Abstract

In this paper, we experimentally study the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) along gold–ZnS–air interfaces and their diffraction at the surface edge. The SPPs were launched by the waveguide method using monochromatic radiation of the Novosibirsk Free-Electron Laser, operated at the wavelength 140 μm. SPP characteristics were studied via examination of the electromagnetic field of diffracted waves employing two terahertz sensors: a movable Golay cell and an optical system, consisting of a TPX lens and a 320×240 microbolometer focal plane array (MBFPA) recording images with a rate of 17frames/s. The experimentally recorded intensity distribution of the diffracted wave in the direction normal to the surface differed from the evanescence wave distribution in the SPP, but their characteristic widths were practically the same and coincided with the theoretical calculations made within the Drude model [Phys. Rev. A 87, 023828 (2013)]. Diffracted wave characteristics drastically changed when ZnS-layer thickness increased from 0 to 0.75 μm. The angular distributions grew from 0.16 to 3.6 deg, but the characteristic beam width decreased from 8 to 0.35 mm, which is promising for a number of applications. The propagation length of SPPs therewith decreased from 31 to 11 mm, which is 3 orders of magnitude less than the Drude theory predicts. Prospects for further studies are discussed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

I. A. Kotelnikov, V. V. Gerasimov, and B. A. Knyazev, “Diffraction of surface wave on conducting rectangular wedge,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023828 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 33, 245–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes and T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz condactivity of bulk and nano-materials,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 33871–925 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kukushkin, A. A. Rukhadze, and K. Z. Rukhadze, “On the existence conditions for a fast surface wave,” Phys. Usp. 55, 1124–1133 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

R. Mueckstein and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging of terahertz surface plasmon waves excited on a gold surface by a focused beam,” Opt. Express 19, 3212–3217 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Nazarov and J.-L. Coutaz, “Terahertz surface waves propagating on metals with sub-wavelength structure and grating reliefs,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 321054–1073 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dem’yanenko, D. G. Esaev, I. V. Marchishin, V. N. Ovsyuk, B. I. Fomin, B. A. Knyazev, and V. V. Gerasimov, “Application of uncooled microbolometer detector arrays for recording radiation of the terahertz spectral range,” Optoelectron. Instrum. Data Process. 47, 109–113 (2011).

2010 (2)

B. A. Knyazev, G. N. Kulipanov, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Novosibirsk terahertz free electron laser: instrumentation development and experimental achievements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 054017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, Ch. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

T. Okada, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Resonant phase jump with enhanced electric field caused by surface phonon polariton in terahertz region,” Opt. Express 16, 5633–5641 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Nazarov, F. Garet, D. Armand, A. Shkurinov, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Surface plasmon THz waves on gratings,” C.R. Physique 9, 232–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Ahn, K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Optical and terahertz near-field studies of surface plasmons in subwavelength metallic slits,” New J. Phys. 10, 105003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

B. A. Knyazev and A. V. Kuzmin, “Surface electromagnetic waves: from visible range to microwaves,” Vestn. Novosib. State Univ. Phys. 2, 108–122 (2007) (in Russian).

M. Nazarov, J.-L. Coutaz, A. Shkurinov, and F. Garet, “THz surface plasmon jump between two metal edges,” Opt. Commun. 277, 33–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Zon, “Reflection, refraction, and transformation into photons of surface plasmons on a metal wedge,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1960–1967 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

T.-I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Zenneck surface wave THz surface plasmon propagation on a metal sheet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Zhizhin, A. K. Nikitin, G. D. Bogomolov, V. V. Zavialov, Y. U. Jeong, L. B. Cheol, S. H. Park, and H. J. Cha, “Absorption of surface plasmons in a metal-cladding layer-air structure in the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Spectrosc. 100, 734–738 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Mukina, M. M. Nazarov, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Propagation of THz plasmon pulse on corrugated and flat metal surface,” Surf. Sci. 600, 4771–4776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domane measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. T. Ling, J. D. Scholler, and P. Ya. Ufimtsev, “The propagation and excitation of surface waves in an absorbing layer,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 19, 49–91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. A. Jamid and S. J. Al-Bader, “Diffraction of surface plasmon-polaritons in an abruptly terminated dielectric–metal interface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7321–323 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. Dawson, F. de Fornel, and J.-P. Goudonett, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2927–2930 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, “Long-range surface modes supported by thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855–5872 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. A. Maradudin, R. F. Wallis, and G. I. Stegeman, “The optics of surfaces and guided wave polaritons,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 33171–257 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

