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V. Venkataraman, K. Saha, and A. L. Gaeta, “Phase modulation at the few-photon level for weak-nonlinearity-based quantum computing,” Nat. Photonics 7, 138–141 (2012).

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M. Siomau, A. A. Kamli, S. A. Moiseev, and B. C. Sanders, “Entanglement creation with negative index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 050303(R) (2012).

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F. G. Deng, “Efficient multipartite entanglement purification with the entanglement link from a subspace,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 052312 (2011).

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C. Wang, Y. S. Li, and L. Hao, “Optical implementation of quantum random walks using weak cross-Kerr media,” Chinese Sci. Bull. 56, 2088–2091 (2011).

[CrossRef]

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. Jin, “Polarization-entanglement purification and concentration using cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 988–1002 (2011).

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 032307 (2010).

[CrossRef]

P. P. Munhoz, J. A. Roversi, A. Vidiella-Barranco, and F. L. Semiao, “Bipartite quantum channels using multipartite cluster-type entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 042305 (2010).

[CrossRef]

B. He, Y. Ren, and J. A. Bergou, “Universal entangler with photon pairs in arbitrary states,” J. Phys. B 43, 025502 (2010).

[CrossRef]

J. Gea-Banacloche, “Impossibility of large phase shifts via the giant Kerr effect with single-photon wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043823 (2010).

[CrossRef]

Q. Lin and J. Li, “Quantum control gates with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 022301 (2009).

[CrossRef]

Q. Lin and B. He, “Single-photon logic gates using minimal resources,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 042310 (2009).

[CrossRef]

B. He, M. Nadeem, and J. A. Bergou, “Scheme for generating coherent-state superpositions with realistic cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 035802 (2009).

[CrossRef]

B. He, Y. Ren, and J. A. Bergou, “Creation of high-quality long-distance entanglement with flexible resources,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 052323 (2009).

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N. B. An and J. Kim, “Cluster-type entangled coherent states: generation and application,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 042316 (2009).

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M.-Y. Chen, M. W. Y. Tu, and W.-M. Zhang, “Entangling two superconducting LC coherent modes via a superconducting flux qubit,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 214538 (2009).

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Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).

[CrossRef]

X.-H. Bao, Y. Qian, J. Yang, H. Zhang, Z.-B. Chen, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs for atomic quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190501 (2008).

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H. Prakash, N. Chandra, R. Prakash, and Shivani, “Improving the teleportation of entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 044305 (2007).

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Y. Guo and L. M. Kuang, “Near-deterministic generation of four-mode W-type entangled coherent states,” J. Phys. B 40, 3309–3318 (2007).

[CrossRef]

L. M. Kuang, Z. B. Chen, and J. W. Pan, “Generation of entangled coherent states for distant Bose–Einstein condensates via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 052324 (2007).

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H. Jeong and N. B. An, “Greenberger-Horne- Zeilinger-type and W-type entangled coherent states: generation and Bell-type inequality tests without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022104 (2006).

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J. H. Shapiro, “Single-photon Kerr nonlinearities do not help quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 062305 (2006).

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B. Wang and L. M. Duan, “Engineering superpositions of coherent states in coherent optical pulses through cavity-assisted interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 022320 (2005).

[CrossRef]

W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. P. Spiller, “High-efficiency quantum-nondemolition single-photon-number-resolving detector,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033819 (2005).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, “Using weak nonlinearity under decoherence for macroscopic entanglement generation and quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 034305 (2005).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, M. S. Kim, T. C. Ralph, and B. S. Ham, “Generation of macroscopic superposition states with small nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061801(R) (2004).

[CrossRef]

K. Nemoto and W. J. Munro, “Nearly deterministic linear optical Controlled-NOT gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250502 (2004).

[CrossRef]

A. P. Lund, H. Jeong, T. C. Ralph, and M. S. Kim, “Conditional production of superpositions of coherent states with inefficient photon detection,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 020101 (2004).

[CrossRef]

S. Glancy, H. M. Vasconcelos, and T. C. Ralph, “Transmission of optical coherent-state qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 022317 (2004).

[CrossRef]

N. B. An, “Optimal processing of quantum information via W-type entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 022315 (2004).

