Abstract

The implementation of an optical system universal logic-qubit controlled-NOT gate of decoherence-free subspaces (DFSs) using the cross-Kerr nonlinearity effect is discussed. Both the control qubit and the target qubit contain two photons, the states of which are DFSs of collective-rotating noise or collective-dephasing noise. A three-qubit parity-check circuit, which is the most important unit of the quantum gate, is proposed first, and only one ancillary photon is needed in our scheme. A single-photon source, linear optical apparatus, and quantum nondemolition detector are used to perform the process. Its efficiency may approach 100% with a feed-forward process. The experimental feasibility of the strategy with current technology is also considered.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (3)

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, “Optimal nonlocal multipartite entanglement concentration based on projection measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 022311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Sun, H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, and K. H. Yeon, “Entanglement concentration of partially entangled three-photon W states with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 630–634 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

F. G. Deng, “Efficient multipartite entanglement purification with the entanglement link from a subspace,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 052312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Single-photon entanglement concentration for long-distance quantum communication,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 272–281 (2010).

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and G. L. Long, “Complete hyperentangled-Bell-state analysis for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 032318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 032307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Ivanov, U. G. Poschinger, K. Singer, and F. S. Kaler, “Quantum gate in the decoherence-free subspace of trapped-ion qubits,” Europhys. Lett. 92, 30006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (8)

X. H. Li, B. K. Zhao, Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Fault tolerant quantum key distribution based on quantum dense coding with collective noise,” Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 7, 1479–1489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Wang, Y. L. Wang, L. M. Liang, and C. Z. Li, “Quantum gate operations in decoherence-free subspace with superconducting charge qubits inside a cavity,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 100304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Feng, C. F. Wu, H. Sun, and C. H. Oh, “Geometric entangling gates in decoherence-free subspaces with minimal requirements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 200501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Clark, J. Fulconis, J. G. Rarity, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. L. O’Brien, “All-optical-fiber polarization-based quantum logic gate,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 030303(R) (2009).

Q. Lin and J. Li, “Quantum control gates with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 022301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin and B. He, “Single-photon logic gates using minimal resources,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 042310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujii and K. Yamamoto, “Entanglement purification with double selection,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 042308 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, B. K. Zhao, T. J. Wang, and H. Y. Zhou, “Multipartite entanglement purification with quantum nondemolition detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. D 55, 235–242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Nonlocal entanglement concentration scheme for partially entangled multipartite systems with nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 062325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Wu, X. L. Feng, X. X. Yi, I. M. Chen, and C. H. Oh, “Quantum gate operations in the decoherence-free subspace of superconducting quantum-interference devices,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 062321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. Y. Li, X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Complete multiple round quantum dense coding with quantum logical network,” Chinese Sci. Bull. 52, 1162–1165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Improving the security of secure direct communication based on the secret transmitting order of particles,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 054302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

C. Wang, F. G. Deng, Y. S. Li, X. S. Liu, and G. L. Long, “Quantum secure direct communication with high-dimension quantum superdense coding,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044305 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. B. Wang, “Fault tolerant quantum key distribution protocol with collective random unitary noise,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 050304(R) (2005).

W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, and T. P. Spiller, “Weak nonlinearities: a new route to optical quantum computation,” New J. Phys. 7, 137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

K. Nemoto and W. J. Munro, “Nearly deterministic linear optical controlled-NOT gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, “Robust polarization-based quantum key distribution over a collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

Z. D. Walton, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Decoherence-free subspaces in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 087901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, G. L. Long, and X. S. Liu, “Two-step quantum direct communication protocol using the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pair block,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 042317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng and G. L. Long, “Controlled order rearrangement encryption for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 042315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

G. L. Long and X. S. Liu, “Theoretically efficient high-capacity quantum-key-distribution scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 032302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Reznik, Y. Aharonov, and B. Groisman, “Remote operations and interactions for systems of arbitrary-dimensional Hilbert space: state-operator approach,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 032312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Palph, N. K. Langford, T. B. Bell, and A. G. White, “Linear optical controlled-NOT gate in the coincidence basis,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 062324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, “Single-photon quantum-nondemolition detectors constructed with linear optics and projective measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 063814 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, “Probabilistic quantum logic operations using polarizing beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 062311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Grangier, J. A. Levenson, and J. P. Poizat, “Quantum non-demolition measurements in optics,” Nature 396, 537–542 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. Divincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, “Elementary gates for quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457–3467 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

D. Deutsch and R. Jozsa, “Rapid solution of problems by quantum computation,” Proc. R. Soc. A 439, 553–558 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121–3124 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett and S. J. Wiesner, “Communication via one- and two-particle operators on Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2881–2884 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

R. P. Feynman, “Quantum mechanical computers,” Opt. News 11(2), 11–20 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. Deutsch, “Quantum theory, the church-turing principle and the universal quantum computer,” Proc. R. Soc. A 400, 97–117 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Abouraddy, A. F.

