Abstract

We report on the observation of self-amplified parametric downconversion in a selectively oxidized AlGaAs cavity that was designed to perform as a guided-wave optical parametric oscillator in the near infrared. To date, two technological factors preclude such oscillation and are thoroughly investigated here: oxidation-induced optical propagation losses and the reflectivity of the waveguide resonator facets. The spectral study of the former has singled out two distinct mechanisms: scattering at the oxide interfaces and absorption by point defects in the oxide neighboring layers. Regarding the latter, dielectric mirrors have been designed and deposited on the ridge waveguide facets, with modal reflectivities of 10% at pump wavelength and 90% at signal/idler wavelengths. With respect to the case of a mirrorless waveguide, the monolithic cavity enabled a factor-2 enhancement of the conversion efficiency, indicating the close proximity of the oscillation threshold.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013

J. M. Dallesasse and D. G. Deppe, “III–V oxidation: discoveries and applications in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 101, 2234–2242 (2013).

2011

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. Stewart Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, “Recent advances in phase matching of second-order nonlinearities in monolithic semiconductor waveguides,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. V. de Walle, “Native defects in Al2O3 and their impact on III–V/Al2O3 metal-oxide-semiconductor-based devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 033715 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Chouchane, G. Almuneau, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, A. Monmayrant, A. Arnoult, G. Lacoste, and C. Fontaine, “Observation of overstrain in the coalescence zone of AlAs/AlOx oxidation fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Orieux, X. Caillet, A. Lemaître, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, and S. Ducci, “Efficient parametric generation of counterpropagating two-photon states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 45–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Savanier, A. Andronico, A. Lemaître, C. Manquest, I. Favero, S. Ducci, and G. Leo, “Nearly-degenerate three-wave mixing at 1.55 μm in oxidized AlGaAs waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 22582–22587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, “TEM characterization of oxidized AlGaAs/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

E. Guillotel, M. Ravaro, F. Ghiglieno, C. Langlois, C. Ricolleau, S. Ducci, I. Favero, and G. Leo, “Parametric amplification in GaAs/AlOx waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Andronico, X. Caillet, I. Favero, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Semiconductor microcavities for enhanced nonlinear optics interactions,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08030 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ravaro, E. Guillotel, M. L. Dû, C. Manquest, X. Marcadet, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Nonlinear measurement of mid-infrared absorption in AlOx waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmid, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, and K. Yap, “Interference effect in scattering loss of high-index-contrast planar waveguides caused by boundary reflections,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1479–1481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

W. C. Hurlbut, Y.-S. Lee, K. L. Vodopyanov, P. S. Kuo, and M. M. Fejer, “Multiphoton absorption and nonlinear refraction of GaAs in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 32, 668–670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ravaro, M. Le Dû, J.-P. Likforman, S. Ducci, V. Berger, G. Leo, and X. Marcadet, “Estimation of parametric gain in GaAs/AlOx waveguides by fluorescence and second harmonic generation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. Scaccabarozzi, M. Fejer, Y. Huo, S. Fan, X. Yu, and J. Harris, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs/AlxOy tightly confining waveguides and resonant cavities,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3626–3628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Chen, R. S. Hsiao, W. K. Hung, J. S. Wang, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Yu, and Y. K. Su, “Evolution of conduction and interface states of laterally wet-oxidized AlGaAs with oxidation time,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

O. Durand, F. Wyckzisk, J. Olivier, M. Magis, P. Galtier, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, V. Berger, G. Leo, and G. Assanto, “Contraction of aluminum oxide thin layers in optical heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2554–2556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Venugopal Rao, K. Moutzouris, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, G. Gintz, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, “Influence of scattering and two-photon absorption on the optical loss in GaAs-Al2O3 nonlinear waveguides measured using femtosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 478–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Schreiber, D. Hofmann, W. Grundkoetter, Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Nonlinear integrated optical frequency converters with periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4277, 144–160 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. De Rossi, V. Berger, M. Calligaro, G. Leo, V. Ortiz, and X. Marcadet, “Parametric fluorescence in oxidized aluminum gallium arsenide waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3758–3760 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Lee and W.-I. Lee, “Ga0.5In0.5P barrier layer for wet oxidation of AlAs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2583–2584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, “Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942–2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, “Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material,” Nature 391, 463–466 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Choquette, K. Geib, C. Ashby, R. Twesten, O. Blum, H. Hou, D. Follstaedt, B. Hammons, D. Mathes, and R. Hull, “Advances in selective wet oxidation of AlGaAs alloys,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 916–926 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, E. Hu, J.-P. Zhang, Y.-L. Chang, P. Parikh, and U. Mishra, “Photoluminescence study of hydrogenated aluminum oxide-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1293–1295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Berger, “Second-harmonic generation in monolithic cavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1351–1360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. A. Kash, B. Pezeshki, F. Agahi, and N. A. Bojarczuk, “Recombination in GaAs at the AlAs oxide-GaAs interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2022–2024 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