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N. B. An, “Teleportation of coherent-state superpositions within a network,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 022321 (2003).

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X. G. Wang, M. Feng, and B. C. Sanders, “Multipartite entangled states in coupled quantum dots and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 022302 (2003).

[CrossRef]

E. Solano, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther, “Strong driving- assisted multipartite entanglement in cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027903 (2003).

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L. M. Kuang and L. Zhou, “Generation of atom-photon entangled states in atomic Bose-Einstein condensate via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043606 (2003).

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A. D. Armour, M. P. Blencowe, and K. C. Schwab, “Quantum dynamics of a cooper-pair box coupled to a micromechanical resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 148301 (2002).

[CrossRef]

J. Clausen, L. Knöll, and D.-G. Welsch, “Lossy purification and detection of entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 062303 (2002).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong and M. S. Kim, “Efficient quantum computation using coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 042305 (2002).

[CrossRef]

S. J. van Enk and O. Hirota, “Entangled coherent states: teleportation and decoherence,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 022313 (2001).

[CrossRef]

X. Wang, “Quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 022302 (2001).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, M. S. Kim, and J. Lee, “Quantum information processing for a coherent superposition state via a mixed entangled coherent channel,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 052308 (2001).

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W. J. Munro, G. J. Milburn, and B. C. Sanders, “Entangled coherent-state qubits in an ion trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 052108 (2000).

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[CrossRef]

S. Harris and L. Hau, “Nonlinear optics at low light levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611–4614 (1999).

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[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, and H. J. Kimble, “Measurement of conditional phase shifts for quantum logic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710–4713 (1995).

[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337–4341 (1995).

[CrossRef]

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E. Solano, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther, “Strong driving- assisted multipartite entanglement in cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027903 (2003).

[CrossRef]

Y. Aharonov and L. Susskind, “Charge superselection rule,” Phys. Rev. 155, 1428–1431 (1967).

[CrossRef]

N. B. An and J. Kim, “Cluster-type entangled coherent states: generation and application,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 042316 (2009).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong and N. B. An, “Greenberger-Horne- Zeilinger-type and W-type entangled coherent states: generation and Bell-type inequality tests without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022104 (2006).

[CrossRef]

N. B. An, “Optimal processing of quantum information via W-type entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 022315 (2004).

[CrossRef]

N. B. An, “Teleportation of coherent-state superpositions within a network,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 022321 (2003).

[CrossRef]

A. D. Armour, M. P. Blencowe, and K. C. Schwab, “Quantum dynamics of a cooper-pair box coupled to a micromechanical resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 148301 (2002).

[CrossRef]

D. Braje, V. Balić, G. Yin, and S. Harris, “Low-light-level non-linear optics with slow light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).

[CrossRef]

X.-H. Bao, Y. Qian, J. Yang, H. Zhang, Z.-B. Chen, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs for atomic quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190501 (2008).

[CrossRef]

W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. P. Spiller, “High-efficiency quantum-nondemolition single-photon-number-resolving detector,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033819 (2005).

[CrossRef]

B. He, Y. Ren, and J. A. Bergou, “Universal entangler with photon pairs in arbitrary states,” J. Phys. B 43, 025502 (2010).

[CrossRef]

B. He, M. Nadeem, and J. A. Bergou, “Scheme for generating coherent-state superpositions with realistic cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 035802 (2009).

[CrossRef]

B. He, Y. Ren, and J. A. Bergou, “Creation of high-quality long-distance entanglement with flexible resources,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 052323 (2009).

[CrossRef]

A. D. Armour, M. P. Blencowe, and K. C. Schwab, “Quantum dynamics of a cooper-pair box coupled to a micromechanical resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 148301 (2002).

[CrossRef]

D. Braje, V. Balić, G. Yin, and S. Harris, “Low-light-level non-linear optics with slow light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).

[CrossRef]

H. Prakash, N. Chandra, R. Prakash, and Shivani, “Improving the teleportation of entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 044305 (2007).

[CrossRef]

M.-Y. Chen, M. W. Y. Tu, and W.-M. Zhang, “Entangling two superconducting LC coherent modes via a superconducting flux qubit,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 214538 (2009).

