Abstract

We theoretically investigate the isolated attosecond pulse generation in a pre-excited medium by using local nanoplasmonic fields with few-cycle duration. It is shown that the combined effect of the temporal ionization of the pre-excited medium and the spatial inhomogeneity of the local nanoplasmonic field can dramatically control the quantum path, leading to broadband supercontinuous harmonics with high yield. Moreover, this spatiotemporal combination is robust against the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) shift, and the broadband supercontinuum can be supported by nearly all the CEPs of the local field. It would open a route to obtain efficient isolated attosecond emission with no need for the CEP-stabilized laser technique.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  30. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, A. Husakou, Q. Li, S. Stebbings, F. Süβmann, H. Yu, S. Kim, E. Rühl, J. Herrmann, X. Lin, and M. Kling, “High-harmonic and single attosecond pulse generation using plasmonic field enhancement in ordered arrays of gold nanoparticles with chirped laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21, 2195–2205 (2013).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Lewenstein, “Resolving physical processes on the attosecond time scale,” Science 297, 1131–1132 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  36. H. K. Avetissian and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Multiphoton resonant excitation of atoms in strong laser fields and implementation of coherent superposition states,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033403 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Nanostructure-enhanced atomic line emission,” Nature 485, E1–E3 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Extreme-ultraviolet light generation in plasmonic nanostructures,” Nat. Phys. 9, 304–309 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Kim et al. reply,” Nature 485, E1–E3 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  40. I.-Y. Park, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, S. Han, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of EUV radiation by plasmonic field enhancement using nano-structured bowties and funnel-waveguides,” Ann. Phys. 525, 87–96 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  41. J. Luo, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Broadband isolated attosecond pulse with high spatiotemporal quality in pre-excited medium by multi-cycle two-color fields,” Opt. Express 20, 21346–21356 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. F. Ciappina, M. Lewenstein, L. Roso, and A. Zaïr, “Beyond carbon K-edge harmonic emission using a spatial and temporal synthesized laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 053001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Extreme-ultraviolet light generation in plasmonic nanostructures,” Nat. Phys. 9, 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I.-Y. Park, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, S. Han, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of EUV radiation by plasmonic field enhancement using nano-structured bowties and funnel-waveguides,” Ann. Phys. 525, 87–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, A. Husakou, Q. Li, S. Stebbings, F. Süβmann, H. Yu, S. Kim, E. Rühl, J. Herrmann, X. Lin, and M. Kling, “High-harmonic and single attosecond pulse generation using plasmonic field enhancement in ordered arrays of gold nanoparticles with chirped laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21, 2195–2205 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (10)

J. Luo, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, and P. Lu, “Broadband isolated attosecond pulse with high spatiotemporal quality in pre-excited medium by multi-cycle two-color fields,” Opt. Express 20, 21346–21356 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Ciappina, Srdjan S. Aćimović, T. Shaaran, J. Biegert, R. Quidant, and M. Lewenstein, “Enhancement of high harmonic generation by confining electron motion in plasmonic nanostrutures,” Opt. Express 20, 26261–26274 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Nanostructure-enhanced atomic line emission,” Nature 485, E1–E3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Kim et al. reply,” Nature 485, E1–E3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton Rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 14, 013001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Ciappina, J. Biegert, R. Quidant, and M. Lewenstein, “High-order-harmonic generation from inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 033828 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Herink, D. R. Solli, M. Gulde, and C. Ropers, “Field-driven photoemission from nanostructures quenches the quiver motion,” Nature 483, 190–193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 737–748 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 013416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

M. Krüger, M. Schenk, and P. Hommelhoff, “Attosecond control of electrons emitted from a nanoscale metal tip,” Nature 475, 78–81 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. L. Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5, 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Husakou, S.-J. Im, and J. Herrmann, “Theory of plasmon-enhanced high-order harmonic generation in the vicinity of metal nanostructures in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, Q. Zhang, X. Zhu, and P. Lu, “Intense isolated attosecond pulse generation in pre-excited medium,” Opt. Express 19, 4728–4739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

