Abstract

We demonstrate in-line extraction of an ultrastable frequency signal over an optical link of 92 km of installed telecommunication fibers, following the proposition of Grosche in 2010 [German patent application DE 10.2008.062.139]. We show that the residual frequency noise at the extraction end is noticeably below that at the main link output when the extraction is near the input end, as expected from a simple model of the noise compensation. We obtain relative frequency instabilities, expressed as overlapping Allan deviation, of 8×1016 at 1 s averaging time and a few 1019 at one day. These results are state-of-the-art for a link using urban telecommunication fibers. We also propose an improved scheme, which delivers an ultrastable signal of higher power, in order to feed a secondary link. In-line extraction opens the way to a broad distribution of an ultrastable frequency reference, enabling a wide range of applications beyond metrology.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (5)

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, D. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15, 073003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Schediwy, D. Gozzard, K. G. H. Baldwin, B. J. Orr, R. Bruce Warrington, G. Aben, and A. N. Luiten, “High-precision optical-frequency dissemination on branching optical-fiber networks,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2893–2896 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, B. Wang, X. Zhu, C. Gao, J. Miao, and L. J. Wang, “Fiber-based multiple-access optical frequency dissemination,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3333–3335 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (5)

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20, 23518–23526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Gao, B. Wang, W. L. Chen, Y. Bai, J. Miao, X. Zhu, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Fiber-based multiple-access ultrastable frequency dissemination,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4690–4692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, G. Grosche, H. Schnatz, and E. M. Rasel, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10-16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Bouchendira, P. Cladé, S. Guellati-Khélifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, “New determination of the fine structure constant and test of the quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

N. R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, “Coherent transfer of an optical carrier over 251  km,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3056–3058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918–925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. Rubiola, “On the measurement of frequency and of its sample variance with high-resolution counters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 054703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Schwob, L. Jozefowski, B. de Beauvoir, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, and A. Clairon, “Optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: Rydberg constant and Lamb shift determinations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4960–4963 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. D. Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Hilico, L. Julien, F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, J.-J. Zondy, D. Touahri, O. Acef, and A. Clairon, “Transmission of an optical frequency through a 3  km long optical fiber,” Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 227–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Krakenes and K. Blotekjaer, “Comparison of fiber-optic Sagnac and Mach–Zehnder interferometers with respect to thermal processes in the fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 682–686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Aben, G.

Abgrall, M.

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, D. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15, 073003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Acef, O.

C. Schwob, L. Jozefowski, B. de Beauvoir, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, and A. Clairon, “Optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: Rydberg constant and Lamb shift determinations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4960–4963 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Hilico, L. Julien, F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, J.-J. Zondy, D. Touahri, O. Acef, and A. Clairon, “Transmission of an optical frequency through a 3  km long optical fiber,” Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 227–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alnis, J.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Altschul, B.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Amy-Klein, A.

Argence, B.

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, D. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15, 073003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, F.

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, D. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15, 073003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Baldwin, K. G. H.

Beauvoir, B. D.

B. D. Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Hilico, L. Julien, F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, J.-J. Zondy, D. Touahri, O. Acef, and A. Clairon, “Transmission of an optical frequency through a 3  km long optical fiber,” Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 227–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, A.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

R. Bouchendira, P. Cladé, S. Guellati-Khélifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, “New determination of the fine structure constant and test of the quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Schwob, L. Jozefowski, B. de Beauvoir, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, and A. Clairon, “Optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: Rydberg constant and Lamb shift determinations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4960–4963 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Hilico, L. Julien, F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, J.-J. Zondy, D. Touahri, O. Acef, and A. Clairon, “Transmission of an optical frequency through a 3  km long optical fiber,” Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 227–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bize, S.

J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blotekjaer, K.

K. Krakenes and K. Blotekjaer, “Comparison of fiber-optic Sagnac and Mach–Zehnder interferometers with respect to thermal processes in the fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 682–686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bouchendira, R.

R. Bouchendira, P. Cladé, S. Guellati-Khélifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, “New determination of the fine structure constant and test of the quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bruce Warrington, R.

