Abstract

We propose an optically accessible electrostatic trap scheme to confine cold polar molecules by using two charged spherical electrodes, and we calculate the corresponding electric field distribution and the Stark trapping potential for ND3 molecules. We also propose a desirable scheme to realize an efficient loading of cold polar molecules in weak-field-seeking states, and our simulated results show that the maximal loading efficiency can reach ∼14%. In addition, we briefly discuss some potential applications of our proposed trap scheme in the studies of optical-potential evaporative cooling and electrostatic surface traps for cold polar molecules.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Maussang, D. Egorov, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, and J. M. Doyle, “Zeeman relaxation of CaF in low-temperature collisions with helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123002 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of cold Cs2 molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Haimberger, J. Kleinert, M. Bhattacharya, and N. P. Bigelow, “Formation and detection of ultracold ground-state polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 021402(R) (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. A. Donley, N. R. Claussen, S. T. Thompson, and C. E. Wieman, “Atom-molecule coherence in a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Nature 417, 529–533 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. A. Regal, C. Ticknor, J. L. Bohn, and D. S. Jin, “Creation of ultracold molecules from a Fermi gas of atoms,” Nature 424, 47–50 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, “Decelerating neutral dipolar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1558–1561 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. L. Bethlem, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Rieger, T. Junglen, S. A. Rangwala, G. Rempe, P. W. H. Pinkse, and J. Bulthuis, “Water vapor at a translational temperature of 1 K,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 061402(R) (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Liu, M. Yun, Y. Xia, L. Deng, and J. Yin, “Experimental generation of a cw cold CH3CN molecular beam by a low-pass energy filtering,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 745–752 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, D. R. Glenn, and D. deMille, “Radiative force from optical cycling on a diatomic molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 223001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, and D. deMille, “Laser cooling of a diatomic molecule,” Nature 467, 820–823 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roji, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. C. Campbell, E. Tsikata, H.-I. Lu, L. D. van Buuren, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping and Zeeman relaxation of NH (X3Σ−),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213001 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Takekoshi, B. M. Patterson, and R. J. Knize, “Observation of optically cold cesium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5105–5108 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. van Veldhoven, J. Küpper, H. L. Bethlem, B. Sartakov, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Decelerated molecular beams for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 31, 337–349 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. R. Hudson, H. J. Lewandowski, B. C. Sawyer, and J. Ye, “Cold molecule spectroscopy for constraining the evolution of the fine structure constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143004 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Burnett, P. S. Julienne, P. D. Lett, E. Tiesinga, and C. J. Williams, “Quantum encounters of the cold kind,” Nature 416, 225–232 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. L. Bohn, “Inelastic collisions of ultracold polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 052714 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Willitsch, M. T. Bell, A. D. Gingell, S. R. Procter, and T. P. Softley, “Cold reactive collisions between laser-cooled ions and velocity-selected neutral molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043203 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. deMille, “Quantum computation with trapped polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067901 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, and G. Meijer, “AC electric trap for ground-state molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 083001 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, M. Schnell, and G. Meijer, “Versatile electrostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063408 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Schnell, P. Lützow, J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, J. Küpper, B. Friedrich, M. Schleier-Smith, H. Haak, and G. Meijer, “A linear AC trap for polar molecules in their ground state,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 7411–7419 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Kleinert, C. Haimberger, P. J. Zabawa, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trapping of ultracold polar molecules with a thin-wire electrostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 143002 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Kirste, B. G. Sartakov, M. Schnell, and G. Meijer, “Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 051401(R) (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Yin, “Realization and research of optically trapped quantum degenerate gases,” Phys. Rep. 430, 1–116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Y. Liu, M. Yun, Y. Xia, L. Deng, and J. Yin, “Experimental generation of a cw cold CH3CN molecular beam by a low-pass energy filtering,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 745–752 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, and D. deMille, “Laser cooling of a diatomic molecule,” Nature 467, 820–823 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, D. R. Glenn, and D. deMille, “Radiative force from optical cycling on a diatomic molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 223001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kirste, B. G. Sartakov, M. Schnell, and G. Meijer, “Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 051401(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Willitsch, M. T. Bell, A. D. Gingell, S. R. Procter, and T. P. Softley, “Cold reactive collisions between laser-cooled ions and velocity-selected neutral molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. Schnell, P. Lützow, J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, J. Küpper, B. Friedrich, M. Schleier-Smith, H. Haak, and G. Meijer, “A linear AC trap for polar molecules in their ground state,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 7411–7419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kleinert, C. Haimberger, P. J. Zabawa, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trapping of ultracold polar molecules with a thin-wire electrostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 143002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Campbell, E. Tsikata, H.-I. Lu, L. D. van Buuren, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping and Zeeman relaxation of NH (X3Σ−),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

