Abstract

Terahertz (THz) wave generation process in air plasma was studied using femtosecond laser pulse pairs. The effect of preexisting air plasma was investigated using two optical geometries: collinear and orthogonal pumping geometry. When the air plasma is excited in collinear geometry, the power of the generated THz wave shows asymmetric dependence on the relative delay of these pulses. The asymmetry depends on the relative intensities of these pump pulses, and it disappears when the pulses have equal intensities. In the orthogonal pumping geometry, the power of the THZ wave generated by the main pump pulse decreases in the presence of the preexisting plasma generated by the prepulse, and it recovers as the relative delay between the prepulse and main pulses becomes longer. Possible mechanisms of the results are discussed in terms of the dynamics of free electrons in the air plasma.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. D. Thomson, V. Blank, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz white-light pulses from an air plasma photo-induced by incommensurate two-color optical fields,” Opt. Express 18, 23173–23182 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Das and M. Yamaguchi, “Tunable narrow band THz wave generation from laser induced gas plasma,” Opt. Express 18, 7038–7046 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Yamaguchi and J. Das, “Terahertz wave generation in nitrogen gas using shaped optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A90–A94 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Wen, D. Daranciang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “High-speed all-optical terahertz polarization switching by a transient plasma phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. H. D. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023902 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Y. Minami, M. Nakajima, and T. Suemoto, “Effect of preformed plasma on terahertz-wave emission from the plasma generated by two-color laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2009 (4)

M. Yamaguchi and J. Das, “Terahertz wave generation in nitrogen gas using shaped optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A90–A94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Rodriguez, A. R. Valenzuela, B. Yellampalle, M. J. Schmitt, and K.-Y. Kim, “In-line holographic imaging and electron density extraction of ultrafast ionized air filaments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1988–1997 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

Azarm, A.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartel, T.

Bernhardt, J.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blank, V.

Chen, Y.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cook, D. J.

Dai, J.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).

Dai, J. M.

J. M. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Daranciang, D.

H. Wen, D. Daranciang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “High-speed all-optical terahertz polarization switching by a transient plasma phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Das, J.

Dorner, R.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eden, S.

Elsaesser, T.

Ergler, T.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaal, P.

Gimpel, H.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glownia, J. H.

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Johnson, K.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kamali, Y.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

J. M. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

Kim, K.-Y.

Kreß, M.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kress, M.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1120–1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lesimple, A.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lindenberg, A. M.

H. Wen, D. Daranciang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “High-speed all-optical terahertz polarization switching by a transient plasma phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loffler, T.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1120–1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mamer, O.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manceau, J. M.

Massaouti, M.

Minami, Y.

Y. Minami, M. Nakajima, and T. Suemoto, “Effect of preformed plasma on terahertz-wave emission from the plasma generated by two-color laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, M.

Y. Minami, M. Nakajima, and T. Suemoto, “Effect of preformed plasma on terahertz-wave emission from the plasma generated by two-color laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Price-Gallagher, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, K.

Rodriguez, G.

Roskos, H. G.

M. D. Thomson, V. Blank, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz white-light pulses from an air plasma photo-induced by incommensurate two-color optical fields,” Opt. Express 18, 23173–23182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1120–1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, M. J.

Suemoto, T.

Y. Minami, M. Nakajima, and T. Suemoto, “Effect of preformed plasma on terahertz-wave emission from the plasma generated by two-color laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Thomson, M.

Thomson, M. D.

M. D. Thomson, V. Blank, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz white-light pulses from an air plasma photo-induced by incommensurate two-color optical fields,” Opt. Express 18, 23173–23182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

Ullrich, J.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Valenzuela, A. R.

Wang, M.

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wen, H.

H. Wen, D. Daranciang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “High-speed all-optical terahertz polarization switching by a transient plasma phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wen, H. D.

H. D. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).

Xu, H. L.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

J. Das and M. Yamaguchi, “Tunable narrow band THz wave generation from laser induced gas plasma,” Opt. Express 18, 7038–7046 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamaguchi and J. Das, “Terahertz wave generation in nitrogen gas using shaped optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A90–A94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yellampalle, B.

Zhang, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

J. M. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).

Zhao, H.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zrosp, K.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire terahertz gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wen, D. Daranciang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “High-speed all-optical terahertz polarization switching by a transient plasma phase modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 161103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360, 171–175 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: from fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrosp, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. Minami, M. Nakajima, and T. Suemoto, “Effect of preformed plasma on terahertz-wave emission from the plasma generated by two-color laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023828 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

H. D. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 023001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of THz wave generation from air plasma using two-pulse trains in (a) collinear and (b) orthogonal geometries.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Interferometic optical autocorrelation signal and (b) THz wave generation from air plasma by two sets of two-color optical pulses as a function of relative delay. Inset shows the expansion of these signals.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

THz wave generation from air by an optical two-pulse train with unequal intensities.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Modulation of THz wave power generated from air plasma by a single color pulse in (a) short and (b) long time scales in cross geometry. The prepulse power for each curves are shown in the figures.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Prepulse polarization dependence of plasma-induced THz wave modulation. Angle between the polarizations of prepulse and main pulse is indicated.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

THz wave power reduction by the prepulse and simulated number of free electrons induced by the single color prepulse. Lines are guides to eyes.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Overlap dependence of THz wave power modulation. Plasmas generated by prepulse and main pulse (two-color pulse) overlapped in different positions.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Effect of prepulse on THz spectrum. Top and middle curves are experimental THz spectrum with and without prepulse, and the bottom curve is simulated THz spectrum ×104.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Experimental and simulated generated THz power as a function between preplasma and main pulse.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Fitting Parameter for N2 Gas Relaxation

Equations (7)

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Δϕ=3πln(2)8ln(2)e2a0ε0mω800cN,
J(t)=t0tev(t,t)W(t)exp[ttτ]dt,
ωP=Ne2ε0m,
n(Ω)=(1ωP2Ω2+iνΩ)1/2.
ITHz(Ω)=|0LETHz(Ω,z)exp[LzLa]dz|22,
N2++N2=N4+N4++e=N2(C3Πu)+N2,
f=A1exp(t/τ1)+A2exp(t/τ2).

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