F. Payne and J. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987

G. Bava, I. Montrosset, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Numerical modeling of Ti:LiNbO3 integrated optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 42–51 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1974

M. A. Afromowitz, “Refractive index of Ga1-xAlxAs,” Solid State Commun. 15, 59–63 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and R. G. Smith, “Improvement of optical parametric oscillators by nonresonant pump reflection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 797–799 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

D. Marcuse, “Mode conversion caused by surface imperfections of a dielectric slab waveguide,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187–3215 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965

J. Giordmaine and R. Miller, “Tunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973–976 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Abolghasem, P.

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. Stewart Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, “Recent advances in phase matching of second-order nonlinearities in monolithic semiconductor waveguides,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Afromowitz, M. A.

M. A. Afromowitz, “Refractive index of Ga1-xAlxAs,” Solid State Commun. 15, 59–63 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Agahi, F.

J. A. Kash, B. Pezeshki, F. Agahi, and N. A. Bojarczuk, “Recombination in GaAs at the AlAs oxide-GaAs interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2022–2024 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Almuneau, G.

F. Chouchane, G. Almuneau, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, A. Monmayrant, A. Arnoult, G. Lacoste, and C. Fontaine, “Observation of overstrain in the coalescence zone of AlAs/AlOx oxidation fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andronico, A.

M. Savanier, A. Andronico, A. Lemaître, C. Manquest, I. Favero, S. Ducci, and G. Leo, “Nearly-degenerate three-wave mixing at 1.55 μm in oxidized AlGaAs waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 22582–22587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Andronico, X. Caillet, I. Favero, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Semiconductor microcavities for enhanced nonlinear optics interactions,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08030 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arnoult, A.

F. Chouchane, G. Almuneau, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, A. Monmayrant, A. Arnoult, G. Lacoste, and C. Fontaine, “Observation of overstrain in the coalescence zone of AlAs/AlOx oxidation fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ashby, C.

K. Choquette, K. Geib, C. Ashby, R. Twesten, O. Blum, H. Hou, D. Follstaedt, B. Hammons, D. Mathes, and R. Hull, “Advances in selective wet oxidation of AlGaAs alloys,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 916–926 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ashby, C. I. H.

A. G. Baca and C. I. H. Ashby, Fabrication of GaAs Devices (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2005).

Ashkin, A.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and R. G. Smith, “Improvement of optical parametric oscillators by nonresonant pump reflection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 797–799 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

O. Durand, F. Wyckzisk, J. Olivier, M. Magis, P. Galtier, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, V. Berger, G. Leo, and G. Assanto, “Contraction of aluminum oxide thin layers in optical heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2554–2556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baca, A. G.

A. G. Baca and C. I. H. Ashby, Fabrication of GaAs Devices (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2005).

Bava, G.

G. Bava, I. Montrosset, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Numerical modeling of Ti:LiNbO3 integrated optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 42–51 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

A. Andronico, X. Caillet, I. Favero, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Semiconductor microcavities for enhanced nonlinear optics interactions,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08030 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ravaro, E. Guillotel, M. L. Dû, C. Manquest, X. Marcadet, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Nonlinear measurement of mid-infrared absorption in AlOx waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ravaro, M. Le Dû, J.-P. Likforman, S. Ducci, V. Berger, G. Leo, and X. Marcadet, “Estimation of parametric gain in GaAs/AlOx waveguides by fluorescence and second harmonic generation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Venugopal Rao, K. Moutzouris, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, G. Gintz, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, “Influence of scattering and two-photon absorption on the optical loss in GaAs-Al2O3 nonlinear waveguides measured using femtosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 478–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Durand, F. Wyckzisk, J. Olivier, M. Magis, P. Galtier, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, V. Berger, G. Leo, and G. Assanto, “Contraction of aluminum oxide thin layers in optical heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2554–2556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. De Rossi, V. Berger, M. Calligaro, G. Leo, V. Ortiz, and X. Marcadet, “Parametric fluorescence in oxidized aluminum gallium arsenide waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3758–3760 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, “Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material,” Nature 391, 463–466 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, “Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942–2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Berger, “Second-harmonic generation in monolithic cavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1351–1360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biermann, K.

