Abstract

High-precision cavity-enhanced spectroscopic measurements are commonly compromised by interferences caused by external etalons. Here, we present the differential cavity ring-down spectroscopy (D-CRDS) technique for reducing these perturbations. We discuss how etalons are caused by coupled-cavity interactions between the primary ring-down cavity and other optical elements of the experiment, and we model and experimentally verify how drift in cavity base loss correlates with barometric pressure and laboratory temperature. D-CRDS measurements of near-infrared CO2 spectra that are insensitive to etalon-induced distortions are then presented. Based on an average of 100 spectra, these results yield a signal-to-noise ratio of 170,0001 and a minimum detectable absorption coefficient of 4×1012cm1.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Ultrasensitive detections in atomic and molecular physics: demonstration in molecular overtone spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6–15 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kassi, D. Romanini, A. Campargue, and B. Bussery–Honvault, “Very high sensitivity CW-cavity ring-down spectroscopy: application to the a1Δg−X3Σg−(1)O2 band near 1.58 μm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 409, 281–287 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Kassi and A. Campargue, “Cavity ring down spectroscopy with 5×10−13  cm−1 sensitivity,” J. Chem. Phys. 137, 234201 (2012).
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  8. A. Cygan, D. Lisak, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, J. T. Hodges, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “High-signal-to-noise-ratio laser technique for accurate measurements of spectral line parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 022508 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Grilli, G. Méjean, C. Abd Alrahman, I. Ventrilllard, S. Kassi, and D. Romanini, “Cavity-enhance multiplexed comb spectroscopy down to the photon shot noise,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 051804 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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  14. H. F. Huang and K. K. Lehmann, “Long-term stability in continuous wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy experiments,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1378–1387 (2010).
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  15. J. Ye and J. L. Hall, “Cavity ringdown heterodyne spectroscopy: high sensitivity with microwatt light power,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 061802 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. W. Miller, and G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849–863 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Huang and K. K. Lehmann, “Noise in cavity ring-down spectroscopy caused by transverse mode coupling,” Opt. Express 15, 8745–8759 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. W. Marquardt, “An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11, 431–441 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Galatry, “Simultaneous effect of Doppler and foreign gas broadening on spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. 122, 1218–1223 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Lance, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, and J. P. Bouanich, “On the speed-dependent hard collision lineshape models: application to C2H2 perturbed by Xe,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 185, 262–271 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Priem, F. Rohart, J. M. Colmont, G. Wlodarczak, and J. P. Bouanich, “Lineshape study of the J=3←2 rotational transition of CO perturbed by N2 and O2,” J. Mol. Struct. 517, 435–454 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Ward, J. Cooper, and E. W. Smith, “Correlation effects in theory of combined Doppler and pressure broadening—I. Classical theory,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 555–590 (1974).
  25. R. Ciuryło, “Shapes of pressure- and Doppler-broadened spectral lines in the core and near wings,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 1029–1039 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. A. Long, K. Bielska, D. Lisak, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “The air-broadened, near-infrared CO2 line shape in the spectrally isolated regime: evidence of simultaneous Dicke narrowing and speed dependence,” J. Chem. Phys. 135, 064308 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (5)

J. Courtois and J. T. Hodges, “Coupled-cavity ring-down spectroscopy technique,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3354–3356 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kassi and A. Campargue, “Cavity ring down spectroscopy with 5×10−13  cm−1 sensitivity,” J. Chem. Phys. 137, 234201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, J. T. Hodges, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “High-signal-to-noise-ratio laser technique for accurate measurements of spectral line parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 022508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Grilli, G. Méjean, C. Abd Alrahman, I. Ventrilllard, S. Kassi, and D. Romanini, “Cavity-enhance multiplexed comb spectroscopy down to the photon shot noise,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 051804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Reduction of background signals in fiber-based NICE-OHMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2797–2805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, K. Bielska, D. Lisak, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “The air-broadened, near-infrared CO2 line shape in the spectrally isolated regime: evidence of simultaneous Dicke narrowing and speed dependence,” J. Chem. Phys. 135, 064308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, H. M. Pickett, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “Laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations of O2A band electric quadrupole transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 042513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Kassi, D. Romanini, A. Campargue, and B. Bussery–Honvault, “Very high sensitivity CW-cavity ring-down spectroscopy: application to the a1Δg−X3Σg−(1)O2 band near 1.58 μm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 409, 281–287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. W. Miller, and G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1685–1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