K. W. Steijn, R. J. Seymour, and G. I. Stegeman, “Attenuation of far-infrared surface plasmons on overcoated metal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1151–1153 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

R. J. Seymour, J. J. Krupczak, and G. I. Stegeman, “High efficiency coupling to the overcoated surface plasmon mode in the far infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 373–375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. Chartier, K. J. Woo, E. Pic, R. Reinisch, and G. Voirin, “Diffraction d’une onde électromagnétique de surface par l’extrémité du support de propagation,” J. Phys. 45, 429–433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

1982 (2)

R. J. Seymour, E. S. Koteles, and G. I. Stegeman, “Far-infrared surface plasmon coupling with overcoated gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1013–1015 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Z. Schlesinger and A. J. Sievers, “IR surface-plasmon attenuation coefficients for Ge-coated Ag and Au metals,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 6444–6454 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

E. S. Koteles and W. H. McNeill, “Far infrared surface plasmon propagation,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 2, 361–371 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

D. L. Begley, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, R. Miller, and R. J. Bell, “Propagation distances of surface electromagnetic waves in the far infrared,” Surf. Sci. 81, 245–251 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

I. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72, 577–588 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

G. N. Zhizhin, O. I. Kapusta, M. A. Moskaleva, V. G. Nazin, and V. A. Yakovlev, “Surface wave spectroscopy and properties of the surface,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 18, 927–928 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

G. Brandli and A. J. Sievers, “Absolute measurement of the far-infrared surface resistance of Pb,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 3550–3557 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

R. B. Dingle, “The anomalous skin effect and reflectivity of metals,” Physica 19, 311–347 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

S. S. Attwood, “Surface-wave propagation over a coated plane conductor,” J. Appl. Phys. 22, 504–509 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

G. E. H. Reuter and E. H. Sondheimer, “The theory of the anomalous skin effect in metals,” Proc. R. Soc. A 195, 336–364 (1948).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

1907 (1)

J. Zenneck, “Über die Fortpflanzung ebener elektromagnetischer Wellen läangs einer ebenen Leiterfläache und ihre Beziehung zur dratlosen Telegraphie (On the propagation of plane electromagnetic waves along a planar conductor surface and its relationship to wireless telegraphy),” Ann. Phys. Ser. 4 23, 848–866 (1907).

1899 (1)

A. Sommerfeld, “Fortpflanzung electrodynamischer Wellen an einem zylindrischen Leiter (Transmission of electrodynamic waves along a cylindrical conductor),” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 303, 233–290 (1899).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

K. J. Ahn, K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Optical and terahertz near-field studies of surface plasmons in subwavelength metallic slits,” New J. Phys. 10, 105003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, K. J.

K. J. Ahn, K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Optical and terahertz near-field studies of surface plasmons in subwavelength metallic slits,” New J. Phys. 10, 105003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Al-Bader, S. J.

H. A. Jamid and S. J. Al-Bader, “Diffraction of surface plasmon-polaritons in an abruptly terminated dielectric–metal interface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7321–323 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander, and C. A. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1099–1119 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Begley, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, R. Miller, and R. J. Bell, “Propagation distances of surface electromagnetic waves in the far infrared,” Surf. Sci. 81, 245–251 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Al-Naib, I.

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 33, 245–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Armand, D.

M. Nazarov, F. Garet, D. Armand, A. Shkurinov, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Surface plasmon THz waves on gratings,” C.R. Physique 9, 232–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ashkroft, N. W.

N. W. Ashkroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Harcourt, 1976).

Attwood, S. S.

S. S. Attwood, “Surface-wave propagation over a coated plane conductor,” J. Appl. Phys. 22, 504–509 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Begley, D. L.

