Abstract

We generated ultrabroadband coherent infrared pulses in a spectral range of 1–200 THz through the use of air plasma produced by hollow fiber compressed submillijoule 10-fs pulses and their second harmonics. Moreover, we coherently detected the electric-field profile in the range up to 150 THz through field-induced second harmonic generation of the probe in air. This result demonstrates the advantage of using air for detection, in terms of both spectral range and sensitivity, over photoconductive antennas and electro-optic (EO) sampling. The quadratic dependence of the signal sensitivity on the probe pulse energy shortens the effective probe pulse duration and contributes to the higher frequency detection than in the case of EO sampling with a crystal.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Dai, B. Clough, I.-C. Ho, X. Lu, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Recent progresses in terahertz wave air photonics,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 71, 274–281 (2011) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Katayama, R. Akai, M. Bito, H. Shimosato, K. Miyamoto, H. Ito, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband terahertz generation using 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. D. Thomson, M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Park, J. Lee, and C. Hee Nam, “Generation of 1.5 cycle 0.3 TW laser pulses using a hollow-fiber pulse compressor,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2342–2344 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband coherent electric field from far infrared to 200 THz using air plasma induced by 10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360–3362 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI (Springer, 2009), pp. 979–981.
  9. N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Systematic study of broadband terahertz gas sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz super continuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. D. Thomson, V. Blank, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz white-light pulses from an air plasma photo-induced by incommensurate two-color optical fields,” Opt. Express 18, 23173–23182 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Ashida, “Ultra-broadband terahertz wave detection using photoconductive antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8221–8225 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Blank, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Coherent detection methods for ultra-broadband THz pulses from a laser-induced air plasma,” in Proceedings of 36th Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2011), paper Th3C.1.
  15. S. Kono, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Coherent detection of mid-infrared radiation up to 60 THz with an LT-GaAs photoconductive antenna,” IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 105–109 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784–1786 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285–1286 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 444–446 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321–2323 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I.-C. Ho, X. Guo, and X.-C. Zhang, “Design and performance of reflective terahertz air-biased-coherent-detection for time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 2872–2883 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband coherent electric field from far infrared to 200 THz using air plasma induced by 10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. Dai, B. Clough, I.-C. Ho, X. Lu, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Recent progresses in terahertz wave air photonics,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 71, 274–281 (2011) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

M. Ashida, “Ultra-broadband terahertz wave detection using photoconductive antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8221–8225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Systematic study of broadband terahertz gas sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz super continuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360–3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Kono, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Coherent detection of mid-infrared radiation up to 60 THz with an LT-GaAs photoconductive antenna,” IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 105–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784–1786 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285–1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Akai, R.

I. Katayama, R. Akai, M. Bito, H. Shimosato, K. Miyamoto, H. Ito, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband terahertz generation using 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI (Springer, 2009), pp. 979–981.

Ashida, M.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband coherent electric field from far infrared to 200 THz using air plasma induced by 10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Katayama, R. Akai, M. Bito, H. Shimosato, K. Miyamoto, H. Ito, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband terahertz generation using 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ashida, “Ultra-broadband terahertz wave detection using photoconductive antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8221–8225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI (Springer, 2009), pp. 979–981.

Bito, M.

I. Katayama, R. Akai, M. Bito, H. Shimosato, K. Miyamoto, H. Ito, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband terahertz generation using 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blank, V.

M. D. Thomson, V. Blank, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz white-light pulses from an air plasma photo-induced by incommensurate two-color optical fields,” Opt. Express 18, 23173–23182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Blank, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Coherent detection methods for ultra-broadband THz pulses from a laser-induced air plasma,” in Proceedings of 36th Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2011), paper Th3C.1.

Brener, I.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Systematic study of broadband terahertz gas sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clough, B.

J. Dai, B. Clough, I.-C. Ho, X. Lu, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Recent progresses in terahertz wave air photonics,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 71, 274–281 (2011) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

J. Dai, B. Clough, I.-C. Ho, X. Lu, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Recent progresses in terahertz wave air photonics,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 71, 274–281 (2011) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dörner, R.

M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ergler, T.

M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gimpel, H.

M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glownia, J. H.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz super continuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ho, I.-C.

J. Dai, B. Clough, I.-C. Ho, X. Lu, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Recent progresses in terahertz wave air photonics,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 71, 274–281 (2011) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

I.-C. Ho, X. Guo, and X.-C. Zhang, “Design and performance of reflective terahertz air-biased-coherent-detection for time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 2872–2883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360–3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

I. Katayama, R. Akai, M. Bito, H. Shimosato, K. Miyamoto, H. Ito, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband terahertz generation using 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI (Springer, 2009), pp. 979–981.

Johnson, K.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Systematic study of broadband terahertz gas sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, I.

I. Katayama, R. Akai, M. Bito, H. Shimosato, K. Miyamoto, H. Ito, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband terahertz generation using 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI (Springer, 2009), pp. 979–981.

