Abstract

Two Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 nm are independently frequency-stabilized to two separately located, vertically mounted ultrastable Fabry–Perot reference cavities. Measurements show that each laser system has achieved a most probable linewidth of 0.6 Hz and fractional frequency instability of 1.2×1015 between 1 and 40 s averaging time. Systematic evaluation shows that the performance of each laser system is limited by thermal noise of the reference cavity.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg199+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. J. Waldman, “Status of LIGO at the start of the fifth science run,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S653–S660 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. G. Turyshev, “Experimental tests of general relativity: recent progress and future directions,” Phys. Uspekhi 52, 1–27 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, “Making optical atomic clocks more stable with 10−16-level laser stabilization,” Nat. Photonics 5, 158–161 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. L. Nicholson, M. J. Martin, J. R. Williams, B. J. Bloom, M. Bishof, M. D. Swallows, S. L. Campbell, and J. Ye, “Comparison of two independent Sr optical clocks with 1×10−17 stability at 103  s,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 230801 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297–1309 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799–3802 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. A. Webster, M. Oxborrow, and P. Gill, “Subhertz-linewidth Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1497–1499 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Notcutt, L. S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Simple and compact 1 Hz laser system via an improved mounting configuration of a reference cavity,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1815–1817 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Stoehr, F. Mensing, J. Helmcke, and U. Sterr, “Diode laser with 1 Hz linewidth,” Opt. Lett. 31, 736–738 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. D. Ludlow, X. Huang, M. Notcutt, T. Zanon-Willette, S. M. Foreman, M. M. Boyd, S. Blatt, and J. Ye, “Compact, thermal-noise-limited optical cavity for diode laser stabilization at 1×10−15,” Opt. Lett. 32, 641–643 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Subhertz linewidth diode lasers by stabilization to vibrationally and thermally compensated ultralow-expansion glass Fabry-Pérot cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Jiang, S. Fang, Z. Bi, X. Xu, and L. Ma, “Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 nm with 1 Hz linewidth,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 61–67 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40 mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. A. Whittaker, M. Gehrtz, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Residual amplitude modulation in laser electro-optic phase modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1320–1326 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. C. Wong and J. L. Hall, “Servo control of amplitude modulation in frequency-modulation spectroscopy: demonstration of shot-noise-limited detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1527–1533 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Li, F. Liu, C. Wang, and L. Chen, “Measurement and control of residual amplitude modulation in optical phase modulation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 043111 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, “Thermal-noise limit in the frequency stabilization of lasers with rigid cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250602 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1777–1779 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Notcutt, L. S. Ma, A. D. Ludlow, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Contribution of thermal noise to frequency stability of rigid optical cavity via Hertz-linewidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031804 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

T. L. Nicholson, M. J. Martin, J. R. Williams, B. J. Bloom, M. Bishof, M. D. Swallows, S. L. Campbell, and J. Ye, “Comparison of two independent Sr optical clocks with 1×10−17 stability at 103  s,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 230801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40 mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, F. Liu, C. Wang, and L. Chen, “Measurement and control of residual amplitude modulation in optical phase modulation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 043111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, “Making optical atomic clocks more stable with 10−16-level laser stabilization,” Nat. Photonics 5, 158–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. Jiang, S. Fang, Z. Bi, X. Xu, and L. Ma, “Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 nm with 1 Hz linewidth,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 61–67 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. G. Turyshev, “Experimental tests of general relativity: recent progress and future directions,” Phys. Uspekhi 52, 1–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Subhertz linewidth diode lasers by stabilization to vibrationally and thermally compensated ultralow-expansion glass Fabry-Pérot cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (5)

H. Stoehr, F. Mensing, J. Helmcke, and U. Sterr, “Diode laser with 1 Hz linewidth,” Opt. Lett. 31, 736–738 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Notcutt, L. S. Ma, A. D. Ludlow, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Contribution of thermal noise to frequency stability of rigid optical cavity via Hertz-linewidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Waldman, “Status of LIGO at the start of the fifth science run,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S653–S660 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297–1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, “Nobel Lecture: defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1279–1295 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

S. A. Webster, M. Oxborrow, and P. Gill, “Subhertz-linewidth Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1497–1499 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, “Thermal-noise limit in the frequency stabilization of lasers with rigid cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg199+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1985 (2)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Alnis, J.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Subhertz linewidth diode lasers by stabilization to vibrationally and thermally compensated ultralow-expansion glass Fabry-Pérot cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg199+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bi, Z.