[CrossRef]

L. M. Kuang, Z. B. Chen, and J. W. Pan, “Generation of entangled coherent states for distant Bose–Einstein condensates via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 052324 (2007).

[CrossRef]

X.-H. Bao, Y. Qian, J. Yang, H. Zhang, Z.-B. Chen, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs for atomic quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190501 (2008).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Nielsenand and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University, 2000).

J. Clausen, L. Knöll, and D.-G. Welsch, “Lossy purification and detection of entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 062303 (2002).

[CrossRef]

P. T. Cochrane, G. J. Milburn, and W. J. Munro, “Macroscopically distinct quantum-superposition states as a bosonic code for amplitude damping,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2631–2634 (1999).

[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, “Efficient multipartite entanglement purification with the entanglement link from a subspace,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 052312 (2011).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 032307 (2010).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).

[CrossRef]

B. Wang and L. M. Duan, “Engineering superpositions of coherent states in coherent optical pulses through cavity-assisted interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 022320 (2005).

[CrossRef]

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).

[CrossRef]

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).

[CrossRef]

X. G. Wang, M. Feng, and B. C. Sanders, “Multipartite entangled states in coupled quantum dots and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 022302 (2003).

[CrossRef]

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).

[CrossRef]

V. Venkataraman, K. Saha, and A. L. Gaeta, “Phase modulation at the few-photon level for weak-nonlinearity-based quantum computing,” Nat. Photonics 7, 138–141 (2012).

[CrossRef]

J. Gea-Banacloche, “Impossibility of large phase shifts via the giant Kerr effect with single-photon wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043823 (2010).

[CrossRef]

C. C. Gerry, “Generation of optical macroscopic quantum superposition states via state reduction with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer containing a Kerr medium,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4095–4098 (1999).

[CrossRef]

S. Glancy, H. M. Vasconcelos, and T. C. Ralph, “Transmission of optical coherent-state qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 022317 (2004).

[CrossRef]

P. Grangier, J. A. Levenson, and J.-P. Poizat, “Quantum nondemolition measurements in optics,” Nature 396, 537–542 (1998).

[CrossRef]

Y. Guo and L. M. Kuang, “Near-deterministic generation of four-mode W-type entangled coherent states,” J. Phys. B 40, 3309–3318 (2007).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, M. S. Kim, T. C. Ralph, and B. S. Ham, “Generation of macroscopic superposition states with small nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061801(R) (2004).

[CrossRef]

C. Wang, Y. S. Li, and L. Hao, “Optical implementation of quantum random walks using weak cross-Kerr media,” Chinese Sci. Bull. 56, 2088–2091 (2011).

[CrossRef]

D. Braje, V. Balić, G. Yin, and S. Harris, “Low-light-level non-linear optics with slow light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).

[CrossRef]

S. Harris and L. Hau, “Nonlinear optics at low light levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611–4614 (1999).

[CrossRef]

S. Harris and L. Hau, “Nonlinear optics at low light levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611–4614 (1999).

[CrossRef]

B. He, Y. Ren, and J. A. Bergou, “Universal entangler with photon pairs in arbitrary states,” J. Phys. B 43, 025502 (2010).

[CrossRef]

Q. Lin and B. He, “Single-photon logic gates using minimal resources,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 042310 (2009).

[CrossRef]

B. He, Y. Ren, and J. A. Bergou, “Creation of high-quality long-distance entanglement with flexible resources,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 052323 (2009).

[CrossRef]

B. He, M. Nadeem, and J. A. Bergou, “Scheme for generating coherent-state superpositions with realistic cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 035802 (2009).

[CrossRef]

S. J. van Enk and O. Hirota, “Entangled coherent states: teleportation and decoherence,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 022313 (2001).

[CrossRef]

O. Hirota and S. J. van Enk, “Entangled nonorthogonal states and their decoherence properties,” arXiv:quant-ph/0101096 (2001).

Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, and H. J. Kimble, “Measurement of conditional phase shifts for quantum logic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710–4713 (1995).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong and N. B. An, “Greenberger-Horne- Zeilinger-type and W-type entangled coherent states: generation and Bell-type inequality tests without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022104 (2006).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, “Using weak nonlinearity under decoherence for macroscopic entanglement generation and quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 034305 (2005).