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz super continuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kono, S.

S. Kono, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Coherent detection of mid-infrared radiation up to 60 THz with an LT-GaAs photoconductive antenna,” IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 105–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kreß, M.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kübler, C.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360–3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

Leitenstorfer, A.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360–3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lesimple, A.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Dai, B. Clough, I.-C. Ho, X. Lu, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Recent progresses in terahertz wave air photonics,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 71, 274–281 (2011) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lopata, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

J. Dai, B. Clough, I.-C. Ho, X. Lu, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Recent progresses in terahertz wave air photonics,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 71, 274–281 (2011) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Systematic study of broadband terahertz gas sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mamer, O.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, E.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband coherent electric field from far infrared to 200 THz using air plasma induced by 10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, K.

I. Katayama, R. Akai, M. Bito, H. Shimosato, K. Miyamoto, H. Ito, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband terahertz generation using 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI (Springer, 2009), pp. 979–981.

Morgner, U.

M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, M.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband coherent electric field from far infrared to 200 THz using air plasma induced by 10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. Hee

Park, J.

Pfeiffer, L.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Price-Gallagher, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz super continuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

M. D. Thomson, V. Blank, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz white-light pulses from an air plasma photo-induced by incommensurate two-color optical fields,” Opt. Express 18, 23173–23182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Blank, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Coherent detection methods for ultra-broadband THz pulses from a laser-induced air plasma,” in Proceedings of 36th Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2011), paper Th3C.1.

Sakai, K.

S. Kono, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Coherent detection of mid-infrared radiation up to 60 THz with an LT-GaAs photoconductive antenna,” IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 105–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimosato, H.

I. Katayama, R. Akai, M. Bito, H. Shimosato, K. Miyamoto, H. Ito, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband terahertz generation using 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI (Springer, 2009), pp. 979–981.

Stark, J. B.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

S. Kono, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Coherent detection of mid-infrared radiation up to 60 THz with an LT-GaAs photoconductive antenna,” IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 105–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz super continuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. D.

M. D. Thomson, V. Blank, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz white-light pulses from an air plasma photo-induced by incommensurate two-color optical fields,” Opt. Express 18, 23173–23182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Blank, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Coherent detection methods for ultra-broadband THz pulses from a laser-induced air plasma,” in Proceedings of 36th Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2011), paper Th3C.1.

Tübel, S.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360–3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784–1786 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285–1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wynn, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285–1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784–1786 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

J. Dai, B. Clough, I.-C. Ho, X. Lu, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Recent progresses in terahertz wave air photonics,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 71, 274–281 (2011) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

I.-C. Ho, X. Guo, and X.-C. Zhang, “Design and performance of reflective terahertz air-biased-coherent-detection for time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 2872–2883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Systematic study of broadband terahertz gas sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zrost, K.

M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

I. Katayama, R. Akai, M. Bito, H. Shimosato, K. Miyamoto, H. Ito, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband terahertz generation using 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Systematic study of broadband terahertz gas sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband coherent electric field from far infrared to 200 THz using air plasma induced by 10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360–3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “7 terahertz broadband GaP electro-optic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784–1786 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285–1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, J. B. Stark, Q. Wu, X. C. Zhang, and J. F. Federici, “Coherent terahertz radiation detection: direct comparison between free-space electro-optic sampling and antenna detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 444–446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

S. Kono, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Coherent detection of mid-infrared radiation up to 60 THz with an LT-GaAs photoconductive antenna,” IEEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 105–109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Dai, B. Clough, I.-C. Ho, X. Lu, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Recent progresses in terahertz wave air photonics,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 71, 274–281 (2011) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Ashida, “Ultra-broadband terahertz wave detection using photoconductive antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8221–8225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz super continuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Kreβ, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

V. Blank, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Coherent detection methods for ultra-broadband THz pulses from a laser-induced air plasma,” in Proceedings of 36th Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2011), paper Th3C.1.

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI (Springer, 2009), pp. 979–981.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for generation and detection of ultrabroadband infrared pulses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectrum of the ultrabroadband coherent infrared pulse in mid- to near-infrared range observed with a monochromator and an MCT detector.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Representative temporal electric-field profile of the ultrabroadband infrared pulse measured with coherent detection using air.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Analysis of the spectral range of an ultrabroadband infrared pulse measured with coherent detection using air plasma. Black curve represents the averaged Fourier-transformed intensity spectrum. Vertical bars denote the standard deviation at representative frequencies. Gray curve represents the averaged noise spectrum.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Relationships between the probe pulse duration and the highest detection frequency. Circles, squares, and triangles represent the results obtained using PC antennas, EO sampling, and air, respectively, and a star represents the present result. Dotted curve, dashed-dotted curve, and solid curve show Δtν=0.85, Δtν=1.15, and Δtν=1.63, respectively. Reference numbers are shown at each point.

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