T. Rieger, T. Junglen, S. A. Rangwala, G. Rempe, P. W. H. Pinkse, and J. Bulthuis, “Water vapor at a translational temperature of 1 K,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 061402(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, M. Schnell, and G. Meijer, “Versatile electrostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Hudson, H. J. Lewandowski, B. C. Sawyer, and J. Ye, “Cold molecule spectroscopy for constraining the evolution of the fine structure constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143004 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, “Realization and research of optically trapped quantum degenerate gases,” Phys. Rep. 430, 1–116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, and G. Meijer, “AC electric trap for ground-state molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 083001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Maussang, D. Egorov, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, and J. M. Doyle, “Zeeman relaxation of CaF in low-temperature collisions with helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

C. Haimberger, J. Kleinert, M. Bhattacharya, and N. P. Bigelow, “Formation and detection of ultracold ground-state polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 021402(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, J. Küpper, H. L. Bethlem, B. Sartakov, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Decelerated molecular beams for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 31, 337–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. A. Regal, C. Ticknor, J. L. Bohn, and D. S. Jin, “Creation of ultracold molecules from a Fermi gas of atoms,” Nature 424, 47–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

H. L. Bethlem, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Donley, N. R. Claussen, S. T. Thompson, and C. E. Wieman, “Atom-molecule coherence in a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Nature 417, 529–533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Burnett, P. S. Julienne, P. D. Lett, E. Tiesinga, and C. J. Williams, “Quantum encounters of the cold kind,” Nature 416, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. deMille, “Quantum computation with trapped polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. L. Bohn, “Inelastic collisions of ultracold polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 052714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roji, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, “Decelerating neutral dipolar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1558–1561 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of cold Cs2 molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takekoshi, B. M. Patterson, and R. J. Knize, “Observation of optically cold cesium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5105–5108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Barry, J. F.

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, and D. deMille, “Laser cooling of a diatomic molecule,” Nature 467, 820–823 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, D. R. Glenn, and D. deMille, “Radiative force from optical cycling on a diatomic molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 223001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bell, M. T.

S. Willitsch, M. T. Bell, A. D. Gingell, S. R. Procter, and T. P. Softley, “Cold reactive collisions between laser-cooled ions and velocity-selected neutral molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roji, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, “Decelerating neutral dipolar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1558–1561 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bethlem, H. L.

M. Schnell, P. Lützow, J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, J. Küpper, B. Friedrich, M. Schleier-Smith, H. Haak, and G. Meijer, “A linear AC trap for polar molecules in their ground state,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 7411–7419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, M. Schnell, and G. Meijer, “Versatile electrostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, and G. Meijer, “AC electric trap for ground-state molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 083001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, J. Küpper, H. L. Bethlem, B. Sartakov, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Decelerated molecular beams for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 31, 337–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roji, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, “Decelerating neutral dipolar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1558–1561 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, M.

C. Haimberger, J. Kleinert, M. Bhattacharya, and N. P. Bigelow, “Formation and detection of ultracold ground-state polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 021402(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, N. P.

J. Kleinert, C. Haimberger, P. J. Zabawa, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trapping of ultracold polar molecules with a thin-wire electrostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 143002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Haimberger, J. Kleinert, M. Bhattacharya, and N. P. Bigelow, “Formation and detection of ultracold ground-state polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 021402(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bohn, J. L.

C. A. Regal, C. Ticknor, J. L. Bohn, and D. S. Jin, “Creation of ultracold molecules from a Fermi gas of atoms,” Nature 424, 47–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bohn, “Inelastic collisions of ultracold polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 052714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bulthuis, J.