[CrossRef]

A. P. Lund, H. Jeong, T. C. Ralph, and M. S. Kim, “Conditional production of superpositions of coherent states with inefficient photon detection,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 020101 (2004).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, M. S. Kim, T. C. Ralph, and B. S. Ham, “Generation of macroscopic superposition states with small nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061801(R) (2004).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong and M. S. Kim, “Efficient quantum computation using coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 042305 (2002).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, M. S. Kim, and J. Lee, “Quantum information processing for a coherent superposition state via a mixed entangled coherent channel,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 052308 (2001).

[CrossRef]

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. Jin, “Polarization-entanglement purification and concentration using cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 988–1002 (2011).

R. Jozsa, “Fidelity for mixed quantum states,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2315–2323 (1994).

[CrossRef]

M. Siomau, A. A. Kamli, S. A. Moiseev, and B. C. Sanders, “Entanglement creation with negative index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 050303(R) (2012).

[CrossRef]

N. B. An and J. Kim, “Cluster-type entangled coherent states: generation and application,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 042316 (2009).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, M. S. Kim, T. C. Ralph, and B. S. Ham, “Generation of macroscopic superposition states with small nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061801(R) (2004).

[CrossRef]

A. P. Lund, H. Jeong, T. C. Ralph, and M. S. Kim, “Conditional production of superpositions of coherent states with inefficient photon detection,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 020101 (2004).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong and M. S. Kim, “Efficient quantum computation using coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 042305 (2002).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, M. S. Kim, and J. Lee, “Quantum information processing for a coherent superposition state via a mixed entangled coherent channel,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 052308 (2001).

[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, and H. J. Kimble, “Measurement of conditional phase shifts for quantum logic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710–4713 (1995).

[CrossRef]

J. Clausen, L. Knöll, and D.-G. Welsch, “Lossy purification and detection of entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 062303 (2002).

[CrossRef]

Y. Guo and L. M. Kuang, “Near-deterministic generation of four-mode W-type entangled coherent states,” J. Phys. B 40, 3309–3318 (2007).

[CrossRef]

L. M. Kuang, Z. B. Chen, and J. W. Pan, “Generation of entangled coherent states for distant Bose–Einstein condensates via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 052324 (2007).

[CrossRef]

L. M. Kuang and L. Zhou, “Generation of atom-photon entangled states in atomic Bose-Einstein condensate via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043606 (2003).

[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337–4341 (1995).

[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, and H. J. Kimble, “Measurement of conditional phase shifts for quantum logic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710–4713 (1995).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, M. S. Kim, and J. Lee, “Quantum information processing for a coherent superposition state via a mixed entangled coherent channel,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 052308 (2001).

[CrossRef]

P. Grangier, J. A. Levenson, and J.-P. Poizat, “Quantum nondemolition measurements in optics,” Nature 396, 537–542 (1998).

[CrossRef]

Q. Lin and J. Li, “Quantum control gates with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 022301 (2009).

[CrossRef]

C. Wang, Y. S. Li, and L. Hao, “Optical implementation of quantum random walks using weak cross-Kerr media,” Chinese Sci. Bull. 56, 2088–2091 (2011).

[CrossRef]

Q. Lin and J. Li, “Quantum control gates with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 022301 (2009).

[CrossRef]

Q. Lin and B. He, “Single-photon logic gates using minimal resources,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 042310 (2009).

[CrossRef]

A. P. Lund, H. Jeong, T. C. Ralph, and M. S. Kim, “Conditional production of superpositions of coherent states with inefficient photon detection,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 020101 (2004).

[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, and H. J. Kimble, “Measurement of conditional phase shifts for quantum logic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710–4713 (1995).

[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337–4341 (1995).

[CrossRef]

W. J. Munro, G. J. Milburn, and B. C. Sanders, “Entangled coherent-state qubits in an ion trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 052108 (2000).

[CrossRef]

P. T. Cochrane, G. J. Milburn, and W. J. Munro, “Macroscopically distinct quantum-superposition states as a bosonic code for amplitude damping,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2631–2634 (1999).