Cagnac, B.

B. D. Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Hilico, L. Julien, F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, J.-J. Zondy, D. Touahri, O. Acef, and A. Clairon, “Transmission of an optical frequency through a 3  km long optical fiber,” Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 227–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chanteau, B.

Chardonnet, C.

Chen, W. L.

Chupin, B.

J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cladé, P.

R. Bouchendira, P. Cladé, S. Guellati-Khélifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, “New determination of the fine structure constant and test of the quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Schwob, L. Jozefowski, B. de Beauvoir, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, and A. Clairon, “Optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: Rydberg constant and Lamb shift determinations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4960–4963 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Hilico, L. Julien, F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, J.-J. Zondy, D. Touahri, O. Acef, and A. Clairon, “Transmission of an optical frequency through a 3  km long optical fiber,” Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 227–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crane, S.

Darquié, D.

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, D. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15, 073003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dawkins, S. T.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918–925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Beauvoir, B.

C. Schwob, L. Jozefowski, B. de Beauvoir, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, and A. Clairon, “Optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: Rydberg constant and Lamb shift determinations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4960–4963 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Droste, S.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ertmer, W.

J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, G. Grosche, H. Schnatz, and E. M. Rasel, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Friebe, J.

J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, G. Grosche, H. Schnatz, and E. M. Rasel, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujieda, M.

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10-16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
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Grosche, G.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, G. Grosche, H. Schnatz, and E. M. Rasel, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146  km fiber link with 10-19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2270 (2009).
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R. Bouchendira, P. Cladé, S. Guellati-Khélifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, “New determination of the fine structure constant and test of the quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
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Hachisu, H.

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10-16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Hansch, T. W.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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C. Schwob, L. Jozefowski, B. de Beauvoir, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, and A. Clairon, “Optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: Rydberg constant and Lamb shift determinations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4960–4963 (1999).
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B. D. Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Hilico, L. Julien, F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, J.-J. Zondy, D. Touahri, O. Acef, and A. Clairon, “Transmission of an optical frequency through a 3  km long optical fiber,” Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 227–229 (1998).
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Holzwarth, R.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146  km fiber link with 10-19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2270 (2009).
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Ido, T.

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10-16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
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Jozefowski, L.

C. Schwob, L. Jozefowski, B. de Beauvoir, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, and A. Clairon, “Optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: Rydberg constant and Lamb shift determinations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4960–4963 (1999).
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C. Schwob, L. Jozefowski, B. de Beauvoir, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, and A. Clairon, “Optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: Rydberg constant and Lamb shift determinations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4960–4963 (1999).
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B. D. Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Hilico, L. Julien, F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, J.-J. Zondy, D. Touahri, O. Acef, and A. Clairon, “Transmission of an optical frequency through a 3  km long optical fiber,” Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 227–229 (1998).
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Katori, H.

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10-16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Kelkar, H.

J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, G. Grosche, H. Schnatz, and E. M. Rasel, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
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A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
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A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10-16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
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A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
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B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, D. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15, 073003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
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Lemonde, P.

Li, R.

J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
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Li, Y.

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10-16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lipphardt, B.

Lopez, O.

Lours, M.

J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 2029–2035 (2008).
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S. W. Schediwy, D. Gozzard, K. G. H. Baldwin, B. J. Orr, R. Bruce Warrington, G. Aben, and A. N. Luiten, “High-precision optical-frequency dissemination on branching optical-fiber networks,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2893–2896 (2013).
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Ma, L. S.

Matveev, A.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
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S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918–925 (2007).
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Nagano, S.

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10-16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Newbury, N. R.

Nez, F.

R. Bouchendira, P. Cladé, S. Guellati-Khélifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, “New determination of the fine structure constant and test of the quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Schwob, L. Jozefowski, B. de Beauvoir, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, and A. Clairon, “Optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: Rydberg constant and Lamb shift determinations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4960–4963 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Hilico, L. Julien, F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, J.-J. Zondy, D. Touahri, O. Acef, and A. Clairon, “Transmission of an optical frequency through a 3  km long optical fiber,” Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 227–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nicolodi, D.