Z. D. Walton, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Decoherence-free subspaces in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 087901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aharonov, Y.

B. Reznik, Y. Aharonov, and B. Groisman, “Remote operations and interactions for systems of arbitrary-dimensional Hilbert space: state-operator approach,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 032312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barenco, A.

A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. Divincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, “Elementary gates for quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457–3467 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bell, T. B.

T. C. Palph, N. K. Langford, T. B. Bell, and A. G. White, “Linear optical controlled-NOT gate in the coincidence basis,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 062324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. Divincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, “Elementary gates for quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457–3467 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett and S. J. Wiesner, “Communication via one- and two-particle operators on Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2881–2884 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121–3124 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boileau, J. C.

J. C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, “Robust polarization-based quantum key distribution over a collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, I. M.

C. F. Wu, X. L. Feng, X. X. Yi, I. M. Chen, and C. H. Oh, “Quantum gate operations in the decoherence-free subspace of superconducting quantum-interference devices,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 062321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, I. L.

M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University, 2000).

Clark, A. S.

A. S. Clark, J. Fulconis, J. G. Rarity, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. L. O’Brien, “All-optical-fiber polarization-based quantum logic gate,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 030303(R) (2009).

Cleve, R.

A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. Divincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, “Elementary gates for quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457–3467 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deng, F. G.

F. G. Deng, “Optimal nonlocal multipartite entanglement concentration based on projection measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 022311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, “Efficient multipartite entanglement purification with the entanglement link from a subspace,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 052312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 032307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and G. L. Long, “Complete hyperentangled-Bell-state analysis for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 032318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Single-photon entanglement concentration for long-distance quantum communication,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 272–281 (2010).

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, B. K. Zhao, T. J. Wang, and H. Y. Zhou, “Multipartite entanglement purification with quantum nondemolition detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. D 55, 235–242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, B. K. Zhao, Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Fault tolerant quantum key distribution based on quantum dense coding with collective noise,” Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 7, 1479–1489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Nonlocal entanglement concentration scheme for partially entangled multipartite systems with nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 062325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Li, X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Complete multiple round quantum dense coding with quantum logical network,” Chinese Sci. Bull. 52, 1162–1165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Improving the security of secure direct communication based on the secret transmitting order of particles,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 054302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, F. G. Deng, Y. S. Li, X. S. Liu, and G. L. Long, “Quantum secure direct communication with high-dimension quantum superdense coding,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044305 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng and G. L. Long, “Controlled order rearrangement encryption for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 042315 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Deng, G. L. Long, and X. S. Liu, “Two-step quantum direct communication protocol using the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pair block,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 042317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, D.

D. Deutsch and R. Jozsa, “Rapid solution of problems by quantum computation,” Proc. R. Soc. A 439, 553–558 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Deutsch, “Quantum theory, the church-turing principle and the universal quantum computer,” Proc. R. Soc. A 400, 97–117 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Divincenzo, D. P.

A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. Divincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, “Elementary gates for quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457–3467 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, “Single-photon quantum-nondemolition detectors constructed with linear optics and projective measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 063814 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X. L.

X. L. Feng, C. F. Wu, H. Sun, and C. H. Oh, “Geometric entangling gates in decoherence-free subspaces with minimal requirements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 200501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Wu, X. L. Feng, X. X. Yi, I. M. Chen, and C. H. Oh, “Quantum gate operations in the decoherence-free subspace of superconducting quantum-interference devices,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 062321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feynman, R. P.

R. P. Feynman, “Quantum mechanical computers,” Opt. News 11(2), 11–20 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Franson, J. D.

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, “Probabilistic quantum logic operations using polarizing beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 062311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Gottesman, D.