S. Buckley, M. Radulaski, K. Biermann, and J. Vučković, “Second harmonic generation in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs,” arXiv:1308.6051 (2013).

Bijlani, B. J.

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. Stewart Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, “Recent advances in phase matching of second-order nonlinearities in monolithic semiconductor waveguides,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and R. G. Smith, “Improvement of optical parametric oscillators by nonresonant pump reflection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 797–799 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Blum, O.

K. Choquette, K. Geib, C. Ashby, R. Twesten, O. Blum, H. Hou, D. Follstaedt, B. Hammons, D. Mathes, and R. Hull, “Advances in selective wet oxidation of AlGaAs alloys,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 916–926 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bojarczuk, N. A.

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A. Orieux, X. Caillet, A. Lemaître, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, and S. Ducci, “Efficient parametric generation of counterpropagating two-photon states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 45–51 (2011).
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Delobel, L.

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M. Ravaro, E. Guillotel, M. L. Dû, C. Manquest, X. Marcadet, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Nonlinear measurement of mid-infrared absorption in AlOx waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151111 (2008).
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S. Venugopal Rao, K. Moutzouris, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, G. Gintz, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, “Influence of scattering and two-photon absorption on the optical loss in GaAs-Al2O3 nonlinear waveguides measured using femtosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 478–486 (2003).
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Favero, I.

M. Savanier, A. Andronico, A. Lemaître, C. Manquest, I. Favero, S. Ducci, and G. Leo, “Nearly-degenerate three-wave mixing at 1.55 μm in oxidized AlGaAs waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 22582–22587 (2011).
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E. Guillotel, M. Ravaro, F. Ghiglieno, C. Langlois, C. Ricolleau, S. Ducci, I. Favero, and G. Leo, “Parametric amplification in GaAs/AlOx waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171110 (2009).
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A. Andronico, X. Caillet, I. Favero, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Semiconductor microcavities for enhanced nonlinear optics interactions,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08030 (2008).
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Fejer, M. M.

Filloux, P.

