K. Aoki and T. Mitsui, “Spectral properties of thermal fluctuations on simple liquid surfaces below shot-noise levels,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 011602 (2012).

[CrossRef]

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Handchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Muller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).

[CrossRef]

T. Mitsui and K. Aoki, “Direct optical observations of surface thermal motions at sub-shot noise levels,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 020602(R) (2009).

[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, N. Lastzka, B. Hage, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed light with 10 dB quantum noise reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).

[CrossRef]

S. A. Crooker, D. G. Rickel, A. V. Balatsky, and D. L. Smith, “Spectroscopy of spontaneous spin noise as a probe of spin dynamics and magnetic resonance,” Nature 431, 49–52 (2004).

[CrossRef]

K. McKenzie, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Analysis of a sub-shot-noise power recycled Michelson interferometer,” Classical Quantum Gravity 21, S1037–S1043 (2004).

[CrossRef]

T. Mitsui, “Spontaneous noise spectroscopy of an atomic magnetic resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5292–5295 (2000).

[CrossRef]

A. M. Bacon, H. Z. Zhao, L. J. Wang, and J. E. Thomas, “Optical dipole noise of two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1296–1299 (1995).

[CrossRef]

T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, “New type of high-resolution spectroscopy with a diode laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2453–2456 (1991).

[CrossRef]

B. Dahmani, L. Hollberg, and R. Drullinger, “Frequency stabilization of semiconductor lasers by resonant optical feedback,” Opt. Lett. 12, 876–878 (1987).

[CrossRef]

M. W. Maeda, P. Kumar, and J. H. Shapiro, “Squeezing experiments in sodium vapor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1501–1513 (1987).

[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, “AM and FM quantum noise in semiconductor lasers—Part II: comparison of theoretical and experimental results for AlGaAs lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 47–58 (1983).

[CrossRef]

L. Mandel, “Squeezed states and sub-Poissonian photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 136–138 (1982).

[CrossRef]

D. F. Walls and P. Zoller, “Reduced quantum fluctuations in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 709–711 (1981).

[CrossRef]

E. B. Aleksandrov and V. S. Zapasskii, “Magnetic resonance in the Faraday-rotation noise spectrum,” Zh. Exp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 132–138 (1981).

C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693–1708 (1981).

[CrossRef]

F. Schuda, C. R. Stroud, and M. Hercher, “Observation of the resonant Stark effect at optical frequencies,” J. Phys. B 7, L198–L202 (1974).

[CrossRef]

B. R. Mollow, “Power spectrum of light scattered by two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. 188, 1969–1975 (1969).

[CrossRef]

A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, and P. O. Johnson, “Photoelectric mixing of incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. 99, 1691–1700 (1955).

[CrossRef]

E. B. Aleksandrov and V. S. Zapasskii, “Magnetic resonance in the Faraday-rotation noise spectrum,” Zh. Exp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 132–138 (1981).

T. Mitsui and K. Aoki, “Observation of spontaneous quantum fluctuations in photon absorption by atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 213–218 (2013).

[CrossRef]

T. Mitsui and K. Aoki, “Michelson interferometry with quantum noise reduction,” Phys. Rev. E 87, 042403 (2013).

[CrossRef]

K. Aoki and T. Mitsui, “Spectral properties of thermal fluctuations on simple liquid surfaces below shot-noise levels,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 011602 (2012).

[CrossRef]

T. Mitsui and K. Aoki, “Direct optical observations of surface thermal motions at sub-shot noise levels,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 020602(R) (2009).

[CrossRef]

A. M. Bacon, H. Z. Zhao, L. J. Wang, and J. E. Thomas, “Optical dipole noise of two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1296–1299 (1995).

[CrossRef]

S. A. Crooker, D. G. Rickel, A. V. Balatsky, and D. L. Smith, “Spectroscopy of spontaneous spin noise as a probe of spin dynamics and magnetic resonance,” Nature 431, 49–52 (2004).

[CrossRef]

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Handchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Muller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).

[CrossRef]

K. McKenzie, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Analysis of a sub-shot-noise power recycled Michelson interferometer,” Classical Quantum Gravity 21, S1037–S1043 (2004).

[CrossRef]

C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693–1708 (1981).

[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, N. Lastzka, B. Hage, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed light with 10 dB quantum noise reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).

[CrossRef]

S. A. Crooker, D. G. Rickel, A. V. Balatsky, and D. L. Smith, “Spectroscopy of spontaneous spin noise as a probe of spin dynamics and magnetic resonance,” Nature 431, 49–52 (2004).

[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, N. Lastzka, B. Hage, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed light with 10 dB quantum noise reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).