J. Ye and J. L. Hall, “Cavity ringdown heterodyne spectroscopy: high sensitivity with microwatt light power,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 061802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Priem, F. Rohart, J. M. Colmont, G. Wlodarczak, and J. P. Bouanich, “Lineshape study of the J=3←2 rotational transition of CO perturbed by N2 and O2,” J. Mol. Struct. 517, 435–454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Werle and S. Lechner, “Stark-modulation-enhanced FM-spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 55, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Ultrasensitive detections in atomic and molecular physics: demonstration in molecular overtone spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Ciuryło, “Shapes of pressure- and Doppler-broadened spectral lines in the core and near wings,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 1029–1039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Lance, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, and J. P. Bouanich, “On the speed-dependent hard collision lineshape models: application to C2H2 perturbed by Xe,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 185, 262–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, “Ring-down cavity absorption-spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with 6, 7, and 8 stretching quanta,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287–6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. O. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption-measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. Ward, J. Cooper, and E. W. Smith, “Correlation effects in theory of combined Doppler and pressure broadening—I. Classical theory,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 555–590 (1974).

1966 (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Pr. Inst. Electr. Elect. 54, 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

D. W. Marquardt, “An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11, 431–441 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

L. Galatry, “Simultaneous effect of Doppler and foreign gas broadening on spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. 122, 1218–1223 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Abd Alrahman, C.

R. Grilli, G. Méjean, C. Abd Alrahman, I. Ventrilllard, S. Kassi, and D. Romanini, “Cavity-enhance multiplexed comb spectroscopy down to the photon shot noise,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 051804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Pr. Inst. Electr. Elect. 54, 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bielska, K.

D. A. Long, K. Bielska, D. Lisak, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “The air-broadened, near-infrared CO2 line shape in the spectrally isolated regime: evidence of simultaneous Dicke narrowing and speed dependence,” J. Chem. Phys. 135, 064308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blanquet, G.

B. Lance, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, and J. P. Bouanich, “On the speed-dependent hard collision lineshape models: application to C2H2 perturbed by Xe,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 185, 262–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bouanich, J. P.

D. Priem, F. Rohart, J. M. Colmont, G. Wlodarczak, and J. P. Bouanich, “Lineshape study of the J=3←2 rotational transition of CO perturbed by N2 and O2,” J. Mol. Struct. 517, 435–454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Lance, G. Blanquet, J. Walrand, and J. P. Bouanich, “On the speed-dependent hard collision lineshape models: application to C2H2 perturbed by Xe,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 185, 262–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bussery–Honvault, B.

S. Kassi, D. Romanini, A. Campargue, and B. Bussery–Honvault, “Very high sensitivity CW-cavity ring-down spectroscopy: application to the a1Δg−X3Σg−(1)O2 band near 1.58 μm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 409, 281–287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

S. Kassi and A. Campargue, “Cavity ring down spectroscopy with 5×10−13  cm−1 sensitivity,” J. Chem. Phys. 137, 234201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kassi, D. Romanini, A. Campargue, and B. Bussery–Honvault, “Very high sensitivity CW-cavity ring-down spectroscopy: application to the a1Δg−X3Σg−(1)O2 band near 1.58 μm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 409, 281–287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ciurylo, R.

A. Cygan, D. Lisak, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, J. T. Hodges, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “High-signal-to-noise-ratio laser technique for accurate measurements of spectral line parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 022508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ciuryło, “Shapes of pressure- and Doppler-broadened spectral lines in the core and near wings,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 1029–1039 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Colmont, J. M.

D. Priem, F. Rohart, J. M. Colmont, G. Wlodarczak, and J. P. Bouanich, “Lineshape study of the J=3←2 rotational transition of CO perturbed by N2 and O2,” J. Mol. Struct. 517, 435–454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J.

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[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, K. Bielska, D. Lisak, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “The air-broadened, near-infrared CO2 line shape in the spectrally isolated regime: evidence of simultaneous Dicke narrowing and speed dependence,” J. Chem. Phys. 135, 064308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, H. M. Pickett, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “Laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations of O2A band electric quadrupole transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 042513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, W. W.