Y. Jiang, S. Fang, Z. Bi, X. Xu, and L. Ma, “Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 nm with 1 Hz linewidth,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 61–67 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bishof, M.

T. L. Nicholson, M. J. Martin, J. R. Williams, B. J. Bloom, M. Bishof, M. D. Swallows, S. L. Campbell, and J. Ye, “Comparison of two independent Sr optical clocks with 1×10−17 stability at 103  s,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 230801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

Blatt, S.

Bloom, B. J.

T. L. Nicholson, M. J. Martin, J. R. Williams, B. J. Bloom, M. Bishof, M. D. Swallows, S. L. Campbell, and J. Ye, “Comparison of two independent Sr optical clocks with 1×10−17 stability at 103  s,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 230801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, M. M.

Camp, J.

K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, “Thermal-noise limit in the frequency stabilization of lasers with rigid cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, S. L.

T. L. Nicholson, M. J. Martin, J. R. Williams, B. J. Bloom, M. Bishof, M. D. Swallows, S. L. Campbell, and J. Ye, “Comparison of two independent Sr optical clocks with 1×10−17 stability at 103  s,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 230801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40 mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, F. Liu, C. Wang, and L. Chen, “Measurement and control of residual amplitude modulation in optical phase modulation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 043111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, F. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg199+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg199+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg199+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fang, S.

Y. Jiang, S. Fang, Z. Bi, X. Xu, and L. Ma, “Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 nm with 1 Hz linewidth,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 61–67 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, S. M.

A. D. Ludlow, X. Huang, M. Notcutt, T. Zanon-Willette, S. M. Foreman, M. M. Boyd, S. Blatt, and J. Ye, “Compact, thermal-noise-limited optical cavity for diode laser stabilization at 1×10−15,” Opt. Lett. 32, 641–643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Notcutt, L. S. Ma, A. D. Ludlow, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Contribution of thermal noise to frequency stability of rigid optical cavity via Hertz-linewidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fox, R. W.

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, “Making optical atomic clocks more stable with 10−16-level laser stabilization,” Nat. Photonics 5, 158–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gehrtz, M.

Gill, P.

Grebing, C.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40 mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hagemann, C.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40 mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

M. Notcutt, L. S. Ma, A. D. Ludlow, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Contribution of thermal noise to frequency stability of rigid optical cavity via Hertz-linewidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, “Nobel Lecture: defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1279–1295 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Notcutt, L. S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Simple and compact 1 Hz laser system via an improved mounting configuration of a reference cavity,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1815–1817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1777–1779 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Wong and J. L. Hall, “Servo control of amplitude modulation in frequency-modulation spectroscopy: demonstration of shot-noise-limited detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1527–1533 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Subhertz linewidth diode lasers by stabilization to vibrationally and thermally compensated ultralow-expansion glass Fabry-Pérot cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297–1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helmcke, J.

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg199+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg199+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, S. Fang, Z. Bi, X. Xu, and L. Ma, “Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 nm with 1 Hz linewidth,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 61–67 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, “Making optical atomic clocks more stable with 10−16-level laser stabilization,” Nat. Photonics 5, 158–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jungner, P.

Kemery, A.

K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, “Thermal-noise limit in the frequency stabilization of lasers with rigid cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, T.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40 mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kirchner, M. S.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kolachevsky, N.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Subhertz linewidth diode lasers by stabilization to vibrationally and thermally compensated ultralow-expansion glass Fabry-Pérot cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg199+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Legero, T.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40 mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, N.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, N. D.