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A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, “Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material,” Nature 391, 463–466 (1998).
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K. Choquette, K. Geib, C. Ashby, R. Twesten, O. Blum, H. Hou, D. Follstaedt, B. Hammons, D. Mathes, and R. Hull, “Advances in selective wet oxidation of AlGaAs alloys,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 916–926 (1997).
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F. Chouchane, G. Almuneau, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, A. Monmayrant, A. Arnoult, G. Lacoste, and C. Fontaine, “Observation of overstrain in the coalescence zone of AlAs/AlOx oxidation fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261921 (2011).
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K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
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O. Durand, F. Wyckzisk, J. Olivier, M. Magis, P. Galtier, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, V. Berger, G. Leo, and G. Assanto, “Contraction of aluminum oxide thin layers in optical heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2554–2556 (2003).
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F. Chouchane, G. Almuneau, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, A. Monmayrant, A. Arnoult, G. Lacoste, and C. Fontaine, “Observation of overstrain in the coalescence zone of AlAs/AlOx oxidation fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261921 (2011).
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K. Choquette, K. Geib, C. Ashby, R. Twesten, O. Blum, H. Hou, D. Follstaedt, B. Hammons, D. Mathes, and R. Hull, “Advances in selective wet oxidation of AlGaAs alloys,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 916–926 (1997).
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E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, “TEM characterization of oxidized AlGaAs/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
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E. Guillotel, M. Ravaro, F. Ghiglieno, C. Langlois, C. Ricolleau, S. Ducci, I. Favero, and G. Leo, “Parametric amplification in GaAs/AlOx waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171110 (2009).
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S. Venugopal Rao, K. Moutzouris, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, G. Gintz, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, “Influence of scattering and two-photon absorption on the optical loss in GaAs-Al2O3 nonlinear waveguides measured using femtosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 478–486 (2003).
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G. Schreiber, D. Hofmann, W. Grundkoetter, Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Nonlinear integrated optical frequency converters with periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4277, 144–160 (2001).
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E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, “TEM characterization of oxidized AlGaAs/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
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E. Guillotel, M. Ravaro, F. Ghiglieno, C. Langlois, C. Ricolleau, S. Ducci, I. Favero, and G. Leo, “Parametric amplification in GaAs/AlOx waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171110 (2009).
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M. Ravaro, E. Guillotel, M. L. Dû, C. Manquest, X. Marcadet, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Nonlinear measurement of mid-infrared absorption in AlOx waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151111 (2008).
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K. Choquette, K. Geib, C. Ashby, R. Twesten, O. Blum, H. Hou, D. Follstaedt, B. Hammons, D. Mathes, and R. Hull, “Advances in selective wet oxidation of AlGaAs alloys,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 916–926 (1997).
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G. Schreiber, D. Hofmann, W. Grundkoetter, Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Nonlinear integrated optical frequency converters with periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4277, 144–160 (2001).
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A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. Stewart Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, “Recent advances in phase matching of second-order nonlinearities in monolithic semiconductor waveguides,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272–286 (2011).
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K. Choquette, K. Geib, C. Ashby, R. Twesten, O. Blum, H. Hou, D. Follstaedt, B. Hammons, D. Mathes, and R. Hull, “Advances in selective wet oxidation of AlGaAs alloys,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 916–926 (1997).
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J. F. Chen, R. S. Hsiao, W. K. Hung, J. S. Wang, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Yu, and Y. K. Su, “Evolution of conduction and interface states of laterally wet-oxidized AlGaAs with oxidation time,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023711 (2006).
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S. Shi, E. Hu, J.-P. Zhang, Y.-L. Chang, P. Parikh, and U. Mishra, “Photoluminescence study of hydrogenated aluminum oxide-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1293–1295 (1997).
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K. Choquette, K. Geib, C. Ashby, R. Twesten, O. Blum, H. Hou, D. Follstaedt, B. Hammons, D. Mathes, and R. Hull, “Advances in selective wet oxidation of AlGaAs alloys,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 916–926 (1997).
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J. F. Chen, R. S. Hsiao, W. K. Hung, J. S. Wang, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Yu, and Y. K. Su, “Evolution of conduction and interface states of laterally wet-oxidized AlGaAs with oxidation time,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023711 (2006).
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A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. Stewart Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, “Recent advances in phase matching of second-order nonlinearities in monolithic semiconductor waveguides,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272–286 (2011).
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J. A. Kash, B. Pezeshki, F. Agahi, and N. A. Bojarczuk, “Recombination in GaAs at the AlAs oxide-GaAs interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2022–2024 (1995).
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K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
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Lanco, L.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
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E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, “TEM characterization of oxidized AlGaAs/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
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E. Guillotel, M. Ravaro, F. Ghiglieno, C. Langlois, C. Ricolleau, S. Ducci, I. Favero, and G. Leo, “Parametric amplification in GaAs/AlOx waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171110 (2009).
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Laval, S.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
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Le Dû, M.

M. Ravaro, M. Le Dû, J.-P. Likforman, S. Ducci, V. Berger, G. Leo, and X. Marcadet, “Estimation of parametric gain in GaAs/AlOx waveguides by fluorescence and second harmonic generation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191110 (2007).
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K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
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G. Schreiber, D. Hofmann, W. Grundkoetter, Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Nonlinear integrated optical frequency converters with periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4277, 144–160 (2001).
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Lemaître, A.

Leo, G.

