Abstract

The response of a passive mode-locking mechanism, where gain and spectral filtering are saturated with the energy and loss saturated with the power, is examined under the presence of higher order effects. These include third-order dispersion, self-steepening, and Raman gain. The locking mechanism is maintained even with these terms; mode-locking occurs for both the anomalous and normal regimes. In the anomalous regime, these perturbations are found to affect the speed but not the structural integrity of the (locked) pulses. In fact, these pulses behave like solitons of a classical nonlinear Schrödinger equation and, as such, a soliton perturbation theory is used to verify the numerical observations. In the normal regime, the effect of the perturbations is small, in line with recent experimental observations. The results in the normal regime are verified mathematically using a Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin-type asymptotic theory. Finally, bisolitons are found to behave as dark solitons on top of a stable background and are significantly affected by these perturbations.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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