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, D. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15, 073003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Orr, B. J.

Ozimek, F.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pape, A.

J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, G. Grosche, H. Schnatz, and E. M. Rasel, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Parthey, C. G.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Predehl, K.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146  km fiber link with 10-19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, G. Grosche, H. Schnatz, and E. M. Rasel, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raupach, S. M. F.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Riedmann, M.

J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, G. Grosche, H. Schnatz, and E. M. Rasel, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
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Rosenbusch, P.

J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
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A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, D. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15, 073003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
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O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20, 23518–23526 (2012).
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W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, B. Chanteau, V. Roncin, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Cascaded multiplexed optical link on a telecommunication network for frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 18, 16849–16857 (2010).
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H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schediwy, S. W.

Schnatz, H.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, G. Grosche, H. Schnatz, and E. M. Rasel, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146  km fiber link with 10-19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwob, C.

C. Schwob, L. Jozefowski, B. de Beauvoir, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, and A. Clairon, “Optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: Rydberg constant and Lamb shift determinations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4960–4963 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sterr, U.

J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, G. Grosche, H. Schnatz, and E. M. Rasel, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146  km fiber link with 10-19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

Takamoto, M.

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10-16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takano, T.

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10-16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Terra, O.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, G. Grosche, H. Schnatz, and E. M. Rasel, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146  km fiber link with 10-19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tobar, M. E.

J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Touahri, D.

B. D. Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Hilico, L. Julien, F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, J.-J. Zondy, D. Touahri, O. Acef, and A. Clairon, “Transmission of an optical frequency through a 3  km long optical fiber,” Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 227–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.-i.

Vogt, F.

Wang, B.

Wang, L. J.

Weyers, S.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, G. Grosche, H. Schnatz, and E. M. Rasel, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilken, T.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Williams, P. A.

Wübbena, T.

J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, G. Grosche, H. Schnatz, and E. M. Rasel, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, A.

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10-16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Zhang, W.

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, D. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15, 073003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

Zondy, J. J.

C. Schwob, L. Jozefowski, B. de Beauvoir, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, and A. Clairon, “Optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: Rydberg constant and Lamb shift determinations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4960–4963 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zondy, J.-J.

B. D. Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Hilico, L. Julien, F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, J.-J. Zondy, D. Touahri, O. Acef, and A. Clairon, “Transmission of an optical frequency through a 3  km long optical fiber,” Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 227–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10-16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

B. D. Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Hilico, L. Julien, F. Biraben, B. Cagnac, J.-J. Zondy, D. Touahri, O. Acef, and A. Clairon, “Transmission of an optical frequency through a 3  km long optical fiber,” Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 227–229 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (3)

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918–925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Guena, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, P. Laurent, B. Chupin, M. Lours, G. Santarelli, P. Rosenbusch, M. E. Tobar, R. Li, K. Gibble, A. Clairon, and S. Bize, “Progress in atomic fountains at LNE-SYRTE,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 391–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. Krakenes and K. Blotekjaer, “Comparison of fiber-optic Sagnac and Mach–Zehnder interferometers with respect to thermal processes in the fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 682–686 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

New J. Phys. (2)

J. Friebe, M. Riedmann, T. Wübbena, A. Pape, H. Kelkar, W. Ertmer, O. Terra, U. Sterr, S. Weyers, G. Grosche, H. Schnatz, and E. M. Rasel, “Remote frequency measurement of the 1S0-3P1 transition in laser-cooled 24Mg,” New J. Phys. 13, 125010 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, W. Zhang, D. Nicolodi, B. Argence, F. Auguste, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, D. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Mid-infrared laser phase-locking to a remote near-infrared frequency reference for high-precision molecular spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15, 073003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

C. Schwob, L. Jozefowski, B. de Beauvoir, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, F. Biraben, O. Acef, J. J. Zondy, and A. Clairon, “Optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: Rydberg constant and Lamb shift determinations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4960–4963 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Bouchendira, P. Cladé, S. Guellati-Khélifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, “New determination of the fine structure constant and test of the quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hansch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S frequency via a 920 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. Rubiola, “On the measurement of frequency and of its sample variance with high-resolution counters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 054703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. Grosche, “Method for making available a reference frequency,” German patent applicationDE 10.2008.062.139 (June 24, 2010).