A. Orieux, X. Caillet, A. Lemaître, P. Filloux, I. Favero, G. Leo, and S. Ducci, “Efficient parametric generation of counterpropagating two-photon states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 45–51 (2011).
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M. Savanier, A. Andronico, A. Lemaître, C. Manquest, I. Favero, S. Ducci, and G. Leo, “Nearly-degenerate three-wave mixing at 1.55 μm in oxidized AlGaAs waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 22582–22587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, “TEM characterization of oxidized AlGaAs/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Guillotel, M. Ravaro, F. Ghiglieno, C. Langlois, C. Ricolleau, S. Ducci, I. Favero, and G. Leo, “Parametric amplification in GaAs/AlOx waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Andronico, X. Caillet, I. Favero, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Semiconductor microcavities for enhanced nonlinear optics interactions,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08030 (2008).
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M. Ravaro, E. Guillotel, M. L. Dû, C. Manquest, X. Marcadet, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Nonlinear measurement of mid-infrared absorption in AlOx waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151111 (2008).
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M. Ravaro, M. Le Dû, J.-P. Likforman, S. Ducci, V. Berger, G. Leo, and X. Marcadet, “Estimation of parametric gain in GaAs/AlOx waveguides by fluorescence and second harmonic generation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Durand, F. Wyckzisk, J. Olivier, M. Magis, P. Galtier, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, V. Berger, G. Leo, and G. Assanto, “Contraction of aluminum oxide thin layers in optical heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2554–2556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. De Rossi, V. Berger, M. Calligaro, G. Leo, V. Ortiz, and X. Marcadet, “Parametric fluorescence in oxidized aluminum gallium arsenide waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3758–3760 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Likforman, J.-P.

M. Ravaro, M. Le Dû, J.-P. Likforman, S. Ducci, V. Berger, G. Leo, and X. Marcadet, “Estimation of parametric gain in GaAs/AlOx waveguides by fluorescence and second harmonic generation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H.-C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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H. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (CRC Press, 2010).

Magis, M.

O. Durand, F. Wyckzisk, J. Olivier, M. Magis, P. Galtier, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, V. Berger, G. Leo, and G. Assanto, “Contraction of aluminum oxide thin layers in optical heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2554–2556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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M. Savanier, A. Andronico, A. Lemaître, C. Manquest, I. Favero, S. Ducci, and G. Leo, “Nearly-degenerate three-wave mixing at 1.55 μm in oxidized AlGaAs waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 22582–22587 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ravaro, E. Guillotel, M. L. Dû, C. Manquest, X. Marcadet, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Nonlinear measurement of mid-infrared absorption in AlOx waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marcadet, X.

M. Ravaro, E. Guillotel, M. L. Dû, C. Manquest, X. Marcadet, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Nonlinear measurement of mid-infrared absorption in AlOx waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ravaro, M. Le Dû, J.-P. Likforman, S. Ducci, V. Berger, G. Leo, and X. Marcadet, “Estimation of parametric gain in GaAs/AlOx waveguides by fluorescence and second harmonic generation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. De Rossi, V. Berger, M. Calligaro, G. Leo, V. Ortiz, and X. Marcadet, “Parametric fluorescence in oxidized aluminum gallium arsenide waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3758–3760 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Mode conversion caused by surface imperfections of a dielectric slab waveguide,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187–3215 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mathes, D.

K. Choquette, K. Geib, C. Ashby, R. Twesten, O. Blum, H. Hou, D. Follstaedt, B. Hammons, D. Mathes, and R. Hull, “Advances in selective wet oxidation of AlGaAs alloys,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 916–926 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R.

J. Giordmaine and R. Miller, “Tunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973–976 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U.

S. Shi, E. Hu, J.-P. Zhang, Y.-L. Chang, P. Parikh, and U. Mishra, “Photoluminescence study of hydrogenated aluminum oxide-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1293–1295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Monmayrant, A.

F. Chouchane, G. Almuneau, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, A. Monmayrant, A. Arnoult, G. Lacoste, and C. Fontaine, “Observation of overstrain in the coalescence zone of AlAs/AlOx oxidation fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261921 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Montrosset, I.

G. Bava, I. Montrosset, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Numerical modeling of Ti:LiNbO3 integrated optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 42–51 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Moutzouris, K.

S. Venugopal Rao, K. Moutzouris, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, G. Gintz, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, “Influence of scattering and two-photon absorption on the optical loss in GaAs-Al2O3 nonlinear waveguides measured using femtosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 478–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagle, J.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, “Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material,” Nature 391, 463–466 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, “Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942–2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, J.

O. Durand, F. Wyckzisk, J. Olivier, M. Magis, P. Galtier, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, V. Berger, G. Leo, and G. Assanto, “Contraction of aluminum oxide thin layers in optical heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2554–2556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Orieux, A.