J. C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, “Robust polarization-based quantum key distribution over a collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
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P. Grangier, J. A. Levenson, and J. P. Poizat, “Quantum non-demolition measurements in optics,” Nature 396, 537–542 (1998).
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C. Y. Li, X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Complete multiple round quantum dense coding with quantum logical network,” Chinese Sci. Bull. 52, 1162–1165 (2007).
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Y. M. Wang, Y. L. Wang, L. M. Liang, and C. Z. Li, “Quantum gate operations in decoherence-free subspace with superconducting charge qubits inside a cavity,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 100304 (2009).
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Q. Lin and J. Li, “Quantum control gates with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 022301 (2009).
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X. H. Li, B. K. Zhao, Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Fault tolerant quantum key distribution based on quantum dense coding with collective noise,” Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 7, 1479–1489 (2009).
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X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).
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C. Y. Li, X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Complete multiple round quantum dense coding with quantum logical network,” Chinese Sci. Bull. 52, 1162–1165 (2007).
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X. Y. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
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C. Wang, F. G. Deng, Y. S. Li, X. S. Liu, and G. L. Long, “Quantum secure direct communication with high-dimension quantum superdense coding,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044305 (2005).
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C. Wang, F. G. Deng, Y. S. Li, X. S. Liu, and G. L. Long, “Quantum secure direct communication with high-dimension quantum superdense coding,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044305 (2005).
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Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and G. L. Long, “Complete hyperentangled-Bell-state analysis for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 032318 (2010).
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C. Wang, F. G. Deng, Y. S. Li, X. S. Liu, and G. L. Long, “Quantum secure direct communication with high-dimension quantum superdense coding,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044305 (2005).
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F. G. Deng, G. L. Long, and X. S. Liu, “Two-step quantum direct communication protocol using the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pair block,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 042317 (2003).
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G. L. Long and X. S. Liu, “Theoretically efficient high-capacity quantum-key-distribution scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 032302 (2002).
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A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. Divincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, “Elementary gates for quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457–3467 (1995).
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E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
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W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, and T. P. Spiller, “Weak nonlinearities: a new route to optical quantum computation,” New J. Phys. 7, 137 (2005).
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Oh, C. H.

X. L. Feng, C. F. Wu, H. Sun, and C. H. Oh, “Geometric entangling gates in decoherence-free subspaces with minimal requirements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 200501 (2009).
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C. F. Wu, X. L. Feng, X. X. Yi, I. M. Chen, and C. H. Oh, “Quantum gate operations in the decoherence-free subspace of superconducting quantum-interference devices,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 062321 (2008).
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T. C. Palph, N. K. Langford, T. B. Bell, and A. G. White, “Linear optical controlled-NOT gate in the coincidence basis,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 062324 (2002).
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T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, “Probabilistic quantum logic operations using polarizing beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 062311 (2001).
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P. Grangier, J. A. Levenson, and J. P. Poizat, “Quantum non-demolition measurements in optics,” Nature 396, 537–542 (1998).
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C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
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P. A. Ivanov, U. G. Poschinger, K. Singer, and F. S. Kaler, “Quantum gate in the decoherence-free subspace of trapped-ion qubits,” Europhys. Lett. 92, 30006 (2010).
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J. C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, “Robust polarization-based quantum key distribution over a collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
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A. S. Clark, J. Fulconis, J. G. Rarity, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. L. O’Brien, “All-optical-fiber polarization-based quantum logic gate,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 030303(R) (2009).

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B. Reznik, Y. Aharonov, and B. Groisman, “Remote operations and interactions for systems of arbitrary-dimensional Hilbert space: state-operator approach,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 032312 (2002).
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Z. D. Walton, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Decoherence-free subspaces in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 087901 (2003).
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C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
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Z. D. Walton, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Decoherence-free subspaces in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 087901 (2003).
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X. Y. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
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Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).
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Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Single-photon entanglement concentration for long-distance quantum communication,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 272–281 (2010).

