Abstract

We investigate a nanolaser structure with a gold nanowire that supports long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs). A high refractive index semiconductor gain medium surrounding the nanowire allows the LR-SPPs to be well bound to the nanowire even for a small radius of 15nm with sufficiently small attenuation. An outermost gold shield with a radius of 400 nm is introduced to prohibit the mode from radiating out to free space when the modal cutoff-like feedback structure is used to confine the propagating mode longitudinally. Numerical simulations for an optimized structure show that the quality factor and lasing threshold gain of the resonant mode at room temperature are 158 and 1590cm1, respectively. We also find that the nanolaser supports another type of plasmonic resonant mode with localized surface plasmons on the nanowire with the outermost gold shield, which possesses a quality factor of 220 and a threshold gain of 950cm1. These gain coefficients can be obtained in bulk semiconductors.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 11107–11112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Krishnamurthy and B. Klein, “Theoretical investigation of metal cladding for nanowire and cylindrical micropost lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 67–74 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Ikeda, Y. Fainman, K. A. Shore, and H. Kawaguchi, “Modified long-range surface plasmon polariton modes for laser nanoresonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1261–1263 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C.-Y. Lu, S.-W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 8790–8799 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Flynn, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, M. Kim, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Mäkinen, K. Bussmann, L. Cheng, F.-S. Choa, and J. P. Long, “A room-temperature semiconductor spaser operating near 1.5 μm,” Opt. Express 19, 8954–8961 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Fukui, V. C. Y. So, and R. Normandin, “Lifetimes of surface plasmons in thin silver films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 91, K61–K64 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Sarid, “Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927–1930 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186–5201 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484–10503 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 382–387 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 457–461 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. J. Al-Bader and M. Imtaar, “Azimuthally uniform surface-plasma modes in thin metallic cylindrical shells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 525–533 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Takahara and T. Kobayashi, “Low-dimensional optical waves and nano-optical circuits,” Opt. Photon. News 15, 54–59 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. Schmidt and P. S. Russell, “Long-range spiralling surface plasmon modes on metallic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16, 13617–13623 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander, and C. A. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1099–1119 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, “Theory of Bragg fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1196–1201 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer Science+Business Media, 2007), Chap. 5.
  26. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH, 2004), p. 99.
  27. G. Annino, H. Yashiro, M. Cassettari, and M. Martinelli, “Properties of trapped electromagnetic modes in coupled waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125308 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1988), p. 148.
  29. A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Reflection of guided modes in a semiconductor nanowire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1237 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  30. I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Theory of surface plasmon-polariton amplification in planar structures incorporating dipolar gain media,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 161401(R) (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. Colas des Francs, P. Bramant, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Optical gain, spontaneous and stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons in confined plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18, 16327–16334 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikeda, Y. Fainman, K. A. Shore, and H. Kawaguchi, “Modified long-range surface plasmon polariton modes for laser nanoresonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Flynn, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, M. Kim, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Mäkinen, K. Bussmann, L. Cheng, F.-S. Choa, and J. P. Long, “A room-temperature semiconductor spaser operating near 1.5 μm,” Opt. Express 19, 8954–8961 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 8790–8799 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Colas des Francs, P. Bramant, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Optical gain, spontaneous and stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons in confined plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18, 16327–16334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lu, S.-W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Theory of surface plasmon-polariton amplification in planar structures incorporating dipolar gain media,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 161401(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Schmidt and P. S. Russell, “Long-range spiralling surface plasmon modes on metallic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16, 13617–13623 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Krishnamurthy and B. Klein, “Theoretical investigation of metal cladding for nanowire and cylindrical micropost lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 67–74 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Annino, H. Yashiro, M. Cassettari, and M. Martinelli, “Properties of trapped electromagnetic modes in coupled waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Takahara and T. Kobayashi, “Low-dimensional optical waves and nano-optical circuits,” Opt. Photon. News 15, 54–59 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Reflection of guided modes in a semiconductor nanowire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. J. Al-Bader and M. Imtaar, “Azimuthally uniform surface-plasma modes in thin metallic cylindrical shells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 525–533 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

D. Sarid, “Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927–1930 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

M. Fukui, V. C. Y. So, and R. Normandin, “Lifetimes of surface plasmons in thin silver films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 91, K61–K64 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Al-Bader, S. J.