Ortiz, V.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Durand, F. Wyckzisk, J. Olivier, M. Magis, P. Galtier, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, V. Berger, G. Leo, and G. Assanto, “Contraction of aluminum oxide thin layers in optical heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2554–2556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Venugopal Rao, K. Moutzouris, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, G. Gintz, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, “Influence of scattering and two-photon absorption on the optical loss in GaAs-Al2O3 nonlinear waveguides measured using femtosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 478–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. De Rossi, V. Berger, M. Calligaro, G. Leo, V. Ortiz, and X. Marcadet, “Parametric fluorescence in oxidized aluminum gallium arsenide waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3758–3760 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Parikh, P.

S. Shi, E. Hu, J.-P. Zhang, Y.-L. Chang, P. Parikh, and U. Mishra, “Photoluminescence study of hydrogenated aluminum oxide-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1293–1295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pascal, D.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Payne, F.

F. Payne and J. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pezeshki, B.

J. A. Kash, B. Pezeshki, F. Agahi, and N. A. Bojarczuk, “Recombination in GaAs at the AlAs oxide-GaAs interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2022–2024 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Quiring, V.

G. Schreiber, D. Hofmann, W. Grundkoetter, Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Nonlinear integrated optical frequency converters with periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4277, 144–160 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Radulaski, M.

S. Buckley, M. Radulaski, K. Biermann, and J. Vučković, “Second harmonic generation in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs,” arXiv:1308.6051 (2013).

Ravaro, M.

E. Guillotel, M. Ravaro, F. Ghiglieno, C. Langlois, C. Ricolleau, S. Ducci, I. Favero, and G. Leo, “Parametric amplification in GaAs/AlOx waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ravaro, E. Guillotel, M. L. Dû, C. Manquest, X. Marcadet, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Nonlinear measurement of mid-infrared absorption in AlOx waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ravaro, M. Le Dû, J.-P. Likforman, S. Ducci, V. Berger, G. Leo, and X. Marcadet, “Estimation of parametric gain in GaAs/AlOx waveguides by fluorescence and second harmonic generation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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G. Schreiber, D. Hofmann, W. Grundkoetter, Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Nonlinear integrated optical frequency converters with periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4277, 144–160 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ricolleau, C.

E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, “TEM characterization of oxidized AlGaAs/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Guillotel, M. Ravaro, F. Ghiglieno, C. Langlois, C. Ricolleau, S. Ducci, I. Favero, and G. Leo, “Parametric amplification in GaAs/AlOx waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, “Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942–2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, “Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material,” Nature 391, 463–466 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Scaccabarozzi, L.

Schmid, J.

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G. Schreiber, D. Hofmann, W. Grundkoetter, Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Nonlinear integrated optical frequency converters with periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4277, 144–160 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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S. Shi, E. Hu, J.-P. Zhang, Y.-L. Chang, P. Parikh, and U. Mishra, “Photoluminescence study of hydrogenated aluminum oxide-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1293–1295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and R. G. Smith, “Improvement of optical parametric oscillators by nonresonant pump reflection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 797–799 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

G. Schreiber, D. Hofmann, W. Grundkoetter, Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Nonlinear integrated optical frequency converters with periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4277, 144–160 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Bava, I. Montrosset, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Numerical modeling of Ti:LiNbO3 integrated optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 42–51 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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P. S. Kuo and G. S. Solomon, “Second-harmonic generation using 4-bar quasi-phasematching in a GaAs microdisk cavity,” arXiv:1210.1984 (2012).

Stewart Aitchison, J.

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. Stewart Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, “Recent advances in phase matching of second-order nonlinearities in monolithic semiconductor waveguides,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. F. Chen, R. S. Hsiao, W. K. Hung, J. S. Wang, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Yu, and Y. K. Su, “Evolution of conduction and interface states of laterally wet-oxidized AlGaAs with oxidation time,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suche, H.

G. Schreiber, D. Hofmann, W. Grundkoetter, Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Nonlinear integrated optical frequency converters with periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4277, 144–160 (2001).
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G. Bava, I. Montrosset, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Numerical modeling of Ti:LiNbO3 integrated optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 42–51 (1987).
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R. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Dekker, 2003).

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K. Choquette, K. Geib, C. Ashby, R. Twesten, O. Blum, H. Hou, D. Follstaedt, B. Hammons, D. Mathes, and R. Hull, “Advances in selective wet oxidation of AlGaAs alloys,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 916–926 (1997).
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van der Meer, P.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, “Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942–2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Venugopal Rao, S.

