Abstract

We report on the formation of embedded self-organized, polarization-dependent nanogratings in germanium dioxide glass induced by an 800 nm, 1 kHz femtosecond laser. Optical birefringence was observed to vary with the femtosecond laser polarization in both cases by translating the sample along and perpendicular to the laser propagation direction. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the irradiated area suffered a network distortion. Scanning electron microscopy images of the written lines reveal the formation of periodic planar nanocrack arrays that are aligned perpendicularly to the laser polarization direction after chemical etching. The influences of laser pulse energy and scanning speed on the period of the nanogratings are investigated. The embedded nanogratings in GeO2 glass may find potential applications in optical recording, waveguide fabrication, and other micro-optical devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” Acs Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2888–2890 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. Q. Zhang, H. Lin, B. Jia, L. Xu, and M. Gu, “Nanogratings and nanoholes fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing in chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Express 18, 6885–6890 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 1–6 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Mechanism of nanograting formation on the surface of fused silica,” Opt. Express 20, 4389–4396 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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  17. Y. Han, X. Zhao, and S. Qu, “Polarization dependent ripples induced by femtosecond laser on dense flint (ZF6) glass,” Opt. Express 19, 19150–19155 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. S. Sakaguchi and S. I. Todoroki, “Optical properties of GeO2 glass and optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6809–6814 (1997).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. F. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Cheng, Y. Dai, and J. Qiu, “Fabrication of polarization-dependent light attenuator in fused silica using a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2212–2214 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. J. Durben and G. H. Wolf, “Raman spectroscopic study of the pressure-induced coordination change in GeO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 2355 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  24. Y. Lin, M. Shimizu, X. Wang, B. Zhu, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Confocal Raman imaging of femtosecond laser induced microstructures in germanate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 477, 122–125 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. K. Sharma, D. W. Matson, J. A. Philpotts, and T. L. Roush, “Raman study of the structure of glasses along the join SiO2-GeO2,” J. Non-cryst. Solids 68, 99–114 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  26. F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Pulse fluence dependent nanograting inscription on the surface of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251105 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19, 20657–20664 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

2011 (4)

Y. Han, X. Zhao, and S. Qu, “Polarization dependent ripples induced by femtosecond laser on dense flint (ZF6) glass,” Opt. Express 19, 19150–19155 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19, 20657–20664 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, T. Ozaki, and H. Kuroda, “Long- and short-period nanostructure formation on semiconductor surfaces at different ambient conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1077–1082 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, H. Lin, B. Jia, L. Xu, and M. Gu, “Nanogratings and nanoholes fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing in chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Express 18, 6885–6890 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” Acs Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, M. Shimizu, X. Wang, B. Zhu, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Confocal Raman imaging of femtosecond laser induced microstructures in germanate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 477, 122–125 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefringence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1052–1062 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

D. J. Durben and G. H. Wolf, “Raman spectroscopic study of the pressure-induced coordination change in GeO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 2355 (1991).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

S. K. Sharma, D. W. Matson, J. A. Philpotts, and T. L. Roush, “Raman study of the structure of glasses along the join SiO2-GeO2,” J. Non-cryst. Solids 68, 99–114 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

T. Miyashita and T. Manabe, “Infrared optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1432–1450 (1982).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, “The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3, and P2O5,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34–36 (1978).
[Crossref]

Akturk, S.

Baba, M.

Beresna, M.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Buividas, R.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” Acs Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Mechanism of nanograting formation on the surface of fused silica,” Opt. Express 20, 4389–4396 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Pulse fluence dependent nanograting inscription on the surface of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2888–2890 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y.

Datsyuk, V.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dreisow, F.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Durben, D. J.

D. J. Durben and G. H. Wolf, “Raman spectroscopic study of the pressure-induced coordination change in GeO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 2355 (1991).
[Crossref]

Galeener, F. L.

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, “The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3, and P2O5,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34–36 (1978).
[Crossref]

Ganeev, R. A.

Gecevicius, M.

Geils, R. H.

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, “The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3, and P2O5,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34–36 (1978).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

Han, Y.

He, X.

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heinrich, M.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19, 20657–20664 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, M. Shimizu, X. Wang, B. Zhu, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Confocal Raman imaging of femtosecond laser induced microstructures in germanate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 477, 122–125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2888–2890 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” Acs Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jia, B.

Jia, T.

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Juodkazis, S.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kazansky, P. G.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19, 20657–20664 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefringence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1052–1062 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

Keil, R.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Korovin, A. V.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krolikowski, W.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kudrius, T.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuroda, H.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, T. Ozaki, and H. Kuroda, “Long- and short-period nanostructure formation on semiconductor surfaces at different ambient conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1077–1082 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liang, F.

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Mechanism of nanograting formation on the surface of fused silica,” Opt. Express 20, 4389–4396 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Pulse fluence dependent nanograting inscription on the surface of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

Lin, X.

Lin, Y.

Y. Lin, M. Shimizu, X. Wang, B. Zhu, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Confocal Raman imaging of femtosecond laser induced microstructures in germanate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 477, 122–125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, G.

Manabe, T.

T. Miyashita and T. Manabe, “Infrared optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1432–1450 (1982).
[Crossref]

Matson, D. W.

S. K. Sharma, D. W. Matson, J. A. Philpotts, and T. L. Roush, “Raman study of the structure of glasses along the join SiO2-GeO2,” J. Non-cryst. Solids 68, 99–114 (1984).
[Crossref]

Mikkelsen, J. C.