J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. W. Miller, and G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Keefe, A. O.

A. O. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption-measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, M.

D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, K. Bielska, D. Lisak, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “The air-broadened, near-infrared CO2 line shape in the spectrally isolated regime: evidence of simultaneous Dicke narrowing and speed dependence,” J. Chem. Phys. 135, 064308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, H. M. Pickett, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “Laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations of O2A band electric quadrupole transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 042513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pickett, H. M.

D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, H. M. Pickett, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “Laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations of O2A band electric quadrupole transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 042513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Priem, D.

D. Priem, F. Rohart, J. M. Colmont, G. Wlodarczak, and J. P. Bouanich, “Lineshape study of the J=3←2 rotational transition of CO perturbed by N2 and O2,” J. Mol. Struct. 517, 435–454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rohart, F.

D. Priem, F. Rohart, J. M. Colmont, G. Wlodarczak, and J. P. Bouanich, “Lineshape study of the J=3←2 rotational transition of CO perturbed by N2 and O2,” J. Mol. Struct. 517, 435–454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

R. Grilli, G. Méjean, C. Abd Alrahman, I. Ventrilllard, S. Kassi, and D. Romanini, “Cavity-enhance multiplexed comb spectroscopy down to the photon shot noise,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 051804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kassi, D. Romanini, A. Campargue, and B. Bussery–Honvault, “Very high sensitivity CW-cavity ring-down spectroscopy: application to the a1Δg−X3Σg−(1)O2 band near 1.58 μm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 409, 281–287 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, “Ring-down cavity absorption-spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with 6, 7, and 8 stretching quanta,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287–6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scace, G. E.

J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. W. Miller, and G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silander, I.

Simeckova, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Slemr, F.

P. W. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1685–1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. W.

J. Ward, J. Cooper, and E. W. Smith, “Correlation effects in theory of combined Doppler and pressure broadening—I. Classical theory,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 555–590 (1974).

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. Cygan, D. Lisak, S. Wójtewicz, J. Domysławska, J. T. Hodges, R. S. Trawiński, and R. Ciuryło, “High-signal-to-noise-ratio laser technique for accurate measurements of spectral line parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 022508 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Zee, R. D.

D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ventrilllard, I.

R. Grilli, G. Méjean, C. Abd Alrahman, I. Ventrilllard, S. Kassi, and D. Romanini, “Cavity-enhance multiplexed comb spectroscopy down to the photon shot noise,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 051804 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Ward, J.

J. Ward, J. Cooper, and E. W. Smith, “Correlation effects in theory of combined Doppler and pressure broadening—I. Classical theory,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 555–590 (1974).

Werle, P.

P. Werle and S. Lechner, “Stark-modulation-enhanced FM-spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 55, 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P. W.

