm. The mode selection related to the cavity size and location of the active region is critical for nanocavity lasers to operate over a wide temperature range. In addition, the size limit is estimated for high-Q dielectric mode in the nanoresonators. Finally, electric-injection circular nanolasers are discussed with the TE0,1,1 mode.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

L. X. Zou, X. M. Lv, Y. Z. Huang, H. Long, J. L. Xiao, Q. F. Yao, J. D. Lin, and Y. Du, “Mode analysis for unidirectional emission AlGaInAs/InP octagonal resonator microlasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1501808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Fang, R. Ding, S. Y. Lu, Y. D. Yang, Q. D. Chen, J. Feng, Y. Z. Huang, and H. B. Sun, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing from patterned molecular single-crystalline microcavity array,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 281–288 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Stock, F. Albert, C. Hopfmann, M. Lermer, C. Schneider, S. Hofling, A. Forchel, M. Kamp, and S. Reitzenstein, “On-chip quantum optics with quantum dot microcavities,” Adv. Mater. 25, 707–710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, A. Fu, S. C. Andrews, and P. Yang, “Cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 865–869 (2013).

Q. F. Yao, Y. Z. Huang, L. X. Zou, X. M. Lv, J. D. Lin, and Y. D. Yang, “Analysis of mode coupling and threshold gain control for nanocircular resonators confined by isolation and metallic layers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 786–792 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Yao, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, L. X. Zou, X. M. Lv, H. Long, J. L. Xiao, and C. C. Guo, “Mode analysis for metal-coated nanocavity by three-dimensional S-matrix method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 1335–1341 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding, M. T. Hill, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, P. J. v. Veldhoven, and C. Z. Ning, “Record performance of electrical injection subwavelength metallic-cavity semiconductor lasers at room temperature,” Opt. Express 21, 4728–4733 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Lv, Y. Z. Huang, L. X. Zou, H. Long, and Y. Du, “Optimization of direct modulation rate for circular microlasers by adjusting mode Q factor,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 818–829 (2013).

2012

K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Noetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 041301 (2012).

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. H. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. G. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337, 450–453 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Lu, T. T. D. Tran, W. S. Ko, K. W. Ng, R. Chen, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon-based MOSFETs,” Opt. Express 20, 12171–12176 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. M. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20, 17873–17879 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, Q. F. Yao, X. M. Lv, J. L. Xiao, and Y. Du, “Coherence of a single mode InAlGaAs/InP cylinderical microlaser with two output ports,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1977–1979 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Song, L. Ge, B. Redding, and H. Cao, “Channeling chaotic rays into waveguides for efficient collection of microcavity emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 243902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Smit, J. van der Tol, and M. Hill, “Moore’s law in photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 1–13 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. D. Lin, Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, Q. F. Yao, X. M. Lv, J. L. Xiao, and Y. Du, “Single transverse whispering-gallery mode AlGaInAs/InP hexagonal resonator microlasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 756–764 (2011).

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics 5, 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ding, A. Mizrahi, Y. Fainman, and V. Lomakin, “Dielectric shielded nanoscale patch laser resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1812–1814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lu and S. L. Chuang, “A surface-emitting 3D metal-nanocavity laser: proposal and theory,” Opt. Express 19, 13225–13244 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Kim, A. M. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Efficient waveguide-coupling of metal-clad nanolaser cavities,” Opt. Express 19, 23504–23512 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 8790–8799 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. A. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10, 3679–3683 (2010).

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and M. Notomi, “High-speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic-crystal laser with 13  fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4, 648–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor nanolasers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247, 774–788 (2010).

2009

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Notzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Notzel, and M. Smit, “Adhesive bonding of InP/InGaAsP dies to processed silicon-on-insulator wafers using DVS-bis-benzocyclobutene,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153, G1015–G1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. H. Guo, W. J. Li, and Y. Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Pade approximation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 11, 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Albert, F.

E. Stock, F. Albert, C. Hopfmann, M. Lermer, C. Schneider, S. Hofling, A. Forchel, M. Kamp, and S. Reitzenstein, “On-chip quantum optics with quantum dot microcavities,” Adv. Mater. 25, 707–710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. C.

H. Gao, A. Fu, S. C. Andrews, and P. Yang, “Cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 865–869 (2013).

Baets, R.

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15, 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Notzel, and M. Smit, “Adhesive bonding of InP/InGaAsP dies to processed silicon-on-insulator wafers using DVS-bis-benzocyclobutene,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153, G1015–G1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bockler, C.

Bondarenko, O.

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. A. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

Brouckaert, J.