T. Rieger, T. Junglen, S. A. Rangwala, G. Rempe, P. W. H. Pinkse, and J. Bulthuis, “Water vapor at a translational temperature of 1 K,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 061402(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, K.

K. Burnett, P. S. Julienne, P. D. Lett, E. Tiesinga, and C. J. Williams, “Quantum encounters of the cold kind,” Nature 416, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, W. C.

W. C. Campbell, E. Tsikata, H.-I. Lu, L. D. van Buuren, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping and Zeeman relaxation of NH (X3Σ−),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Claussen, N. R.

E. A. Donley, N. R. Claussen, S. T. Thompson, and C. E. Wieman, “Atom-molecule coherence in a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Nature 417, 529–533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Comparat, D.

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of cold Cs2 molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crompvoets, F. M. H.

H. L. Bethlem, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roji, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crubellier, A.

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of cold Cs2 molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

deCarvalho, R.

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

deMille, D.

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, and D. deMille, “Laser cooling of a diatomic molecule,” Nature 467, 820–823 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, D. R. Glenn, and D. deMille, “Radiative force from optical cycling on a diatomic molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 223001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. deMille, “Quantum computation with trapped polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deng, L.

Y. Liu, M. Yun, Y. Xia, L. Deng, and J. Yin, “Experimental generation of a cw cold CH3CN molecular beam by a low-pass energy filtering,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 745–752 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Donley, E. A.

E. A. Donley, N. R. Claussen, S. T. Thompson, and C. E. Wieman, “Atom-molecule coherence in a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Nature 417, 529–533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J. M.

W. C. Campbell, E. Tsikata, H.-I. Lu, L. D. van Buuren, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping and Zeeman relaxation of NH (X3Σ−),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Maussang, D. Egorov, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, and J. M. Doyle, “Zeeman relaxation of CaF in low-temperature collisions with helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dulieu, O.

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of cold Cs2 molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Egorov, D.

K. Maussang, D. Egorov, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, and J. M. Doyle, “Zeeman relaxation of CaF in low-temperature collisions with helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fioretti, A.

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of cold Cs2 molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, B.

M. Schnell, P. Lützow, J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, J. Küpper, B. Friedrich, M. Schleier-Smith, H. Haak, and G. Meijer, “A linear AC trap for polar molecules in their ground state,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 7411–7419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gingell, A. D.

S. Willitsch, M. T. Bell, A. D. Gingell, S. R. Procter, and T. P. Softley, “Cold reactive collisions between laser-cooled ions and velocity-selected neutral molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, D. R.

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, D. R. Glenn, and D. deMille, “Radiative force from optical cycling on a diatomic molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 223001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guillet, T.

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haak, H.

M. Schnell, P. Lützow, J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, J. Küpper, B. Friedrich, M. Schleier-Smith, H. Haak, and G. Meijer, “A linear AC trap for polar molecules in their ground state,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 7411–7419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haimberger, C.

J. Kleinert, C. Haimberger, P. J. Zabawa, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trapping of ultracold polar molecules with a thin-wire electrostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 143002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Haimberger, J. Kleinert, M. Bhattacharya, and N. P. Bigelow, “Formation and detection of ultracold ground-state polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 021402(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helton, J. S.

K. Maussang, D. Egorov, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, and J. M. Doyle, “Zeeman relaxation of CaF in low-temperature collisions with helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, E. R.

E. R. Hudson, H. J. Lewandowski, B. C. Sawyer, and J. Ye, “Cold molecule spectroscopy for constraining the evolution of the fine structure constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143004 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, D. S.

C. A. Regal, C. Ticknor, J. L. Bohn, and D. S. Jin, “Creation of ultracold molecules from a Fermi gas of atoms,” Nature 424, 47–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jongma, R. T.

H. L. Bethlem, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roji, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Julienne, P. S.

K. Burnett, P. S. Julienne, P. D. Lett, E. Tiesinga, and C. J. Williams, “Quantum encounters of the cold kind,” Nature 416, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Junglen, T.