D. L. Begley, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, R. Miller, and R. J. Bell, “Propagation distances of surface electromagnetic waves in the far infrared,” Surf. Sci. 81, 245–251 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander, and C. A. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1099–1119 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Begley, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, R. Miller, and R. J. Bell, “Propagation distances of surface electromagnetic waves in the far infrared,” Surf. Sci. 81, 245–251 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bogomolov, G. D.

G. N. Zhizhin, A. K. Nikitin, G. D. Bogomolov, V. V. Zavialov, Y. U. Jeong, L. B. Cheol, S. H. Park, and H. J. Cha, “Absorption of surface plasmons in a metal-cladding layer-air structure in the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Spectrosc. 100, 734–738 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domane measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bradberry, G. W.

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, “Long-range surface modes supported by thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855–5872 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brandli, G.

G. Brandli and A. J. Sievers, “Absolute measurement of the far-infrared surface resistance of Pb,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 3550–3557 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bussmann, K.

R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, Ch. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cha, H. J.

G. N. Zhizhin, A. K. Nikitin, G. D. Bogomolov, V. V. Zavialov, Y. U. Jeong, L. B. Cheol, S. H. Park, and H. J. Cha, “Absorption of surface plasmons in a metal-cladding layer-air structure in the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Spectrosc. 100, 734–738 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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G. Chartier, K. J. Woo, E. Pic, R. Reinisch, and G. Voirin, “Diffraction d’une onde électromagnétique de surface par l’extrémité du support de propagation,” J. Phys. 45, 429–433 (1984).
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J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domane measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
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N. A. Vinokurov, E. N. Dementyev, B. A. Dovzhenko, A. A. Galt, Ya. V. Getmanov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kubarev, G. N. Kulipanov, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, B. Z. Persov, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, M. G. Vlasenko, P. Vobly, and N. S. Zaigraeva, “Status and prospects of the Novosibirsk FEL facility,” in Proceedings of XXII Russian Particle Accelerator Conference, RuPAC-2010, Protvino, Russia, 2010, Sept.27–Oct. 1 (RAS, 2010), pp. 133–135.

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F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, “Long-range surface modes supported by thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855–5872 (1991).
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J. Saxler, J. G. Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domane measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
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K. W. Steijn, R. J. Seymour, and G. I. Stegeman, “Attenuation of far-infrared surface plasmons on overcoated metal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1151–1153 (1986).
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N. A. Vinokurov, E. N. Dementyev, B. A. Dovzhenko, A. A. Galt, Ya. V. Getmanov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kubarev, G. N. Kulipanov, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, B. Z. Persov, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, M. G. Vlasenko, P. Vobly, and N. S. Zaigraeva, “Status and prospects of the Novosibirsk FEL facility,” in Proceedings of XXII Russian Particle Accelerator Conference, RuPAC-2010, Protvino, Russia, 2010, Sept.27–Oct. 1 (RAS, 2010), pp. 133–135.

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G. E. H. Reuter and E. H. Sondheimer, “The theory of the anomalous skin effect in metals,” Proc. R. Soc. A 195, 336–364 (1948).
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A. A. Maradudin, R. F. Wallis, and G. I. Stegeman, “The optics of surfaces and guided wave polaritons,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 33171–257 (1990).
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R. J. Seymour, J. J. Krupczak, and G. I. Stegeman, “High efficiency coupling to the overcoated surface plasmon mode in the far infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 373–375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Wallis, A. A. Maradudin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Surface plasmon reflection and radiation at end faces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 764–766 (1983).
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R. J. Seymour, E. S. Koteles, and G. I. Stegeman, “Far-infrared surface plasmon coupling with overcoated gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1013–1015 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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K. W. Steijn, R. J. Seymour, and G. I. Stegeman, “Attenuation of far-infrared surface plasmons on overcoated metal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1151–1153 (1986).
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Tcheskidov, V. G.