S. J. Al-Bader and M. Imtaar, “Azimuthally uniform surface-plasma modes in thin metallic cylindrical shells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 525–533 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

Annino, G.

G. Annino, H. Yashiro, M. Cassettari, and M. Martinelli, “Properties of trapped electromagnetic modes in coupled waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Berini, P.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Theory of surface plasmon-polariton amplification in planar structures incorporating dipolar gain media,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 161401(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

C.-Y. Lu, S.-W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH, 2004), p. 99.

Bondarenko, O.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

Bramant, P.

Burke, J. J.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bussmann, K.

Cassettari, M.

G. Annino, H. Yashiro, M. Cassettari, and M. Martinelli, “Properties of trapped electromagnetic modes in coupled waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-W.

C.-Y. Lu, S.-W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L.

Choa, F.-S.

Chuang, S. L.

C.-Y. Lu, S.-W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colas des Francs, G.

Danz, N.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Leon, I.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Theory of surface plasmon-polariton amplification in planar structures incorporating dipolar gain media,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 161401(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

Ding, K.

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Ikeda, Y. Fainman, K. A. Shore, and H. Kawaguchi, “Modified long-range surface plasmon polariton modes for laser nanoresonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, R. A.

Fukui, M.

M. Fukui, V. C. Y. So, and R. Normandin, “Lifetimes of surface plasmons in thin silver films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 91, K61–K64 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Germann, T. D.

C.-Y. Lu, S.-W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grandidier, J.

Herz, E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH, 2004), p. 99.

Ikeda, K.

K. Ikeda, Y. Fainman, K. A. Shore, and H. Kawaguchi, “Modified long-range surface plasmon polariton modes for laser nanoresonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Imtaar, M.

S. J. Al-Bader and M. Imtaar, “Azimuthally uniform surface-plasma modes in thin metallic cylindrical shells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 525–533 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Karouta, F.

Katz, M.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, H.

K. Ikeda, Y. Fainman, K. A. Shore, and H. Kawaguchi, “Modified long-range surface plasmon polariton modes for laser nanoresonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khajavikhan, M.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

Kim, M.

Klein, B.

V. Krishnamurthy and B. Klein, “Theoretical investigation of metal cladding for nanowire and cylindrical micropost lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 67–74 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

J. Takahara and T. Kobayashi, “Low-dimensional optical waves and nano-optical circuits,” Opt. Photon. News 15, 54–59 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, V.

V. Krishnamurthy and B. Klein, “Theoretical investigation of metal cladding for nanowire and cylindrical micropost lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 67–74 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lakhani, A.

Lee, J. H.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

Leosson, K.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Long, J. P.

Long, L. L.

Lu, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Lu, S.-W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.-M.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer Science+Business Media, 2007), Chap. 5.

Mäkinen, A. J.

Marell, M.

Marell, M. J. H.

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

Martinelli, M.

G. Annino, H. Yashiro, M. Cassettari, and M. Martinelli, “Properties of trapped electromagnetic modes in coupled waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, A. V.

A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Reflection of guided modes in a semiconductor nanowire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

Mizrahi, A.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nezhad, M. P.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ning, C. Z.

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Reflection of guided modes in a semiconductor nanowire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ning, C.-Z.

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Normandin, R.

M. Fukui, V. C. Y. So, and R. Normandin, “Lifetimes of surface plasmons in thin silver films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 91, K61–K64 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nötzel, R.

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y.-S.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Oulton, R. F.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S.

Sarid, D.

D. Sarid, “Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927–1930 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. A.