[CrossRef]

M. Siomau, A. A. Kamli, S. A. Moiseev, and B. C. Sanders, “Entanglement creation with negative index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 050303(R) (2012).

[CrossRef]

P. P. Munhoz, J. A. Roversi, A. Vidiella-Barranco, and F. L. Semiao, “Bipartite quantum channels using multipartite cluster-type entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 042305 (2010).

[CrossRef]

W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. P. Spiller, “High-efficiency quantum-nondemolition single-photon-number-resolving detector,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033819 (2005).

[CrossRef]

K. Nemoto and W. J. Munro, “Nearly deterministic linear optical Controlled-NOT gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250502 (2004).

[CrossRef]

W. J. Munro, G. J. Milburn, and B. C. Sanders, “Entangled coherent-state qubits in an ion trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 052108 (2000).

[CrossRef]

P. T. Cochrane, G. J. Milburn, and W. J. Munro, “Macroscopically distinct quantum-superposition states as a bosonic code for amplitude damping,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2631–2634 (1999).

[CrossRef]

B. He, M. Nadeem, and J. A. Bergou, “Scheme for generating coherent-state superpositions with realistic cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 035802 (2009).

[CrossRef]

W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. P. Spiller, “High-efficiency quantum-nondemolition single-photon-number-resolving detector,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033819 (2005).

[CrossRef]

K. Nemoto and W. J. Munro, “Nearly deterministic linear optical Controlled-NOT gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250502 (2004).

[CrossRef]

M. A. Nielsenand and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University, 2000).

L. M. Kuang, Z. B. Chen, and J. W. Pan, “Generation of entangled coherent states for distant Bose–Einstein condensates via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 052324 (2007).

[CrossRef]

X.-H. Bao, Y. Qian, J. Yang, H. Zhang, Z.-B. Chen, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs for atomic quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190501 (2008).

[CrossRef]

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).

[CrossRef]

S. J. D. Phoenix, “Wave-packet evolution in the damped oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5132–5138 (1990).

[CrossRef]

P. Grangier, J. A. Levenson, and J.-P. Poizat, “Quantum nondemolition measurements in optics,” Nature 396, 537–542 (1998).

[CrossRef]

H. Prakash, N. Chandra, R. Prakash, and Shivani, “Improving the teleportation of entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 044305 (2007).

[CrossRef]

H. Prakash, N. Chandra, R. Prakash, and Shivani, “Improving the teleportation of entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 044305 (2007).

[CrossRef]

X.-H. Bao, Y. Qian, J. Yang, H. Zhang, Z.-B. Chen, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs for atomic quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190501 (2008).

[CrossRef]

A. P. Lund, H. Jeong, T. C. Ralph, and M. S. Kim, “Conditional production of superpositions of coherent states with inefficient photon detection,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 020101 (2004).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, M. S. Kim, T. C. Ralph, and B. S. Ham, “Generation of macroscopic superposition states with small nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061801(R) (2004).

[CrossRef]

S. Glancy, H. M. Vasconcelos, and T. C. Ralph, “Transmission of optical coherent-state qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 022317 (2004).

[CrossRef]

J. H. Shapiro and M. Razavi, “Continuous-time cross-phase modulation and quantum computation,” New J. Phys. 9, 16 (2007).

[CrossRef]

B. He, Y. Ren, and J. A. Bergou, “Universal entangler with photon pairs in arbitrary states,” J. Phys. B 43, 025502 (2010).

[CrossRef]

B. He, Y. Ren, and J. A. Bergou, “Creation of high-quality long-distance entanglement with flexible resources,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 052323 (2009).

[CrossRef]

P. P. Munhoz, J. A. Roversi, A. Vidiella-Barranco, and F. L. Semiao, “Bipartite quantum channels using multipartite cluster-type entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 042305 (2010).

[CrossRef]

V. Venkataraman, K. Saha, and A. L. Gaeta, “Phase modulation at the few-photon level for weak-nonlinearity-based quantum computing,” Nat. Photonics 7, 138–141 (2012).

[CrossRef]

M. Siomau, A. A. Kamli, S. A. Moiseev, and B. C. Sanders, “Entanglement creation with negative index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 050303(R) (2012).