T. Rieger, T. Junglen, S. A. Rangwala, G. Rempe, P. W. H. Pinkse, and J. Bulthuis, “Water vapor at a translational temperature of 1 K,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 061402(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kirste, M.

M. Kirste, B. G. Sartakov, M. Schnell, and G. Meijer, “Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 051401(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kleinert, J.

J. Kleinert, C. Haimberger, P. J. Zabawa, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trapping of ultracold polar molecules with a thin-wire electrostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 143002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Haimberger, J. Kleinert, M. Bhattacharya, and N. P. Bigelow, “Formation and detection of ultracold ground-state polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 021402(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knize, R. J.

T. Takekoshi, B. M. Patterson, and R. J. Knize, “Observation of optically cold cesium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5105–5108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Küpper, J.

M. Schnell, P. Lützow, J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, J. Küpper, B. Friedrich, M. Schleier-Smith, H. Haak, and G. Meijer, “A linear AC trap for polar molecules in their ground state,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 7411–7419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, J. Küpper, H. L. Bethlem, B. Sartakov, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Decelerated molecular beams for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 31, 337–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lett, P. D.

K. Burnett, P. S. Julienne, P. D. Lett, E. Tiesinga, and C. J. Williams, “Quantum encounters of the cold kind,” Nature 416, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lewandowski, H. J.

E. R. Hudson, H. J. Lewandowski, B. C. Sawyer, and J. Ye, “Cold molecule spectroscopy for constraining the evolution of the fine structure constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143004 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. Yun, Y. Xia, L. Deng, and J. Yin, “Experimental generation of a cw cold CH3CN molecular beam by a low-pass energy filtering,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 745–752 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.-I.

W. C. Campbell, E. Tsikata, H.-I. Lu, L. D. van Buuren, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping and Zeeman relaxation of NH (X3Σ−),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lützow, P.

M. Schnell, P. Lützow, J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, J. Küpper, B. Friedrich, M. Schleier-Smith, H. Haak, and G. Meijer, “A linear AC trap for polar molecules in their ground state,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 7411–7419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Masnou-Seeuws, F.

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of cold Cs2 molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maussang, K.

K. Maussang, D. Egorov, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, and J. M. Doyle, “Zeeman relaxation of CaF in low-temperature collisions with helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, G.

M. Kirste, B. G. Sartakov, M. Schnell, and G. Meijer, “Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 051401(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, P. Lützow, J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, J. Küpper, B. Friedrich, M. Schleier-Smith, H. Haak, and G. Meijer, “A linear AC trap for polar molecules in their ground state,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 7411–7419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, M. Schnell, and G. Meijer, “Versatile electrostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, and G. Meijer, “AC electric trap for ground-state molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 083001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, J. Küpper, H. L. Bethlem, B. Sartakov, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Decelerated molecular beams for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 31, 337–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roji, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, “Decelerating neutral dipolar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1558–1561 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, S. V.

K. Maussang, D. Egorov, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, and J. M. Doyle, “Zeeman relaxation of CaF in low-temperature collisions with helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, B. M.

T. Takekoshi, B. M. Patterson, and R. J. Knize, “Observation of optically cold cesium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5105–5108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pillet, P.

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of cold Cs2 molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pinkse, P. W. H.

T. Rieger, T. Junglen, S. A. Rangwala, G. Rempe, P. W. H. Pinkse, and J. Bulthuis, “Water vapor at a translational temperature of 1 K,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 061402(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pritchard, D. E.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Procter, S. R.

S. Willitsch, M. T. Bell, A. D. Gingell, S. R. Procter, and T. P. Softley, “Cold reactive collisions between laser-cooled ions and velocity-selected neutral molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raab, E. L.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rangwala, S. A.

T. Rieger, T. Junglen, S. A. Rangwala, G. Rempe, P. W. H. Pinkse, and J. Bulthuis, “Water vapor at a translational temperature of 1 K,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 061402(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Regal, C. A.

C. A. Regal, C. Ticknor, J. L. Bohn, and D. S. Jin, “Creation of ultracold molecules from a Fermi gas of atoms,” Nature 424, 47–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rempe, G.

T. Rieger, T. Junglen, S. A. Rangwala, G. Rempe, P. W. H. Pinkse, and J. Bulthuis, “Water vapor at a translational temperature of 1 K,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 061402(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rieger, T.