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, “Making optical atomic clocks more stable with 10−16-level laser stabilization,” Nat. Photonics 5, 158–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, F. Liu, C. Wang, and L. Chen, “Measurement and control of residual amplitude modulation in optical phase modulation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 043111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

L. Li, F. Liu, C. Wang, and L. Chen, “Measurement and control of residual amplitude modulation in optical phase modulation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 043111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ludlow, A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ludlow, A. D.

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, “Making optical atomic clocks more stable with 10−16-level laser stabilization,” Nat. Photonics 5, 158–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Ludlow, X. Huang, M. Notcutt, T. Zanon-Willette, S. M. Foreman, M. M. Boyd, S. Blatt, and J. Ye, “Compact, thermal-noise-limited optical cavity for diode laser stabilization at 1×10−15,” Opt. Lett. 32, 641–643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Notcutt, L. S. Ma, A. D. Ludlow, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Contribution of thermal noise to frequency stability of rigid optical cavity via Hertz-linewidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.

Y. Jiang, S. Fang, Z. Bi, X. Xu, and L. Ma, “Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 nm with 1 Hz linewidth,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 61–67 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L. S.

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, “Making optical atomic clocks more stable with 10−16-level laser stabilization,” Nat. Photonics 5, 158–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Notcutt, L. S. Ma, A. D. Ludlow, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Contribution of thermal noise to frequency stability of rigid optical cavity via Hertz-linewidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Notcutt, L. S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Simple and compact 1 Hz laser system via an improved mounting configuration of a reference cavity,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1815–1817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1777–1779 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. J.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40 mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Nicholson, M. J. Martin, J. R. Williams, B. J. Bloom, M. Bishof, M. D. Swallows, S. L. Campbell, and J. Ye, “Comparison of two independent Sr optical clocks with 1×10−17 stability at 103  s,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 230801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Matveev, A.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Subhertz linewidth diode lasers by stabilization to vibrationally and thermally compensated ultralow-expansion glass Fabry-Pérot cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mensing, F.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, T. L.

T. L. Nicholson, M. J. Martin, J. R. Williams, B. J. Bloom, M. Bishof, M. D. Swallows, S. L. Campbell, and J. Ye, “Comparison of two independent Sr optical clocks with 1×10−17 stability at 103  s,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 230801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Notcutt, M.

Numata, K.

K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, “Thermal-noise limit in the frequency stabilization of lasers with rigid cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, “Making optical atomic clocks more stable with 10−16-level laser stabilization,” Nat. Photonics 5, 158–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg199+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oxborrow, M.

Quinlan, F.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Riehle, F.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40 mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rosenband, T.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, J. A.

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, “Making optical atomic clocks more stable with 10−16-level laser stabilization,” Nat. Photonics 5, 158–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sterr, U.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40 mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Stoehr, F. Mensing, J. Helmcke, and U. Sterr, “Diode laser with 1 Hz linewidth,” Opt. Lett. 31, 736–738 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stoehr, H.

Swallows, M. D.

T. L. Nicholson, M. J. Martin, J. R. Williams, B. J. Bloom, M. Bishof, M. D. Swallows, S. L. Campbell, and J. Ye, “Comparison of two independent Sr optical clocks with 1×10−17 stability at 103  s,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 230801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Turyshev, S. G.

S. G. Turyshev, “Experimental tests of general relativity: recent progress and future directions,” Phys. Uspekhi 52, 1–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Udem, Th.

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Subhertz linewidth diode lasers by stabilization to vibrationally and thermally compensated ultralow-expansion glass Fabry-Pérot cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg199+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg199+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Waldman, S. J.

S. J. Waldman, “Status of LIGO at the start of the fifth science run,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S653–S660 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

L. Li, F. Liu, C. Wang, and L. Chen, “Measurement and control of residual amplitude modulation in optical phase modulation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 043111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Webster, S. A.

Whittaker, E. A.

Williams, J. R.

T. L. Nicholson, M. J. Martin, J. R. Williams, B. J. Bloom, M. Bishof, M. D. Swallows, S. L. Campbell, and J. Ye, “Comparison of two independent Sr optical clocks with 1×10−17 stability at 103  s,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 230801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg199+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wong, N. C.

Xu, X.