W. Hong, P. Lu, P. Lan, Z. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband XUV supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express 16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453, 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond ionization gating for isolated attosecond electron wave packet and broadband attosecond XUV pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 051801(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. de silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Milošević, “Theoretical analysis of high-order harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 308–317 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Single attosecond pulse generation in the multicycle-driver regime by adding a weak second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 31, 975–977(2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and XUV supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Lewenstein, “Resolving physical processes on the attosecond time scale,” Science 297, 1131–1132 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Avetissian and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Multiphoton resonant excitation of atoms in strong laser fields and implementation of coherent superposition states,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘single-cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Abel, B.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Extreme-ultraviolet light generation in plasmonic nanostructures,” Nat. Phys. 9, 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Nanostructure-enhanced atomic line emission,” Nature 485, E1–E3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Abel, M. J.

Acimovic, Srdjan S.

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. de silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Altun, Z.

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 013416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. de silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Avetissian, H. K.

H. K. Avetissian and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Multiphoton resonant excitation of atoms in strong laser fields and implementation of coherent superposition states,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, Ph.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balthuška, A.

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. de silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

Bleda, E. A.

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 013416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blümel, L.

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, K.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. de silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond ionization gating for isolated attosecond electron wave packet and broadband attosecond XUV pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 051801(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, A.

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘single-cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neumark, D. M.

Niikura, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. de silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, I.-Y.

I.-Y. Park, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, S. Han, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of EUV radiation by plasmonic field enhancement using nano-structured bowties and funnel-waveguides,” Ann. Phys. 525, 87–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Kim et al. reply,” Nature 485, E1–E3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. L. Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5, 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453, 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pépin, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Hernández, J. A.

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. F. Ciappina, M. Lewenstein, L. Roso, and A. Zaïr, “Beyond carbon K-edge harmonic emission using a spatial and temporal synthesized laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 053001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. de silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

Ropers, C.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Extreme-ultraviolet light generation in plasmonic nanostructures,” Nat. Phys. 9, 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Nanostructure-enhanced atomic line emission,” Nature 485, E1–E3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Herink, D. R. Solli, M. Gulde, and C. Ropers, “Field-driven photoemission from nanostructures quenches the quiver motion,” Nature 483, 190–193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. F. Ciappina, M. Lewenstein, L. Roso, and A. Zaïr, “Beyond carbon K-edge harmonic emission using a spatial and temporal synthesized laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 053001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rühl, E.

Sanpera, A.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. de silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schenk, M.

M. Krüger, M. Schenk, and P. Hommelhoff, “Attosecond control of electrons emitted from a nanoscale metal tip,” Nature 475, 78–81 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, A. Husakou, Q. Li, S. Stebbings, F. Süβmann, H. Yu, S. Kim, E. Rühl, J. Herrmann, X. Lin, and M. Kling, “High-harmonic and single attosecond pulse generation using plasmonic field enhancement in ordered arrays of gold nanoparticles with chirped laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21, 2195–2205 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shaaran, T.

Shakya, M. M.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sivis, M.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Extreme-ultraviolet light generation in plasmonic nanostructures,” Nat. Phys. 9, 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Nanostructure-enhanced atomic line emission,” Nature 485, E1–E3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Solli, D. R.

G. Herink, D. R. Solli, M. Gulde, and C. Ropers, “Field-driven photoemission from nanostructures quenches the quiver motion,” Nature 483, 190–193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. de silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stebbings, S.

Steiger, A.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. L. Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5, 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Süßmann, F.

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Topcu, T.

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 013416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uphues, T.

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. de silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, D. M.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. de silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. de silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond ionization gating for isolated attosecond electron wave packet and broadband attosecond XUV pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 051801(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J. B.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Westerwalbesloh, T.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Yang, Z.

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express 16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Lu, P. Lan, Z. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband XUV supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yavuz, I.

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 013416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Zaïr, A.

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. F. Ciappina, M. Lewenstein, L. Roso, and A. Zaïr, “Beyond carbon K-edge harmonic emission using a spatial and temporal synthesized laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 053001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 737–748 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Zhou, Y.

Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton Rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 14, 013001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

Ann. Phys. (1)

I.-Y. Park, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, S. Han, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of EUV radiation by plasmonic field enhancement using nano-structured bowties and funnel-waveguides,” Ann. Phys. 525, 87–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (3)

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. L. Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5, 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 737–748 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Extreme-ultraviolet light generation in plasmonic nanostructures,” Nat. Phys. 9, 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature (8)

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Kim et al. reply,” Nature 485, E1–E3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Nanostructure-enhanced atomic line emission,” Nature 485, E1–E3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453, 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Herink, D. R. Solli, M. Gulde, and C. Ropers, “Field-driven photoemission from nanostructures quenches the quiver motion,” Nature 483, 190–193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Krüger, M. Schenk, and P. Hommelhoff, “Attosecond control of electrons emitted from a nanoscale metal tip,” Nature 475, 78–81 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. Yakovlev, A. Balthuška, B. Hovrath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton Rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 14, 013001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (10)

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, X. Chen, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R1962–R1965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Avetissian and G. F. Mkrtchian, “Multiphoton resonant excitation of atoms in strong laser fields and implementation of coherent superposition states,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and XUV supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Husakou, S.-J. Im, and J. Herrmann, “Theory of plasmon-enhanced high-order harmonic generation in the vicinity of metal nanostructures in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Ciappina, J. Biegert, R. Quidant, and M. Lewenstein, “High-order-harmonic generation from inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 033828 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and G. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 013416 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond ionization gating for isolated attosecond electron wave packet and broadband attosecond XUV pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 051801(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Lu, P. Lan, Z. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. Liao, “Broadband XUV supercontinuum generation via controlling quantum paths by a low-frequency field,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘single-cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M. F. Ciappina, M. Lewenstein, L. Roso, and A. Zaïr, “Beyond carbon K-edge harmonic emission using a spatial and temporal synthesized laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 053001 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

M. Lewenstein, “Resolving physical processes on the attosecond time scale,” Science 297, 1131–1132 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. de silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulse,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Classical ionization (blue crosses) and recombination (gray dots) during the driving electric field and (b) corresponding normalized populations of the excited (orange area) and ground states (gray area) versus time. ε and φ of the driving field are set at 0.005 and 0, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Harmonic spectra with initial population of the excited state of p = 0.5 (magenta curve), p = 0.1 (blue curve), p = 0.01 (green curve), and p = 0 (black dashed line). (b) Time-frequency structure and the superimposed classical recombination paths [gray dots in Fig. 1(a)] for p = 0.5 .

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Harmonic spectrum as a function of CEP in the cases of (a)  p = 0.5 and (b)  p = 0 .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Classical ionization (blue crosses) and recombination (gray dots) during the driving electric field. (b) Corresponding normalized populations of the excited (orange area) and ground states (gray area) versus time. The ε and φ of the driving field are set at 0.005 and π , respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Harmonic spectra with CEPs of 0 (magenta), 0.5 π (blue), π (gray), 1.5 π (green), and 1.7 π (orange) in the cases of (a)  p = 0.5 and (b)  p = 0 .

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Attosecond pulses from 150th to 200th and 200th to 250th in the cases of p = 0.5 and p = 0 . The CEP of the driving field is π .

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Attosecond pulses from 150th to 200th and 200th to 250th as functions of CEP and time in the cases of p = 0.5 and p = 0 .

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Classical ionization (blue crosses) and recombination (gray dots) in the cases of (a)  ε = 0 , (b)  ε = 0.003 , and (c)  ε = 0.007 .

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Harmonic spectra in the cases of (a)  ε = 0 , (b)  ε = 0.003 , and (c)  ε = 0.007 .

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( x , t ) = E 0 ( 1 + ε x ) sin 2 ( π t T ) cos ( ω t + φ ) ,
Ψ ( r , t 0 ) = α | g + β | e ,
d n l ( t ) = Ψ ( r , t ) | x ^ | Ψ ( r , t ) ,
a q = | 1 T 0 T a⃗ ( t ) exp ( i q ω t ) | 2 ,
x ¨ ( t ) = x x E ( x , t ) = E 0 f ( t ) [ 1 + 2 ε x ( t ) ] cos ( ω t + φ ) .

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