Shalaev, V. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shore, K. A.

K. Ikeda, Y. Fainman, K. A. Shore, and H. Kawaguchi, “Modified long-range surface plasmon polariton modes for laser nanoresonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simic, A.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B. A.

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

So, V. C. Y.

M. Fukui, V. C. Y. So, and R. Normandin, “Lifetimes of surface plasmons in thin silver films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 91, K61–K64 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stout, S.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, M.

Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takahara, J.

J. Takahara and T. Kobayashi, “Low-dimensional optical waves and nano-optical circuits,” Opt. Photon. News 15, 54–59 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

Wang, H.

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Weeber, J.-C.

Wiesner, U.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

Yariv, A.

Yashiro, H.

G. Annino, H. Yashiro, M. Cassettari, and M. Martinelli, “Properties of trapped electromagnetic modes in coupled waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

Yin, L.

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K.

Zhang, X.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Reflection of guided modes in a semiconductor nanowire laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lu, S.-W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

V. Krishnamurthy and B. Klein, “Theoretical investigation of metal cladding for nanowire and cylindrical micropost lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 67–74 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Al-Bader and M. Imtaar, “Azimuthally uniform surface-plasma modes in thin metallic cylindrical shells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 525–533 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Ikeda, Y. Fainman, K. A. Shore, and H. Kawaguchi, “Modified long-range surface plasmon polariton modes for laser nanoresonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nat. Mater. (1)

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (4)

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics 4, 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. Takahara and T. Kobayashi, “Low-dimensional optical waves and nano-optical circuits,” Opt. Photon. News 15, 54–59 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Theory of surface plasmon-polariton amplification in planar structures incorporating dipolar gain media,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 161401(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Annino, H. Yashiro, M. Cassettari, and M. Martinelli, “Properties of trapped electromagnetic modes in coupled waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Sarid, “Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927–1930 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

M. Fukui, V. C. Y. So, and R. Normandin, “Lifetimes of surface plasmons in thin silver films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 91, K61–K64 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer Science+Business Media, 2007), Chap. 5.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH, 2004), p. 99.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1988), p. 148.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of a gold nanowire surrounded by different dielectrics.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of neff calculated by the matrix method for TM and HE1 modes in relation to r1. The crosses indicate values calculated by FEM.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electric field distribution of the HE1 mode with n2=3.5 and r1=15nm calculated by FEM. The length of the arrows does not represent the field magnitude.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Contour plot of the electric potential in the region of 200nm×200nm for n2=3.5 and r1=15nm, and the direction of the electric field (red arrows) corresponding to the gradient of the electric potential. The length of the arrows does not represent the field magnitude.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Modal cutoff-like feedback structure to longitudinally confine the HE1 mode.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Shielded structure and (b) modal attenuation constant converted from the imaginary part of neff for different r2 calculated by FEM. The solid line indicates the results for the case with no shield calculated by the matrix method.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Calculated electric field distributions of the resonant mode for (a) LR-SPPs and (b) LSPs, where r1=15nm, r2=400nm, the cavity length l=200nm, and the total structure height h=900nm. The resonant wavelengths and the quality factors for these modes are calculated to be 1.04 μm and 90 and 0.98 μm and 220, respectively. Note that in the region where arrows look absent in (a), the electric field is out-of-plane pointing downward.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Waveguide structure using a thin layer with a low refractive index of 1.45 and a thickness t and (b) modal attenuation constant converted from the imaginary part of neff for different t calculated by FEM (n2=3.5, r1=15nm, r2=400nm).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Calculated quality factors for the LR-SPP and LSP resonant modes in relation to gain coefficients introduced by adding imaginary values to the refractive index of the semiconductor gain medium (n2=3.5+jx).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ(r,θ)=n12n22n12+n22E0r12cosθr,
E⃗(r,θ)=n12n22n12+n22E0r12r2(cosθ·e^r+sinθ·e^θ).

Metrics