Y. B. Sheng and F. G. Deng, “Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 032307 (2010).
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Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and G. L. Long, “Complete hyperentangled-Bell-state analysis for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 032318 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, B. K. Zhao, Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Fault tolerant quantum key distribution based on quantum dense coding with collective noise,” Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 7, 1479–1489 (2009).
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Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, B. K. Zhao, T. J. Wang, and H. Y. Zhou, “Multipartite entanglement purification with quantum nondemolition detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. D 55, 235–242 (2009).
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Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Nonlocal entanglement concentration scheme for partially entangled multipartite systems with nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 062325 (2008).
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Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).
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A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. Divincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, “Elementary gates for quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457–3467 (1995).
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P. A. Ivanov, U. G. Poschinger, K. Singer, and F. S. Kaler, “Quantum gate in the decoherence-free subspace of trapped-ion qubits,” Europhys. Lett. 92, 30006 (2010).
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A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. Divincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, “Elementary gates for quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457–3467 (1995).
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C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, “Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722–725 (1996).
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A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. Divincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, “Elementary gates for quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457–3467 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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J. C. Boileau, D. Gottesman, R. Laflamme, D. Poulin, and R. W. Spekkens, “Robust polarization-based quantum key distribution over a collective-noise channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017901 (2004).
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W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, and T. P. Spiller, “Weak nonlinearities: a new route to optical quantum computation,” New J. Phys. 7, 137 (2005).
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X. L. Feng, C. F. Wu, H. Sun, and C. H. Oh, “Geometric entangling gates in decoherence-free subspaces with minimal requirements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 200501 (2009).
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Sun, L. L.

Teich, M. C.

Z. D. Walton, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Decoherence-free subspaces in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 087901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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X. Y. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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A. S. Clark, J. Fulconis, J. G. Rarity, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. L. O’Brien, “All-optical-fiber polarization-based quantum logic gate,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 030303(R) (2009).

Walton, Z. D.

Z. D. Walton, A. F. Abouraddy, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Decoherence-free subspaces in quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 087901 (2003).
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C. Wang, F. G. Deng, Y. S. Li, X. S. Liu, and G. L. Long, “Quantum secure direct communication with high-dimension quantum superdense coding,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044305 (2005).
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Wang, H. F.

Wang, T. J.

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, B. K. Zhao, T. J. Wang, and H. Y. Zhou, “Multipartite entanglement purification with quantum nondemolition detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. D 55, 235–242 (2009).
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X. B. Wang, “Fault tolerant quantum key distribution protocol with collective random unitary noise,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 050304(R) (2005).

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Y. M. Wang, Y. L. Wang, L. M. Liang, and C. Z. Li, “Quantum gate operations in decoherence-free subspace with superconducting charge qubits inside a cavity,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 100304 (2009).
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Y. M. Wang, Y. L. Wang, L. M. Liang, and C. Z. Li, “Quantum gate operations in decoherence-free subspace with superconducting charge qubits inside a cavity,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 100304 (2009).
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A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. Divincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, “Elementary gates for quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457–3467 (1995).
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D. A. Lidar and K. B. Whaley, Irreversible Quantum Dynamics, Vol. 622 of Springer Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer, 2003).

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T. C. Palph, N. K. Langford, T. B. Bell, and A. G. White, “Linear optical controlled-NOT gate in the coincidence basis,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 062324 (2002).
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[CrossRef]

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X. L. Feng, C. F. Wu, H. Sun, and C. H. Oh, “Geometric entangling gates in decoherence-free subspaces with minimal requirements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 200501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Wu, X. L. Feng, X. X. Yi, I. M. Chen, and C. H. Oh, “Quantum gate operations in the decoherence-free subspace of superconducting quantum-interference devices,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 062321 (2008).
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K. Fujii and K. Yamamoto, “Entanglement purification with double selection,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 042308 (2009).
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Yi, X. X.

C. F. Wu, X. L. Feng, X. X. Yi, I. M. Chen, and C. H. Oh, “Quantum gate operations in the decoherence-free subspace of superconducting quantum-interference devices,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 062321 (2008).
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Zhang, S.

Zhao, B. K.

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, B. K. Zhao, T. J. Wang, and H. Y. Zhou, “Multipartite entanglement purification with quantum nondemolition detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. D 55, 235–242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, B. K. Zhao, Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Fault tolerant quantum key distribution based on quantum dense coding with collective noise,” Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 7, 1479–1489 (2009).
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Zhao, S. M.

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).
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Zheng, B. Y.

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H. Y.

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Single-photon entanglement concentration for long-distance quantum communication,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 272–281 (2010).