G. Grosche, “Eavesdropping time and frequency: phase noise cancellation along a time-varying path, such as an optical fiber,” Phys. Opt.1–4, arXiv:1309.0728 (2013).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Extraction setup: AOM, acousto-optic modulator; OC, optical coupler; PD, photodiode; PLL, phase-lock loop.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scheme of the urban fiber link composed of two sections of 6 and 86 km; the left and right sections of fibers (inside the dotted boxes) are exchanged when the extraction is performed near the input end.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fractional frequency stability when the extraction is done (a) after 86 km and (b) after 6 km of the 92 km main link: end-to-end free-running main link (red triangles), free-running extraction end (with the main link compensated) (black squares), end-to-end compensated main link (blue diamonds), extraction end (magenta stars and dark-green circles). All the stabilities are calculated from Π-type samples using overlapping Allan deviation, except the second extraction end stability (dark-green circles), which is calculated from Λ-data using modified Allan deviation, to show the detection floor limitation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Frequency comparison between input and extracted frequency for 5.5 days. Each point corresponds to the mean frequency over 100 data measured with a dead-time free Π-type counter with 1 s gate time.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Improved extraction setup with secondary link. AOM, acousto-optic modulator; OC, optical coupler; PD, photodiode; PLL, phase-lock loop. For clarity, only the phase perturbations (and not the total phase) are indicated.

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F=(LAL)2(32LAL).
ϕf+(t)=0Lδφz(t(τzv))dz,
ϕf(t)=0Lδφz(tzv)dz.
ϕf,RT(t)=ϕf(t)+ϕf+(tτ)=0Lδφz(tzv)dz+0Lδφz(t(2τzv))dz.
ϕf,RT(t)+ϕc(t)+ϕc(t2τ)=0.
ϕc(t)+ϕc(t2τ)=2ϕc(tτ)ϕf,RT(t)=20L(δφz(t)τδφz(t))dz,
ϕc(tτ)=0L(δφz(t)τδφz(t))dz.
ϕo(t)=ϕf+(t)+ϕc(tτ).
ϕo(t)=0L(zvδφz(t))dz.
Ro(u)=ϕo(t)ϕo(tu)¯=0L0L(zvzvδφz(t)δφz(tu)¯)dzdz
Ro(u)=0L(zv)2δφz(t)δφz(tu)¯ΔLdz=δφ(t)δφ(tu)¯ΔLL33v2.
So(f)=F(Ro(u))=τ23F(δφ(t)δφ(tu)¯ΔLL),
ϕfA+(t)=0LAδφz(t(τAzv))dz,
ϕfB+(t)=LALδφz(t(τzv))dzϕfB(t)=LALδφz(t+τAzv)dz.
ϕe(t)=ϕfA+(t)+ϕc(tτA)+12ϕPD(t).
ϕPD(t)=ϕc(tτBτ)+ϕfA+(t2τB)+ϕfB+(tτB)+ϕfB(t)ϕc(tτA)ϕfA+(t),
ϕe(t)=ϕc(tτ)+LAL(δφz(t)τBδφz(t))dz+0LA(δφz(t)(τzv)δφz(t))dz.
ϕe(t)=τALALδφz(t)dz+0LAzvδφz(t)dz.
Re(u)=ϕe(t)ϕe(tu)¯=τA2LALδφz(t)δφz(tu)¯ΔLdz+0LA(zv)2δφz(t)δφz(tu)¯ΔLdz,
Re(u)=δφ(t)δφ(tu)¯ΔL(τA2(LLA)+LA33v2),
Se(f)=(LAL)2(12LA3L)F(δφ(t)δφ(tu)¯ΔLL)=FSo(f),
F=(LAL)2(32LAL).

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