[CrossRef]

X. G. Wang, M. Feng, and B. C. Sanders, “Multipartite entangled states in coupled quantum dots and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 022302 (2003).

[CrossRef]

W. J. Munro, G. J. Milburn, and B. C. Sanders, “Entangled coherent-state qubits in an ion trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 052108 (2000).

[CrossRef]

B. C. Sanders, “Entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 6811–6815 (1992).

[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

P. P. Munhoz, J. A. Roversi, A. Vidiella-Barranco, and F. L. Semiao, “Bipartite quantum channels using multipartite cluster-type entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 042305 (2010).

[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337–4341 (1995).

[CrossRef]

J. H. Shapiro and M. Razavi, “Continuous-time cross-phase modulation and quantum computation,” New J. Phys. 9, 16 (2007).

[CrossRef]

J. H. Shapiro, “Single-photon Kerr nonlinearities do not help quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 062305 (2006).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and L. Zhou, “Quantum entanglement concentration based on nonlinear optics for quantum communications,” Entropy 15, 1776–1820 (2013).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, and S. M. Zhao, “Efficient two-step entanglement concentration for arbitrary W states,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 042302 (2012).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 032307 (2010).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).

[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337–4341 (1995).

[CrossRef]

H. Prakash, N. Chandra, R. Prakash, and Shivani, “Improving the teleportation of entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 044305 (2007).

[CrossRef]

M. Siomau, A. A. Kamli, S. A. Moiseev, and B. C. Sanders, “Entanglement creation with negative index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 050303(R) (2012).

[CrossRef]

E. Solano, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther, “Strong driving- assisted multipartite entanglement in cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027903 (2003).

[CrossRef]

W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. P. Spiller, “High-efficiency quantum-nondemolition single-photon-number-resolving detector,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033819 (2005).

[CrossRef]

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).

[CrossRef]

Y. Aharonov and L. Susskind, “Charge superselection rule,” Phys. Rev. 155, 1428–1431 (1967).

[CrossRef]

M.-Y. Chen, M. W. Y. Tu, and W.-M. Zhang, “Entangling two superconducting LC coherent modes via a superconducting flux qubit,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 214538 (2009).

[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, and H. J. Kimble, “Measurement of conditional phase shifts for quantum logic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710–4713 (1995).

[CrossRef]

S. J. van Enk, “Entanglement capabilities in infinite dimensions: multidimensional entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 017902 (2003).

[CrossRef]

S. J. van Enk and O. Hirota, “Entangled coherent states: teleportation and decoherence,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 022313 (2001).

[CrossRef]

O. Hirota and S. J. van Enk, “Entangled nonorthogonal states and their decoherence properties,” arXiv:quant-ph/0101096 (2001).

S. Glancy, H. M. Vasconcelos, and T. C. Ralph, “Transmission of optical coherent-state qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 022317 (2004).

[CrossRef]

V. Venkataraman, K. Saha, and A. L. Gaeta, “Phase modulation at the few-photon level for weak-nonlinearity-based quantum computing,” Nat. Photonics 7, 138–141 (2012).

[CrossRef]

P. P. Munhoz, J. A. Roversi, A. Vidiella-Barranco, and F. L. Semiao, “Bipartite quantum channels using multipartite cluster-type entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 042305 (2010).

[CrossRef]

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).

[CrossRef]

E. Solano, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther, “Strong driving- assisted multipartite entanglement in cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027903 (2003).

[CrossRef]

B. Wang and L. M. Duan, “Engineering superpositions of coherent states in coherent optical pulses through cavity-assisted interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 022320 (2005).

[CrossRef]

C. Wang, Y. S. Li, and L. Hao, “Optical implementation of quantum random walks using weak cross-Kerr media,” Chinese Sci. Bull. 56, 2088–2091 (2011).

[CrossRef]

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. Jin, “Polarization-entanglement purification and concentration using cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 988–1002 (2011).

X. Wang, “Quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 022302 (2001).

[CrossRef]

X. G. Wang, M. Feng, and B. C. Sanders, “Multipartite entangled states in coupled quantum dots and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 022302 (2003).

[CrossRef]

H. Weinfurter and M. Zukowski, “Four-photon entanglement from down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 010102(R) (2001).