S. Venugopal Rao, K. Moutzouris, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, G. Gintz, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, “Influence of scattering and two-photon absorption on the optical loss in GaAs-Al2O3 nonlinear waveguides measured using femtosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 478–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
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Vodopyanov, K. L.

Vuckovic, J.

S. Buckley, M. Radulaski, K. Biermann, and J. Vučković, “Second harmonic generation in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs,” arXiv:1308.6051 (2013).

Wagner, S. J.

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. Stewart Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, “Recent advances in phase matching of second-order nonlinearities in monolithic semiconductor waveguides,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272–286 (2011).
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Waldron, P.

Wang, J. S.

J. F. Chen, R. S. Hsiao, W. K. Hung, J. S. Wang, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Yu, and Y. K. Su, “Evolution of conduction and interface states of laterally wet-oxidized AlGaAs with oxidation time,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weber, J. R.

J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. V. de Walle, “Native defects in Al2O3 and their impact on III–V/Al2O3 metal-oxide-semiconductor-based devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 033715 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wyckzisk, F.

O. Durand, F. Wyckzisk, J. Olivier, M. Magis, P. Galtier, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, V. Berger, G. Leo, and G. Assanto, “Contraction of aluminum oxide thin layers in optical heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2554–2556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

Yap, K.

Younis, U.

A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. Stewart Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, “Recent advances in phase matching of second-order nonlinearities in monolithic semiconductor waveguides,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272–286 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. C.

J. F. Chen, R. S. Hsiao, W. K. Hung, J. S. Wang, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Yu, and Y. K. Su, “Evolution of conduction and interface states of laterally wet-oxidized AlGaAs with oxidation time,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

Zhang, J.-P.

S. Shi, E. Hu, J.-P. Zhang, Y.-L. Chang, P. Parikh, and U. Mishra, “Photoluminescence study of hydrogenated aluminum oxide-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1293–1295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Ravaro, M. Le Dû, J.-P. Likforman, S. Ducci, V. Berger, G. Leo, and X. Marcadet, “Estimation of parametric gain in GaAs/AlOx waveguides by fluorescence and second harmonic generation measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. De Rossi, V. Berger, M. Calligaro, G. Leo, V. Ortiz, and X. Marcadet, “Parametric fluorescence in oxidized aluminum gallium arsenide waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3758–3760 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Guillotel, M. Ravaro, F. Ghiglieno, C. Langlois, C. Ricolleau, S. Ducci, I. Favero, and G. Leo, “Parametric amplification in GaAs/AlOx waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Durand, F. Wyckzisk, J. Olivier, M. Magis, P. Galtier, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, V. Berger, G. Leo, and G. Assanto, “Contraction of aluminum oxide thin layers in optical heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2554–2556 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Ravaro, E. Guillotel, M. L. Dû, C. Manquest, X. Marcadet, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Nonlinear measurement of mid-infrared absorption in AlOx waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, “Second-harmonic generation at λ = 1.6 μm in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942–2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Kash, B. Pezeshki, F. Agahi, and N. A. Bojarczuk, “Recombination in GaAs at the AlAs oxide-GaAs interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2022–2024 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, E. Hu, J.-P. Zhang, Y.-L. Chang, P. Parikh, and U. Mishra, “Photoluminescence study of hydrogenated aluminum oxide-semiconductor interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1293–1295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Chouchane, G. Almuneau, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, A. Monmayrant, A. Arnoult, G. Lacoste, and C. Fontaine, “Observation of overstrain in the coalescence zone of AlAs/AlOx oxidation fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261921 (2011).
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Bell Syst. Tech. J.

D. Marcuse, “Mode conversion caused by surface imperfections of a dielectric slab waveguide,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187–3215 (1969).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. Bava, I. Montrosset, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Numerical modeling of Ti:LiNbO3 integrated optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 42–51 (1987).
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S. Venugopal Rao, K. Moutzouris, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, G. Gintz, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, “Influence of scattering and two-photon absorption on the optical loss in GaAs-Al2O3 nonlinear waveguides measured using femtosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 478–486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and R. G. Smith, “Improvement of optical parametric oscillators by nonresonant pump reflection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 797–799 (1970).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