N. A. Vinokurov, E. N. Dementyev, B. A. Dovzhenko, A. A. Galt, Ya. V. Getmanov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kubarev, G. N. Kulipanov, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, B. Z. Persov, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, M. G. Vlasenko, P. Vobly, and N. S. Zaigraeva, “Status and prospects of the Novosibirsk FEL facility,” in Proceedings of XXII Russian Particle Accelerator Conference, RuPAC-2010, Protvino, Russia, 2010, Sept.27–Oct. 1 (RAS, 2010), pp. 133–135.

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Vinokurov, N. A.

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N. A. Vinokurov, E. N. Dementyev, B. A. Dovzhenko, A. A. Galt, Ya. V. Getmanov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kubarev, G. N. Kulipanov, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, B. Z. Persov, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, M. G. Vlasenko, P. Vobly, and N. S. Zaigraeva, “Status and prospects of the Novosibirsk FEL facility,” in Proceedings of XXII Russian Particle Accelerator Conference, RuPAC-2010, Protvino, Russia, 2010, Sept.27–Oct. 1 (RAS, 2010), pp. 133–135.

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N. A. Vinokurov, E. N. Dementyev, B. A. Dovzhenko, A. A. Galt, Ya. V. Getmanov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kubarev, G. N. Kulipanov, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, B. Z. Persov, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, M. G. Vlasenko, P. Vobly, and N. S. Zaigraeva, “Status and prospects of the Novosibirsk FEL facility,” in Proceedings of XXII Russian Particle Accelerator Conference, RuPAC-2010, Protvino, Russia, 2010, Sept.27–Oct. 1 (RAS, 2010), pp. 133–135.

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G. Chartier, K. J. Woo, E. Pic, R. Reinisch, and G. Voirin, “Diffraction d’une onde électromagnétique de surface par l’extrémité du support de propagation,” J. Phys. 45, 429–433 (1984).
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R. A. Flynn, I. Vurgaftman, K. Bussmann, B. S. Simpkins, Ch. S. Kim, and J. P. Long, “Transmission efficiency of surface plasmon polaritons across gaps in gold waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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N. A. Vinokurov, E. N. Dementyev, B. A. Dovzhenko, A. A. Galt, Ya. V. Getmanov, B. A. Knyazev, E. I. Kolobanov, V. V. Kubarev, G. N. Kulipanov, L. E. Medvedev, S. V. Miginsky, L. A. Mironenko, V. K. Ovchar, B. Z. Persov, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Serednyakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, V. G. Tcheskidov, M. G. Vlasenko, P. Vobly, and N. S. Zaigraeva, “Status and prospects of the Novosibirsk FEL facility,” in Proceedings of XXII Russian Particle Accelerator Conference, RuPAC-2010, Protvino, Russia, 2010, Sept.27–Oct. 1 (RAS, 2010), pp. 133–135.

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G. N. Zhizhin, A. K. Nikitin, G. D. Bogomolov, V. V. Zavialov, Y. U. Jeong, L. B. Cheol, S. H. Park, and H. J. Cha, “Absorption of surface plasmons in a metal-cladding layer-air structure in the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Spectrosc. 100, 734–738 (2006).
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G. N. Zhizhin, A. K. Nikitin, G. D. Bogomolov, V. V. Zavialov, Y. U. Jeong, L. B. Cheol, S. H. Park, and H. J. Cha, “Absorption of surface plasmons in a metal-cladding layer-air structure in the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Spectrosc. 100, 734–738 (2006).
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G. N. Zhizhin, M. A. Moskaleva, E. V. Shomina, and V. A. Yakovlev, “Surface electromagnetic wave propagation on metal surfaces,” in Surface Polaritons. Electromagnetic Waves at Surfaces and Interfaces, V. M. Agranovich and D. L. Mills, eds. (North-Holland, 1982), chap. 3.