[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337–4341 (1995).

[CrossRef]

J. Clausen, L. Knöll, and D.-G. Welsch, “Lossy purification and detection of entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 062303 (2002).

[CrossRef]

W. K. Wootters, “Entanglement of formation of an arbitrary state of two qubits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245–2248 (1998).

[CrossRef]

X.-H. Bao, Y. Qian, J. Yang, H. Zhang, Z.-B. Chen, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs for atomic quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190501 (2008).

[CrossRef]

X.-H. Bao, Y. Qian, J. Yang, H. Zhang, Z.-B. Chen, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs for atomic quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190501 (2008).

[CrossRef]

D. Braje, V. Balić, G. Yin, and S. Harris, “Low-light-level non-linear optics with slow light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).

[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337–4341 (1995).

[CrossRef]

X.-H. Bao, Y. Qian, J. Yang, H. Zhang, Z.-B. Chen, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs for atomic quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190501 (2008).

[CrossRef]

M.-Y. Chen, M. W. Y. Tu, and W.-M. Zhang, “Entangling two superconducting LC coherent modes via a superconducting flux qubit,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 214538 (2009).

[CrossRef]

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. Jin, “Polarization-entanglement purification and concentration using cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 988–1002 (2011).

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, and S. M. Zhao, “Efficient two-step entanglement concentration for arbitrary W states,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 042302 (2012).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and L. Zhou, “Quantum entanglement concentration based on nonlinear optics for quantum communications,” Entropy 15, 1776–1820 (2013).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, and S. M. Zhao, “Efficient two-step entanglement concentration for arbitrary W states,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 042302 (2012).

[CrossRef]

L. M. Kuang and L. Zhou, “Generation of atom-photon entangled states in atomic Bose-Einstein condensate via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043606 (2003).

[CrossRef]

H. Weinfurter and M. Zukowski, “Four-photon entanglement from down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 010102(R) (2001).

[CrossRef]

C. Wang, Y. S. Li, and L. Hao, “Optical implementation of quantum random walks using weak cross-Kerr media,” Chinese Sci. Bull. 56, 2088–2091 (2011).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and L. Zhou, “Quantum entanglement concentration based on nonlinear optics for quantum communications,” Entropy 15, 1776–1820 (2013).

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B. He, Y. Ren, and J. A. Bergou, “Universal entangler with photon pairs in arbitrary states,” J. Phys. B 43, 025502 (2010).

[CrossRef]

V. Venkataraman, K. Saha, and A. L. Gaeta, “Phase modulation at the few-photon level for weak-nonlinearity-based quantum computing,” Nat. Photonics 7, 138–141 (2012).

[CrossRef]

P. Grangier, J. A. Levenson, and J.-P. Poizat, “Quantum nondemolition measurements in optics,” Nature 396, 537–542 (1998).

[CrossRef]

J. H. Shapiro and M. Razavi, “Continuous-time cross-phase modulation and quantum computation,” New J. Phys. 9, 16 (2007).

[CrossRef]

Y. Aharonov and L. Susskind, “Charge superselection rule,” Phys. Rev. 155, 1428–1431 (1967).

[CrossRef]

B. C. Sanders, “Entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 6811–6815 (1992).

[CrossRef]

P. P. Munhoz, J. A. Roversi, A. Vidiella-Barranco, and F. L. Semiao, “Bipartite quantum channels using multipartite cluster-type entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 042305 (2010).

[CrossRef]

S. J. van Enk and O. Hirota, “Entangled coherent states: teleportation and decoherence,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 022313 (2001).

[CrossRef]

X. Wang, “Quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 022302 (2001).

[CrossRef]

H. Prakash, N. Chandra, R. Prakash, and Shivani, “Improving the teleportation of entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 044305 (2007).

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[CrossRef]

J. Clausen, L. Knöll, and D.-G. Welsch, “Lossy purification and detection of entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 062303 (2002).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 032307 (2010).

[CrossRef]

S. Glancy, H. M. Vasconcelos, and T. C. Ralph, “Transmission of optical coherent-state qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 022317 (2004).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).