K. Choquette, K. Geib, C. Ashby, R. Twesten, O. Blum, H. Hou, D. Follstaedt, B. Hammons, D. Mathes, and R. Hull, “Advances in selective wet oxidation of AlGaAs alloys,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 916–926 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
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J. Appl. Phys.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Chen, R. S. Hsiao, W. K. Hung, J. S. Wang, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Yu, and Y. K. Su, “Evolution of conduction and interface states of laterally wet-oxidized AlGaAs with oxidation time,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. V. de Walle, “Native defects in Al2O3 and their impact on III–V/Al2O3 metal-oxide-semiconductor-based devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 033715 (2011).
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A. Andronico, X. Caillet, I. Favero, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and G. Leo, “Semiconductor microcavities for enhanced nonlinear optics interactions,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08030 (2008).
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J. Phys. D

E. Guillotel, C. Langlois, F. Ghiglieno, G. Leo, and C. Ricolleau, “TEM characterization of oxidized AlGaAs/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides,” J. Phys. D 43, 385302 (2010).
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A. S. Helmy, P. Abolghasem, J. Stewart Aitchison, B. J. Bijlani, J. Han, B. M. Holmes, D. C. Hutchings, U. Younis, and S. J. Wagner, “Recent advances in phase matching of second-order nonlinearities in monolithic semiconductor waveguides,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 272–286 (2011).
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A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, “Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material,” Nature 391, 463–466 (1998).
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Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Giordmaine and R. Miller, “Tunable coherent parametric oscillation in LiNbO3 at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 973–976 (1965).
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Proc. SPIE

G. Schreiber, D. Hofmann, W. Grundkoetter, Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, V. Quiring, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Nonlinear integrated optical frequency converters with periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4277, 144–160 (2001).
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S. Buckley, M. Radulaski, K. Biermann, and J. Vučković, “Second harmonic generation in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs,” arXiv:1308.6051 (2013).

H. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (CRC Press, 2010).

R. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Dekker, 2003).

M. Ebrahimzadeh and M. H. Dunn, “Optical parametric oscillators,” in OSA Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, J. M. Enoch, E. W. Van Stryland, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, 2001), Vol. IV, pp. 22.1–22.72.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Vertical index profile (thin solid line) and simulated phase-matched interacting modes at λP=1.064μm (solid blue line) and λS=λI=2.128μm (dotted red line). (b) SEM picture of a waveguide cleaved facet after oxidation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SPDC power versus pump power for λP set at degeneracy (red dots). At moderate pump power (PP75mW), PSPDCPP with an efficiency given by the slope of the linear fit (dashed line). The onset of parametric amplification at higher pump power suggests the proximity of the oscillation threshold.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Guided-wave scattering losses at rough interfaces. (a) Parameterization of the problem for a symmetric slab waveguide. (b) Adaptation to our multilayer AlGaAs/AlOx waveguide for the case of a fundamental TE mode.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Propagation losses of the fundamental TM (circles) and TE (dots) modes versus wavelength λ. Below λ1.1μm, data are fitted by a decaying exponential (red solid line). Above λ1.1μm, the experimental data are bounded by the simulation results (blue stripe).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Absorption loss versus photon energy (semi-log representation). The experimental data (circles) are fitted with the exponential law αabsexp[Ephot/0.08] (red solid line), compatibly with an Urbach’s tail absorption regime.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM bird’s views of waveguide facets during the mirror fabrication process. (a) The coating materials form a plane mirror on the facet (red) as well as an overspray film on top of the sample (yellow). (b) The sample surface is shielded from overspray by the protective resist film (blue). (c), (d) Finalized mirror viewed from two different perspectives. The dotted line highlights the edge of the waveguide.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental FTIR spectrum of a cavity mirror measured on a Si substrate (black solid line), measured modal reflectivities at λ=1.06μm for TM00 pump mode and λ=2.12μm for TE00 signal/idler modes (dots), and simulated guided-wave reflectivity spectra (dashed and dotted lines, respectively, for 3D and 2D calculations).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Roughness Statistical Parameters of the AlGaAs/AlOx Waveguide Interfaces

Equations (4)

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αTE=ϕy2(d)(Δεr)2k034πneff×0π[(1+rs(θ))2+ts2(θ)]R˜(βn2k0cos(θ))dθ,
αTEtot=i=16αi.
αabsexp(EphotEU),
PPth=1ηnorm[αP/21exp(αPL/2)ln(RS,IeαS,IL)]2,

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