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Ann. Phys. (Berlin) (1)

A. Sommerfeld, “Fortpflanzung electrodynamischer Wellen an einem zylindrischen Leiter (Transmission of electrodynamic waves along a cylindrical conductor),” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 303, 233–290 (1899).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. Ser. 4 (1)

J. Zenneck, “Über die Fortpflanzung ebener elektromagnetischer Wellen läangs einer ebenen Leiterfläache und ihre Beziehung zur dratlosen Telegraphie (On the propagation of plane electromagnetic waves along a planar conductor surface and its relationship to wireless telegraphy),” Ann. Phys. Ser. 4 23, 848–866 (1907).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

R. J. Seymour, J. J. Krupczak, and G. I. Stegeman, “High efficiency coupling to the overcoated surface plasmon mode in the far infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 373–375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Wallis, A. A. Maradudin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Surface plasmon reflection and radiation at end faces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 764–766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental configurations: (a) basic configuration and (b) reverse-geometry configuration. Detection systems: (c) imaging system with a TPX lens and a MBFPA and (d) Golay cell with a 0.2 mm wide input slit coupled to a SR-830 lock-in amplifier. The z axis is the “image” of the z axis in the mirror. The system in the dashed square was used for study of SPP propagation length (see Section 6).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Images recorded using the MBFPA for (a) gold, (b) gold with a ZnS coating 0.25 μm thick, and (c) gold with a ZnS coating 0.75 μm thick. The scale is given for the object plane. The width of the gap in the waveguide was δ0.65μm for image (a) and 0.25 μm for images (b) and (c). Intensities in the graphs are presented in arbitrary units. The dashed red exponential curves are calculated by using the Drude model for the SPP intensity attenuation exp(2z/dz) (see Table 1 in Section 4).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Field intensities versus coordinate z measured with the Golay cell at the distance l=1mm from the edge of the sample. Results are given for bare gold and for gold with ZnS coatings 0.75 and 0.25 μm thick. The gap width in the waveguide δ was about 100 μm for gold and 60 μm for gold with ZnS layers.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of SPP diffraction on a rectangular conducting wedge; the theory predicts the absence of reflected and passed SPPs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Angular pattern of the value |B|2 for SPP diffracted by a bare gold wedge and a gold wedge coated with 0.75 μm ZnS film; λ=140μm; the curves correspond to three distances r from the origin (see the coordinate system in Fig. 1).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

EMF characteristics in the vicinity of conductive wedges: (a) bare gold and (b) gold +0.75μm ZnS. The arrows indicate the direction of the Poynting vector; the color map shows the magnitude of the Poynting vector (gradations are given on a logarithmic scale); λ=140μm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Field intensity versus angle θ at different distances from the sample edge: (a) bare gold and (b) gold +0.75μm ZnS coating. The dots show the experimental data measured using the Golay cell; the curves are the theoretical calculations of the x component of the Poynting vector.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Diffracted field intensity as a function of z measured with the Golay cell at the distance l=1mm for the bare gold samples with gold-coated and uncoated right facet.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

SPP intensity versus path length measured with the Golay cell for the bare gold and for the gold coated with a 0.25 μm ZnS layer; the distance l (see Fig. 1) was 50 mm; λ=140μm. Points, experiment; curves, exponential fit.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Characteristics of SPPs and Diffracted Radiation for Gold and Gold Covered with ZnS Layer Surfaces at λ=140μm (Theory)a

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E(r,t)=E0exp[κz+i(kxωt)],E0={E0x,0,E0z},B(r,t)=B0exp[κz+i(kxωt)],B0={0,B0y,0}.
dz=[Re(κ)]1.
k=k0ε1+ε.
k0=ω/c,k2κ2=k02.
kx=k0cosχ=k,kz=k0sinχ=iκ,κ=ik0sinχ.
cosχ=ε1+ε,sinχ=11+ε.
Imχ<0,
L=[2Im(k)]1
χ=0.001020i·0.001420,k=(44900+i·0.065)m1,andκ=(64+i·46)m1.
ξ=sinχ=11+ε0.00102i·0.00142.
κk0(1ε+εd1εdk0d),kk0[1+12(1ε+εd1εdk0d)2],ξ1εiεd1εdk0d.
|εd1εdk0dε|εd12πdελ.
B0y(r,θ)=12exp(s2)[1+ierfi(s)]exp(ik0r),
rR=k01|Imχ|2.
Δθfw=2|Imχ|2|Imξ|,

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