[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, and S. M. Zhao, “Efficient two-step entanglement concentration for arbitrary W states,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 042302 (2012).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, M. S. Kim, and J. Lee, “Quantum information processing for a coherent superposition state via a mixed entangled coherent channel,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 052308 (2001).

[CrossRef]

W. J. Munro, G. J. Milburn, and B. C. Sanders, “Entangled coherent-state qubits in an ion trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 052108 (2000).

[CrossRef]

X. G. Wang, M. Feng, and B. C. Sanders, “Multipartite entangled states in coupled quantum dots and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 022302 (2003).

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[CrossRef]

L. M. Kuang and L. Zhou, “Generation of atom-photon entangled states in atomic Bose-Einstein condensate via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043606 (2003).

[CrossRef]

L. M. Kuang, Z. B. Chen, and J. W. Pan, “Generation of entangled coherent states for distant Bose–Einstein condensates via electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 052324 (2007).

[CrossRef]

B. He, Y. Ren, and J. A. Bergou, “Creation of high-quality long-distance entanglement with flexible resources,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 052323 (2009).

[CrossRef]

N. B. An and J. Kim, “Cluster-type entangled coherent states: generation and application,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 042316 (2009).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, “Using weak nonlinearity under decoherence for macroscopic entanglement generation and quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 034305 (2005).

[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, M. S. Kim, T. C. Ralph, and B. S. Ham, “Generation of macroscopic superposition states with small nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 061801(R) (2004).

[CrossRef]

W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. P. Spiller, “High-efficiency quantum-nondemolition single-photon-number-resolving detector,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033819 (2005).

[CrossRef]

A. P. Lund, H. Jeong, T. C. Ralph, and M. S. Kim, “Conditional production of superpositions of coherent states with inefficient photon detection,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 020101 (2004).

[CrossRef]

B. Wang and L. M. Duan, “Engineering superpositions of coherent states in coherent optical pulses through cavity-assisted interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 022320 (2005).

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[CrossRef]

H. Weinfurter and M. Zukowski, “Four-photon entanglement from down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 010102(R) (2001).

[CrossRef]

S. J. D. Phoenix, “Wave-packet evolution in the damped oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5132–5138 (1990).

[CrossRef]

J. H. Shapiro, “Single-photon Kerr nonlinearities do not help quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 062305 (2006).

[CrossRef]

M. Siomau, A. A. Kamli, S. A. Moiseev, and B. C. Sanders, “Entanglement creation with negative index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 050303(R) (2012).

[CrossRef]

D. Braje, V. Balić, G. Yin, and S. Harris, “Low-light-level non-linear optics with slow light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801(R) (2003).

[CrossRef]

M.-Y. Chen, M. W. Y. Tu, and W.-M. Zhang, “Entangling two superconducting LC coherent modes via a superconducting flux qubit,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 214538 (2009).

[CrossRef]

S. J. van Enk, “Entanglement capabilities in infinite dimensions: multidimensional entangled coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 017902 (2003).

[CrossRef]

K. Nemoto and W. J. Munro, “Nearly deterministic linear optical Controlled-NOT gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250502 (2004).

[CrossRef]

E. Solano, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther, “Strong driving- assisted multipartite entanglement in cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027903 (2003).

[CrossRef]

A. D. Armour, M. P. Blencowe, and K. C. Schwab, “Quantum dynamics of a cooper-pair box coupled to a micromechanical resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 148301 (2002).

[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, and H. J. Kimble, “Measurement of conditional phase shifts for quantum logic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710–4713 (1995).

[CrossRef]

S. Harris and L. Hau, “Nonlinear optics at low light levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4611–4614 (1999).

[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337–4341 (1995).

[CrossRef]

X.-H. Bao, Y. Qian, J. Yang, H. Zhang, Z.-B. Chen, T. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, “Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs for atomic quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190501 (2008).

[CrossRef]

W. K. Wootters, “Entanglement of formation of an arbitrary state of two qubits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245–2248 (1998).

[CrossRef]

C. Wang, Y. Zhang, and G. Jin, “Polarization-entanglement purification and concentration using cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 988–1002 (2011).

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).

[CrossRef]

O. Hirota and S. J. van Enk, “Entangled nonorthogonal states and their decoherence properties,” arXiv:quant-ph/0101096 (2001).

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