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, “The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3, and P2O5,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34–36 (1978).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19, 20657–20664 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, M. Shimizu, X. Wang, B. Zhu, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Confocal Raman imaging of femtosecond laser induced microstructures in germanate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 477, 122–125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miyashita, T.

T. Miyashita and T. Manabe, “Infrared optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1432–1450 (1982).
[Crossref]

Mosby, W. J.

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, “The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3, and P2O5,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34–36 (1978).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ozaki, T.

Peschel, U.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Philpotts, J. A.

S. K. Sharma, D. W. Matson, J. A. Philpotts, and T. L. Roush, “Raman study of the structure of glasses along the join SiO2-GeO2,” J. Non-cryst. Solids 68, 99–114 (1984).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

F. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Cheng, Y. Dai, and J. Qiu, “Fabrication of polarization-dependent light attenuator in fused silica using a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2212–2214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Dai, G. Wu, X. Lin, G. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser induced rotated 3D self-organized nanograting in fused silica,” Opt. Express 20, 18072–18078 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19, 20657–20664 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J. R.

Y. Lin, M. Shimizu, X. Wang, B. Zhu, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Confocal Raman imaging of femtosecond laser induced microstructures in germanate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 477, 122–125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qu, S.

Rajeev, P. P.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2888–2890 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ramirez, L. P. R.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rayner, D. M.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2888–2890 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Richter, S.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rode, A.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rosa, L.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Roush, T. L.

S. K. Sharma, D. W. Matson, J. A. Philpotts, and T. L. Roush, “Raman study of the structure of glasses along the join SiO2-GeO2,” J. Non-cryst. Solids 68, 99–114 (1984).
[Crossref]

Sakaguchi, S.

Sakakura, M.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19, 20657–20664 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, M. Shimizu, X. Wang, B. Zhu, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Confocal Raman imaging of femtosecond laser induced microstructures in germanate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 477, 122–125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sharma, S. K.

S. K. Sharma, D. W. Matson, J. A. Philpotts, and T. L. Roush, “Raman study of the structure of glasses along the join SiO2-GeO2,” J. Non-cryst. Solids 68, 99–114 (1984).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, M.

Y. Lin, M. Shimizu, X. Wang, B. Zhu, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Confocal Raman imaging of femtosecond laser induced microstructures in germanate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 477, 122–125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shimotsuma, Y.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19, 20657–20664 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, M. Shimizu, X. Wang, B. Zhu, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Confocal Raman imaging of femtosecond laser induced microstructures in germanate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 477, 122–125 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefringence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1052–1062 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shvedov, V.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2888–2890 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Šlekys, G.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Šliupas, R.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Svirko, Y.

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taylor, R. S.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2888–2890 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Todoroki, S. I.

Tünnermann, A.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vallée, R.

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Pulse fluence dependent nanograting inscription on the surface of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251105 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Mechanism of nanograting formation on the surface of fused silica,” Opt. Express 20, 4389–4396 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Y. Lin, M. Shimizu, X. Wang, B. Zhu, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Confocal Raman imaging of femtosecond laser induced microstructures in germanate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 477, 122–125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wolf, G. H.

D. J. Durben and G. H. Wolf, “Raman spectroscopic study of the pressure-induced coordination change in GeO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 2355 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wu, G.

Xu, L.

Xu, N.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” Acs Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” Acs Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, J.

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, F.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” Acs Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

Zhu, B.

Y. Lin, M. Shimizu, X. Wang, B. Zhu, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Confocal Raman imaging of femtosecond laser induced microstructures in germanate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 477, 122–125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Acs Nano (1)

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” Acs Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 1–6 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, “The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3, and P2O5,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34–36 (1978).
[Crossref]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Pulse fluence dependent nanograting inscription on the surface of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Lin, M. Shimizu, X. Wang, B. Zhu, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Confocal Raman imaging of femtosecond laser induced microstructures in germanate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 477, 122–125 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Miyashita and T. Manabe, “Infrared optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1432–1450 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. (1)

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefringence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1052–1062 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Non-cryst. Solids (1)

S. K. Sharma, D. W. Matson, J. A. Philpotts, and T. L. Roush, “Raman study of the structure of glasses along the join SiO2-GeO2,” J. Non-cryst. Solids 68, 99–114 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi) transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125436 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Jia, H. Chen, M. Huang, F. Zhao, J. Qiu, R. Li, Z. Xu, X. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. J. Durben and G. H. Wolf, “Raman spectroscopic study of the pressure-induced coordination change in GeO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 2355 (1991).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123901 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorbance spectrum of a 4-mm-thick as-prepared GeO2 glass sample.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical microscope images of the vertical lines fabricated by translating the sample along the laser propagation direction with different laser polarizations (indicated by θ) and laser pulse energy fixed at 0.25 μJ (a) in bright field and (b) between crossed polarizers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical microscope images of the horizontal lines fabricated by translating the sample perpendicular to the laser propagation direction with laser pulse energy fixed at 0.25 μJ (a) in bright field and (b) between cross polarizers.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Evolution of the induced birefringence with increasing (a) scanning speed and (b) laser pulse energy indicated by optical pictures obtained between cross polarizers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Raman spectra of the sample in the unirradiated region and regions irradiated with different laser pulse energy.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM images of two type of lines: (a) vertical lines drawn with pulse energy fixed at 2 μJ and (b) horizontal lines written with pulse energy fixed at 0.25 μJ.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

SEM images show the evolution of the nanogratings with increasing scanning speed at the pulse energy of 0.25 μJ.

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