Y. Jiang, S. Fang, Z. Bi, X. Xu, and L. Ma, “Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 nm with 1 Hz linewidth,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 61–67 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40 mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Nicholson, M. J. Martin, J. R. Williams, B. J. Bloom, M. Bishof, M. D. Swallows, S. L. Campbell, and J. Ye, “Comparison of two independent Sr optical clocks with 1×10−17 stability at 103  s,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 230801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Ludlow, X. Huang, M. Notcutt, T. Zanon-Willette, S. M. Foreman, M. M. Boyd, S. Blatt, and J. Ye, “Compact, thermal-noise-limited optical cavity for diode laser stabilization at 1×10−15,” Opt. Lett. 32, 641–643 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Notcutt, L. S. Ma, A. D. Ludlow, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Contribution of thermal noise to frequency stability of rigid optical cavity via Hertz-linewidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Notcutt, L. S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Simple and compact 1 Hz laser system via an improved mounting configuration of a reference cavity,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1815–1817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1777–1779 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Young, B. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zanon-Willette, T.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, S. Fang, Z. Bi, X. Xu, and L. Ma, “Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 nm with 1 Hz linewidth,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 61–67 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Grav. (1)

S. J. Waldman, “Status of LIGO at the start of the fifth science run,” Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S653–S660 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Photonics (3)

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40 mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5, 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L. S. Ma, and C. W. Oates, “Making optical atomic clocks more stable with 10−16-level laser stabilization,” Nat. Photonics 5, 158–161 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. Alnis, A. Matveev, N. Kolachevsky, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Subhertz linewidth diode lasers by stabilization to vibrationally and thermally compensated ultralow-expansion glass Fabry-Pérot cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053809 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Notcutt, L. S. Ma, A. D. Ludlow, S. M. Foreman, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Contribution of thermal noise to frequency stability of rigid optical cavity via Hertz-linewidth lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, “Thermal-noise limit in the frequency stabilization of lasers with rigid cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Nicholson, M. J. Martin, J. R. Williams, B. J. Bloom, M. Bishof, M. D. Swallows, S. L. Campbell, and J. Ye, “Comparison of two independent Sr optical clocks with 1×10−17 stability at 103  s,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 230801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Uspekhi (1)

S. G. Turyshev, “Experimental tests of general relativity: recent progress and future directions,” Phys. Uspekhi 52, 1–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297–1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, “Nobel Lecture: defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1279–1295 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. Li, F. Liu, C. Wang, and L. Chen, “Measurement and control of residual amplitude modulation in optical phase modulation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 043111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An optical clock based on a single trapped Hg199+ ion,” Science 293, 825–828 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for Nd:YAG laser frequency stabilization. AOM, acousto-optic modulator; P , polarizer; EOM, electro-optic modulator; Isol, optical isolator; PD, photodetector; PBS, polarization beam splitter; λ / 4 , quarter-wave plate; λ / 2 , half-wave plate; FNC, fiber noise cancellation; SM, single-mode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measurements of the zero-expansion temperatures of FP Cav1 (dots) and FP Cav2 (square markers) and the parabolic fits.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Linewidth measurements when the RBW of the FFT spectrum analyzer is 0.25 Hz: (a) an example of the spectra of the beat note between two cavity-stabilized lasers (dots) and the Lorentzian fitting (solid curve), (b) linewidth distribution of approximately 800 groups of the spectra (dots) with 0.25 Hz step and the Lorentzian fitting (solid curve), and (c) an averaging spectrum of the beat note with center-overlapped (dots) and the Lorentzian fitting (solid curve).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Relative frequency drift of the beat note between two cavity-stabilized lasers at 1064 nm over 7 days and (b) calculated relevant frequency drift rate.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fractional frequency instability of one cavity-stabilized laser (dots). The solid line denotes the thermal-noise-limited frequency instability of approximate 1 × 10 15 for one cavity.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Frequency noise spectrum of one cavity-stabilized laser system. The dashed line shows the calculated thermal-noise-limited frequency noise spectrum of one cavity at 0.24 Hz / f .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Systematic Evaluation of the Frequency-Stabilized Nd:YAG Laser Systems

Metrics