T. Rieger, T. Junglen, S. A. Rangwala, G. Rempe, P. W. H. Pinkse, and J. Bulthuis, “Water vapor at a translational temperature of 1 K,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 061402(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sartakov, B.

J. van Veldhoven, J. Küpper, H. L. Bethlem, B. Sartakov, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Decelerated molecular beams for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 31, 337–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sartakov, B. G.

M. Kirste, B. G. Sartakov, M. Schnell, and G. Meijer, “Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 051401(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sawyer, B. C.

E. R. Hudson, H. J. Lewandowski, B. C. Sawyer, and J. Ye, “Cold molecule spectroscopy for constraining the evolution of the fine structure constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143004 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schleier-Smith, M.

M. Schnell, P. Lützow, J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, J. Küpper, B. Friedrich, M. Schleier-Smith, H. Haak, and G. Meijer, “A linear AC trap for polar molecules in their ground state,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 7411–7419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schnell, M.

M. Kirste, B. G. Sartakov, M. Schnell, and G. Meijer, “Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 051401(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, P. Lützow, J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, J. Küpper, B. Friedrich, M. Schleier-Smith, H. Haak, and G. Meijer, “A linear AC trap for polar molecules in their ground state,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 7411–7419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, M. Schnell, and G. Meijer, “Versatile electrostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shuman, E. S.

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, and D. deMille, “Laser cooling of a diatomic molecule,” Nature 467, 820–823 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, D. R. Glenn, and D. deMille, “Radiative force from optical cycling on a diatomic molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 223001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Softley, T. P.

S. Willitsch, M. T. Bell, A. D. Gingell, S. R. Procter, and T. P. Softley, “Cold reactive collisions between laser-cooled ions and velocity-selected neutral molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takekoshi, T.

T. Takekoshi, B. M. Patterson, and R. J. Knize, “Observation of optically cold cesium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5105–5108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, S. T.

E. A. Donley, N. R. Claussen, S. T. Thompson, and C. E. Wieman, “Atom-molecule coherence in a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Nature 417, 529–533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ticknor, C.

C. A. Regal, C. Ticknor, J. L. Bohn, and D. S. Jin, “Creation of ultracold molecules from a Fermi gas of atoms,” Nature 424, 47–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tiesinga, E.

K. Burnett, P. S. Julienne, P. D. Lett, E. Tiesinga, and C. J. Williams, “Quantum encounters of the cold kind,” Nature 416, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsikata, E.

W. C. Campbell, E. Tsikata, H.-I. Lu, L. D. van Buuren, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping and Zeeman relaxation of NH (X3Σ−),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Buuren, L. D.

W. C. Campbell, E. Tsikata, H.-I. Lu, L. D. van Buuren, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping and Zeeman relaxation of NH (X3Σ−),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van de Meerakker, S. Y. T.

H. L. Bethlem, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Roij, A. J. A.

J. van Veldhoven, J. Küpper, H. L. Bethlem, B. Sartakov, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Decelerated molecular beams for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 31, 337–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Roji, A. J. A.

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roji, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, J.

M. Schnell, P. Lützow, J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, J. Küpper, B. Friedrich, M. Schleier-Smith, H. Haak, and G. Meijer, “A linear AC trap for polar molecules in their ground state,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 7411–7419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, M. Schnell, and G. Meijer, “Versatile electrostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, and G. Meijer, “AC electric trap for ground-state molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 083001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, J. Küpper, H. L. Bethlem, B. Sartakov, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Decelerated molecular beams for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 31, 337–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weinstein, J. D.

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C. E.

E. A. Donley, N. R. Claussen, S. T. Thompson, and C. E. Wieman, “Atom-molecule coherence in a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Nature 417, 529–533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C. J.

K. Burnett, P. S. Julienne, P. D. Lett, E. Tiesinga, and C. J. Williams, “Quantum encounters of the cold kind,” Nature 416, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Willitsch, S.