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, B. K. Zhao, T. J. Wang, and H. Y. Zhou, “Multipartite entanglement purification with quantum nondemolition detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. D 55, 235–242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, B. K. Zhao, Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Fault tolerant quantum key distribution based on quantum dense coding with collective noise,” Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 7, 1479–1489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient polarization-entanglement purification based on parametric down-conversion sources with cross-Kerr nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 042308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Nonlocal entanglement concentration scheme for partially entangled multipartite systems with nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 062325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Li, X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Complete multiple round quantum dense coding with quantum logical network,” Chinese Sci. Bull. 52, 1162–1165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Improving the security of secure direct communication based on the secret transmitting order of particles,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 054302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, S. M. Zhao, and B. Y. Zheng, “Efficient single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration for partially entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 012307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

C. Y. Li, X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Complete multiple round quantum dense coding with quantum logical network,” Chinese Sci. Bull. 52, 1162–1165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. M. Wang, Y. L. Wang, L. M. Liang, and C. Z. Li, “Quantum gate operations in decoherence-free subspace with superconducting charge qubits inside a cavity,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26, 100304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chinese Sci. Bull. (1)

C. Y. Li, X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, P. Zhou, and H. Y. Zhou, “Complete multiple round quantum dense coding with quantum logical network,” Chinese Sci. Bull. 52, 1162–1165 (2007).
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Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, B. K. Zhao, T. J. Wang, and H. Y. Zhou, “Multipartite entanglement purification with quantum nondemolition detectors,” Eur. Phys. J. D 55, 235–242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

P. A. Ivanov, U. G. Poschinger, K. Singer, and F. S. Kaler, “Quantum gate in the decoherence-free subspace of trapped-ion qubits,” Europhys. Lett. 92, 30006 (2010).
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Int. J. Quantum. Inform. (1)

X. H. Li, B. K. Zhao, Y. B. Sheng, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Fault tolerant quantum key distribution based on quantum dense coding with collective noise,” Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 7, 1479–1489 (2009).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Three-qubit polarization QND detector that can distinguish quantum states |HHH, |HVV, |VHV, and |VVH from |VVV, |HHV, |VHH, and |HVH. The coherent probe beam will have a phase shift θ (θ=π/2 in our scheme) only when a photon of horizontal polarization passes through a weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity material and interacts with the probe beam. PBSs and a general homodyne–heterodyne measurement is used in the strategy. Every line denotes a quantum channel. The dashed curves illustrate the feed-forward process. After performing unitary operations σx on all photons according to the result of homodyne–heterodyne measurement, the photon state described as Eq. (3) will changed into state (2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Quantum circuit of three-photon parity check based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity with 50% efficiency.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Process to accomplish logic-qubit CNOT operation. The entangler on the right-hand side is a QND constructed by PBSs and other elements as in Fig. 1. The left-hand entangler replaces some PBSs with FBSs, which transmit photons in F-polarization states and reflect photons in S-polarization states. The ancillary photon is in state 1/2(|H+|V) initially and is measured on an HV basis after a PBS.

Equations (9)

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UcK|Ψini|αp=a1a2a3|HHH|αe3iθp+(a1b2b3|HVV+b1a2b3|VHV+b1b2a1|VVH)|αeiθp+b1b2b3|VVV|αp+(a1a2b3|HHV+a1b2a3|HVH+b1a2a3|VHH)|αe2iθp.
a1a2a3|HHH+a1b2b3|HVV+b1a2b3|VHV+b1b2a3|VVH,
b1b2b3|VVV+a1a2b3|HHV+a1b2a3|HVH+b1a2a3|VHH.
a1a2a3|HHH+a1b2b3|HVV+b1a2b3|VHV+b1b2a3|VVH,
b1b2b3|VVV+a1a2b3|HHV+a1b2a3|HVH,
b1a2a3|VHH.
(a1|0+b1|1)c(a2|0+b2|1)t=(a1|ϕ++b1|ψ)c1c2(a2|ϕ++b2|ψ)t1t2a1|0c(a2|0+b2|1)t+b1|1(a2|1+b2|0)t=a1|ϕ+c1c2(a2|ϕ++b2|ψ)t1t2+b1|ψc1c2(a2|ψ+b2|ϕ+)t1t2.
[a1(|HH+|VV)+b1(|HV|VH)]c1c2(a2+b2)|Fa(|H|F|V|S)t1t2+[a1(|HH+|VV)b1(|HV|VH)]c1c2(a2b2)|Sa(|H|S+|V|F)t1t2,
[a1(|HH+|VV)+b1(|HV|VH)]c1c2(a2b2)|Fa(|H|S+|V|F)t1t2+[a1(|HH+|VV)b1(|HV|VH)]c1c2(a2+b2)|Sa(|H|F|V|S)t1t2.

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