P. W. Werle, P. Mazzinghi, F. D’Amato, M. De Rosa, K. Maurer, and F. Slemr, “Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta A 60, 1685–1705 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the D-CRDS system. FI, fiber isolator; FSI, free space isolator; FC, fiber coupler; DM, dichroic mirror; PD, photodetector; BOA, booster optical amplifier; M1 and M2, RDC mirrors. The RDC length is stabilized through the cavity lock servo as detailed in [11]. The probe lock servo ensures that the two diffracted beams (from AOM1 and AOM2) are resonant with the RDC and allows for alternately switching these beams on and off.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental comparison between two extreme cases for the Δq=2, D-CRDS system. (a) The detector surface forms a source of feedback that is at a distance of lc/2 from the MLS of M2 (i.e., amplification factor 0, cf. Fig. 8), while in (b) it has been placed at a distance of 3lc/4 from the same RDC mirror (i.e., amplification factor 2, cf. Fig. 8). Blue and red traces correspond to CRDS and D-CRDS measurements, respectively. In (1)(a) and (1)(b) we present the baseline-subtracted empty cavity losses [lc/(cτ)] of the RDC obtained from the conventional CRDS method while in (2)(a) and (2)(b) we show the resulting D-CRDS measurements. Note that the same vertical scale has been used in (1) and (2) in order to highlight the importance of the ERRs characteristic of the D-CRDS technique. The horizontal axes represent the optical frequency detuning Δν. We assign the small slope in the D-CRDS spectrum to residual quadratic frequency dependence of the mirror losses. (3) shows the Allan deviation σα versus averaging bin size δb and related improvements in drift cancellation afforded by the differential technique when using a proper setup that minimizes the amplification factor. Measurement pairs were acquired at a rate of 10Hz, such that an averaging bin size of unity corresponds to a 100 ms averaging time.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Upper panel: measured (dashed blue line with open symbols) and modeled (solid and dashed red lines) fractional variation in RDC base losses, 1/(cτ). Lower panel: the corresponding fractional variation in the measured air density and pressure (indicated dashed curves, left axis) and etalon phase (solid line, right axis). Fractional variations in the losses were modeled with the function a0[sin(ϕ0+(ϕϕ0)sin(ϕ0)] where (ϕϕ0)=4πν(n0l0nl)/c assuming ν/c=6250cm1 and an etalon of nominal length l0(T0)=40cm. Here changes in the etalon phase are calculated in terms of the measured air temperature and pressure (which alter the refractive index n of the laboratory air) and thermal expansion of optical table (which alters l). Air refractive index was calculated as n1=dn/dρ ρ(p,T), with ρ being air number density and dn/dρ=1.07×1023cm3 molecule-1. The temperature-dependent etalon length was modeled as l(T)=l0+β(TT0), where β is the thermal expansion coefficient of stainless steel and assumed to be 1.69×105K1. The original sampling interval was 8min, and the data were smoothed to give an effective averaging time of 7h. The modeled loss included only the etalon amplitude, a0=4.8×104 (corresponding to Δαe=1.3×1010cm1), and the phase shift ϕ0 as adjustable parameters.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectra (top) and fit residuals (bottom) of air-broadened CO2 [R26e (3001300001)] transition. (a) Two-channel D-CRDS spectrum and (b) conventional CRDS spectrum. These results were obtained by averaging 98 spectra. Lower panels: corresponding SDNGP fit residuals. Baseline rms values for single and average spectra, respectively, are: D-CRDS: 5.2×1011cm1 and 3.9×1012cm1; CRDS: 6.9×1011cm1 and 7.2×1012cm1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) SNR versus number of averaged spectra ns, obtained for CRDS for two-channel D-CRDS and single-channel D-CRDS spectra. Dashed lines indicate calculated values given by the square root of the number of averaged spectra times the corresponding average SNR obtained for single spectrum. (b) QF versus number of averaged spectra for the differential and conventional spectra. Data points are connected with spline fits.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Calculated absorption amplification factor ramp as a function of pressure. (b) Spectrum SNR as a function of pressure for the air-broadened CO2 [R26e (3001300001)] transition. The two symbols labeled “measured” correspond to the maximum SNR values reported in Fig. 5. The curves labeled “predicted” are based on scaling the maximum measured CRDS value as discussed in the text.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic diagram of a CRDS involved in a single-sided, coupled-cavity mechanism and its corresponding equivalent optical system. Once the probe-beam intensity has been interrupted, light leaks out of the RDC at a rate dictated by its round-trip losses. In the coupled-cavity case, the reflected field from the MLS of M1, given by Arefl, arises from the direct reflection of the RDC intracavity field r1Ainc plus the portion of all the circulating fields that retroreflects from the N interfaces and couples back into the RDC. Coupled-cavity effects alter the effective reflectivity of mirror M1 in the equivalent optical system, thus altering the base losses of the composite system.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Theoretical dependence of the etalon amplification factor on changes in the normalized etalon length for the first three differential systems.

Equations (5)

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1cτj=αa(νj)+αm+iNΔαe,isin(2πνjνe,i+ϕi(t))
Δα(νj)=αa(νj+Δν)αa(νjΔν)+iNΔαe,i[sin(2π(νj+Δν)νe,i+ϕi)sin(2π(νjΔν)νe,i+ϕi)],
rRDC,eff=rRDC+C00r1tRDC2e2iϕ11+e2iϕ1r1rRDC
rRDC,eff=rRDC+tRDC2j=1NC00,jrje2iϕjk=1j1tk2(1)j+e2iϕjrjrRDCk=1j1tk2
1Δq(i16)lelc1Δq(i+16),

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