S. Willitsch, M. T. Bell, A. D. Gingell, S. R. Procter, and T. P. Softley, “Cold reactive collisions between laser-cooled ions and velocity-selected neutral molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. Liu, M. Yun, Y. Xia, L. Deng, and J. Yin, “Experimental generation of a cw cold CH3CN molecular beam by a low-pass energy filtering,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 745–752 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

E. R. Hudson, H. J. Lewandowski, B. C. Sawyer, and J. Ye, “Cold molecule spectroscopy for constraining the evolution of the fine structure constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143004 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yin, J.

Y. Liu, M. Yun, Y. Xia, L. Deng, and J. Yin, “Experimental generation of a cw cold CH3CN molecular beam by a low-pass energy filtering,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 745–752 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, “Realization and research of optically trapped quantum degenerate gases,” Phys. Rep. 430, 1–116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yun, M.

Y. Liu, M. Yun, Y. Xia, L. Deng, and J. Yin, “Experimental generation of a cw cold CH3CN molecular beam by a low-pass energy filtering,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 745–752 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zabawa, P. J.

J. Kleinert, C. Haimberger, P. J. Zabawa, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trapping of ultracold polar molecules with a thin-wire electrostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 143002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

J. van Veldhoven, J. Küpper, H. L. Bethlem, B. Sartakov, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Decelerated molecular beams for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 31, 337–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

M. Schnell, P. Lützow, J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, J. Küpper, B. Friedrich, M. Schleier-Smith, H. Haak, and G. Meijer, “A linear AC trap for polar molecules in their ground state,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 7411–7419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (6)

J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Donley, N. R. Claussen, S. T. Thompson, and C. E. Wieman, “Atom-molecule coherence in a Bose–Einstein condensate,” Nature 417, 529–533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Regal, C. Ticknor, J. L. Bohn, and D. S. Jin, “Creation of ultracold molecules from a Fermi gas of atoms,” Nature 424, 47–50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, and D. deMille, “Laser cooling of a diatomic molecule,” Nature 467, 820–823 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roji, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Burnett, P. S. Julienne, P. D. Lett, E. Tiesinga, and C. J. Williams, “Quantum encounters of the cold kind,” Nature 416, 225–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. Liu, M. Yun, Y. Xia, L. Deng, and J. Yin, “Experimental generation of a cw cold CH3CN molecular beam by a low-pass energy filtering,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 745–752 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

J. Yin, “Realization and research of optically trapped quantum degenerate gases,” Phys. Rep. 430, 1–116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

C. Haimberger, J. Kleinert, M. Bhattacharya, and N. P. Bigelow, “Formation and detection of ultracold ground-state polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 021402(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, M. Schnell, and G. Meijer, “Versatile electrostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kirste, B. G. Sartakov, M. Schnell, and G. Meijer, “Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 051401(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Rieger, T. Junglen, S. A. Rangwala, G. Rempe, P. W. H. Pinkse, and J. Bulthuis, “Water vapor at a translational temperature of 1 K,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 061402(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bohn, “Inelastic collisions of ultracold polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 052714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (12)

S. Willitsch, M. T. Bell, A. D. Gingell, S. R. Procter, and T. P. Softley, “Cold reactive collisions between laser-cooled ions and velocity-selected neutral molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. deMille, “Quantum computation with trapped polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. van Veldhoven, H. L. Bethlem, and G. Meijer, “AC electric trap for ground-state molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 083001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Campbell, E. Tsikata, H.-I. Lu, L. D. van Buuren, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping and Zeeman relaxation of NH (X3Σ−),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Takekoshi, B. M. Patterson, and R. J. Knize, “Observation of optically cold cesium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5105–5108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Shuman, J. F. Barry, D. R. Glenn, and D. deMille, “Radiative force from optical cycling on a diatomic molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 223001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, “Decelerating neutral dipolar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1558–1561 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Maussang, D. Egorov, J. S. Helton, S. V. Nguyen, and J. M. Doyle, “Zeeman relaxation of CaF in low-temperature collisions with helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 123002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of cold Cs2 molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Hudson, H. J. Lewandowski, B. C. Sawyer, and J. Ye, “Cold molecule spectroscopy for constraining the evolution of the fine structure constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143004 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631–2634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Kleinert, C. Haimberger, P. J. Zabawa, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trapping of ultracold polar molecules with a thin-wire electrostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 143002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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