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Notzel, and M. Smit, “Adhesive bonding of InP/InGaAsP dies to processed silicon-on-insulator wafers using DVS-bis-benzocyclobutene,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153, G1015–G1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

Q. H. Song, L. Ge, B. Redding, and H. Cao, “Channeling chaotic rays into waveguides for efficient collection of microcavity emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 243902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. H.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. H. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. G. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337, 450–453 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C.

Chen, H. Y.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. H. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. G. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337, 450–453 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. J.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. H. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. G. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337, 450–453 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q. D.

H. H. Fang, R. Ding, S. Y. Lu, Y. D. Yang, Q. D. Chen, J. Feng, Y. Z. Huang, and H. B. Sun, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing from patterned molecular single-crystalline microcavity array,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 281–288 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

Chow, W. W.

Chuang, S. L.

Claudon, J.

Dabidian, N.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. H. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. G. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337, 450–453 (2012).
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M. Smit, J. van der Tol, and M. Hill, “Moore’s law in photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 1–13 (2012).
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M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Notzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 11107–11112 (2009).
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Q. H. Song, L. Ge, B. Redding, and H. Cao, “Channeling chaotic rays into waveguides for efficient collection of microcavity emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 243902 (2012).
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R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113 (2011).
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K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Noetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 041301 (2012).

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Notzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 11107–11112 (2009).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of a metallic-confined nanolaser, (b) side view SEM image of a nanoresonator with a core radius of 450 nm, and (c) top view SEM image of a nanolaser with a core radius of 450 nm after etching InP substrate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Emission spectra at 173 K and the pumping powers of 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mW; the inset is the lasing mode power versus the pumping power. (b) Lasing spectra at 93, 113, 133, 173, and 213 K and the pumping power of 1.2 mW, for the nanolaser with the core radius of 750 nm under continuous-wave optical pumping. The spectra for 173, 133, 113, and 93 K have been offset from zero on the y axis by 0.15, 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the lasing spectrum at 213 K with simulated intensity spectrum for the nanolaser with the core radius of 750 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Field distributions of (a)–(e) Hz and (f) Ez in the nanoresonator with the radius of 750 nm at (upper) y=0 and (lower) z=0 or other z values as stated, for (a) TE7,1,1, (b) TE1,4,1, (c) TE0,3,2 at z=250nm, (d) TE3,2,3 at z=375nm, (e) TE4,2,2 at z=150nm, and (f) TM7,1,1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Lasing spectra at 83, 123, and 163 K and the pump power of 1.2 mW, the inset is the lasing mode output versus the pumping power; and (b) lasing spectra at the pump powers of 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mW and 123 K for the nanolaser with the core radius of 450 nm. The lasing peaks are fitted by two resonant modes at the pumping power of 0.3 and 0.6 mW.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Resonant mode spectra of the nanoresonators with the radius R=430, 450, and 470 nm, and (b) photoluminescence spectra of the laser wafer at 113, 213, and 293 K and the resonant spectra calculated from Hz and Ez for the nanoresonator with the radius of 450 nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Field distributions Hz of the nanoresonator with the radius of 450 nm at (upper) y=0 plane and (lower) z=250nm plane or stated again, for (a) TE0,2,2, (b) TE2,2,2, (c) TE0,2,1 at z=0, (d) TE1,2,2, and (e) TE4,1,1 at z=0, respectively.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Simulated mode intensity spectra are plotted as the dashed and solid lines for nanoresonators with the core radius of 250 nm and the tilted angles of 0° and 8°.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Field distributions Hz of the nanoresonator with the radius of 250 nm and tilted angle of 8° at (upper) y=0 plane and (lower) z=0 plane or stated again, for (a) TE0,1,3, (b) TE1,2,1, (c) TE0,1,2 at z=250nm, respectively.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Field distributions Hz of the nanoresonator with the radius of 250 nm and tilted angle of 0° at (upper) y=0 plane and (lower) z=0 plane or stated again, for (a) TE1,2,1, (b) TE0,1,3, (c) TE0,1,2 at z=250nm, respectively.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) Mode Q factors and (b) wavelengths versus the radius for TE0,1,3, TE0,1,2, and TE0,1,1 in the nanoresonators. The dashed and dotted lines are the size limit estimated by perfect confinement for dielectric mode in the nanoresonators with circular and square cross sections.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Field distributions of TE0,1,1 mode in the nanoresonator with the core radius of 200 nm at (upper) y=0 plane and (lower) z=0 plane for (a) magnetic field Hz, and (b) electric field intensity |E|2, respectively.

Equations (2)

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π2a32+2.4052R2=4n2π2λ2.
1a12+1a22+1a32=4n2λ2.

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