[CrossRef]

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Handchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Muller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).

[CrossRef]

A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, and P. O. Johnson, “Photoelectric mixing of incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. 99, 1691–1700 (1955).

[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, N. Lastzka, B. Hage, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed light with 10 dB quantum noise reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).

[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, N. Lastzka, B. Hage, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed light with 10 dB quantum noise reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).

[CrossRef]

A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, and P. O. Johnson, “Photoelectric mixing of incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. 99, 1691–1700 (1955).

[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, N. Lastzka, B. Hage, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed light with 10 dB quantum noise reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).

[CrossRef]

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Handchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Muller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).

[CrossRef]

F. Schuda, C. R. Stroud, and M. Hercher, “Observation of the resonant Stark effect at optical frequencies,” J. Phys. B 7, L198–L202 (1974).

[CrossRef]

A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, and P. O. Johnson, “Photoelectric mixing of incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. 99, 1691–1700 (1955).

[CrossRef]

K. McKenzie, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Analysis of a sub-shot-noise power recycled Michelson interferometer,” Classical Quantum Gravity 21, S1037–S1043 (2004).

[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, N. Lastzka, B. Hage, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed light with 10 dB quantum noise reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).

[CrossRef]

L. Mandel, “Squeezed states and sub-Poissonian photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 136–138 (1982).

[CrossRef]

K. McKenzie, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Analysis of a sub-shot-noise power recycled Michelson interferometer,” Classical Quantum Gravity 21, S1037–S1043 (2004).

[CrossRef]

K. McKenzie, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Analysis of a sub-shot-noise power recycled Michelson interferometer,” Classical Quantum Gravity 21, S1037–S1043 (2004).

[CrossRef]

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Handchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Muller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).

[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, N. Lastzka, B. Hage, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed light with 10 dB quantum noise reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).

[CrossRef]

See, for instanceP. Meystre and M. Sargent, Elements of Quantum Optics (Springer-Verlag, 1990).

T. Mitsui and K. Aoki, “Observation of spontaneous quantum fluctuations in photon absorption by atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 213–218 (2013).

[CrossRef]

T. Mitsui and K. Aoki, “Michelson interferometry with quantum noise reduction,” Phys. Rev. E 87, 042403 (2013).

[CrossRef]

K. Aoki and T. Mitsui, “Spectral properties of thermal fluctuations on simple liquid surfaces below shot-noise levels,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 011602 (2012).

[CrossRef]

T. Mitsui and K. Aoki, “Direct optical observations of surface thermal motions at sub-shot noise levels,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 020602(R) (2009).

[CrossRef]

T. Mitsui, “Spontaneous noise spectroscopy of an atomic magnetic resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5292–5295 (2000).

[CrossRef]

T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, “New type of high-resolution spectroscopy with a diode laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2453–2456 (1991).

[CrossRef]

B. R. Mollow, “Power spectrum of light scattered by two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. 188, 1969–1975 (1969).

[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, “AM and FM quantum noise in semiconductor lasers—Part II: comparison of theoretical and experimental results for AlGaAs lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 47–58 (1983).

[CrossRef]

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Handchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Muller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).

[CrossRef]

S. A. Crooker, D. G. Rickel, A. V. Balatsky, and D. L. Smith, “Spectroscopy of spontaneous spin noise as a probe of spin dynamics and magnetic resonance,” Nature 431, 49–52 (2004).

[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, “AM and FM quantum noise in semiconductor lasers—Part II: comparison of theoretical and experimental results for AlGaAs lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 47–58 (1983).

[CrossRef]

See, for instanceP. Meystre and M. Sargent, Elements of Quantum Optics (Springer-Verlag, 1990).

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Handchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Muller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).

[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, N. Lastzka, B. Hage, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed light with 10 dB quantum noise reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).

[CrossRef]

F. Schuda, C. R. Stroud, and M. Hercher, “Observation of the resonant Stark effect at optical frequencies,” J. Phys. B 7, L198–L202 (1974).

[CrossRef]

K. McKenzie, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Analysis of a sub-shot-noise power recycled Michelson interferometer,” Classical Quantum Gravity 21, S1037–S1043 (2004).

[CrossRef]

S. A. Crooker, D. G. Rickel, A. V. Balatsky, and D. L. Smith, “Spectroscopy of spontaneous spin noise as a probe of spin dynamics and magnetic resonance,” Nature 431, 49–52 (2004).

[CrossRef]

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Handchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Muller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).

[CrossRef]

F. Schuda, C. R. Stroud, and M. Hercher, “Observation of the resonant Stark effect at optical frequencies,” J. Phys. B 7, L198–L202 (1974).

[CrossRef]

T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, “New type of high-resolution spectroscopy with a diode laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2453–2456 (1991).

[CrossRef]

A. M. Bacon, H. Z. Zhao, L. J. Wang, and J. E. Thomas, “Optical dipole noise of two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1296–1299 (1995).

[CrossRef]

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Handchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Muller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).

[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, N. Lastzka, B. Hage, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed light with 10 dB quantum noise reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).

[CrossRef]

D. F. Walls and P. Zoller, “Reduced quantum fluctuations in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 709–711 (1981).

[CrossRef]

A. M. Bacon, H. Z. Zhao, L. J. Wang, and J. E. Thomas, “Optical dipole noise of two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1296–1299 (1995).

[CrossRef]

T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, “New type of high-resolution spectroscopy with a diode laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2453–2456 (1991).

[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, “AM and FM quantum noise in semiconductor lasers—Part II: comparison of theoretical and experimental results for AlGaAs lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 47–58 (1983).

[CrossRef]

A. M. Bacon, H. Z. Zhao, L. J. Wang, and J. E. Thomas, “Optical dipole noise of two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1296–1299 (1995).

[CrossRef]

D. F. Walls and P. Zoller, “Reduced quantum fluctuations in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 709–711 (1981).

[CrossRef]

K. McKenzie, B. C. Buchler, D. A. Shaddock, P. K. Lam, and D. E. McClelland, “Analysis of a sub-shot-noise power recycled Michelson interferometer,” Classical Quantum Gravity 21, S1037–S1043 (2004).

[CrossRef]

T. Mitsui and K. Aoki, “Observation of spontaneous quantum fluctuations in photon absorption by atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 213–218 (2013).

[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, “AM and FM quantum noise in semiconductor lasers—Part II: comparison of theoretical and experimental results for AlGaAs lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 47–58 (1983).

[CrossRef]

F. Schuda, C. R. Stroud, and M. Hercher, “Observation of the resonant Stark effect at optical frequencies,” J. Phys. B 7, L198–L202 (1974).

[CrossRef]

S. A. Crooker, D. G. Rickel, A. V. Balatsky, and D. L. Smith, “Spectroscopy of spontaneous spin noise as a probe of spin dynamics and magnetic resonance,” Nature 431, 49–52 (2004).

[CrossRef]

B. R. Mollow, “Power spectrum of light scattered by two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. 188, 1969–1975 (1969).

[CrossRef]

A. T. Forrester, R. A. Gudmundsen, and P. O. Johnson, “Photoelectric mixing of incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. 99, 1691–1700 (1955).

[CrossRef]

C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693–1708 (1981).

[CrossRef]

T. Mitsui and K. Aoki, “Michelson interferometry with quantum noise reduction,” Phys. Rev. E 87, 042403 (2013).

[CrossRef]

T. Mitsui and K. Aoki, “Direct optical observations of surface thermal motions at sub-shot noise levels,” Phys. Rev. E 80, 020602(R) (2009).

[CrossRef]

K. Aoki and T. Mitsui, “Spectral properties of thermal fluctuations on simple liquid surfaces below shot-noise levels,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 011602 (2012).

[CrossRef]

T. Yabuzaki, T. Mitsui, and U. Tanaka, “New type of high-resolution spectroscopy with a diode laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2453–2456 (1991).

[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, N. Lastzka, B. Hage, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Observation of squeezed light with 10 dB quantum noise reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).

[CrossRef]

T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz, V. Handchen, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, H. Muller-Ebhardt, and R. Schnabel, “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area Sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).

[CrossRef]

T. Mitsui, “Spontaneous noise spectroscopy of an atomic magnetic resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5292–5295 (2000).

[CrossRef]

D. F. Walls and P. Zoller, “Reduced quantum fluctuations in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 709–711 (1981).

[CrossRef]

L. Mandel, “Squeezed states and sub-Poissonian photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 136–138 (1982).

[CrossRef]

A. M. Bacon, H. Z. Zhao, L. J. Wang, and J. E. Thomas, “Optical dipole noise of two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1296–1299 (1995).

[CrossRef]

E. B. Aleksandrov and V. S. Zapasskii, “Magnetic resonance in the Faraday-rotation noise spectrum,” Zh. Exp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 132–138 (1981).

See, for instanceP. Meystre and M. Sargent, Elements of Quantum Optics (Springer-Verlag, 1990).

D. A. Steck, “Rubidium 85 D Line Data,” “Rubidium 87 D Line Data,” http://steck.us/alkalidata (2010).