Abstract

We report the results of our recent experimental investigation of the cavity modulation frequency detuning effect on the output pulse dynamics in an active harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber laser. Our experimental study, which was carried out over a wide frequency detuning range, shows the existence of three different operating modes that depend on the degree of frequency detuning: (i) harmonic mode-locking, (ii) Q-switched harmonic/fundamental mode-locking, and (iii) a sinusoidal wave modulation mode. For this particular experimental laser configuration, the harmonic mode-locking mode is maintained over the frequency detuning range within ±15kHz, and then the Q-switched harmonic/fundamental mode-locking mode appears over the frequency detuning range from ±16 to ±36kHz. It is found that the Q-switched harmonic/fundamental mode-locking mode always produces both harmonic and fundamental repetition rate mode-locked pulses within a Q-switching envelope. A detailed experimental characterization of the output pulses in each operating mode is performed in terms of average power, pulse peak power, pulse width, and temporal width and repetition rate of the Q-switching envelope.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Yoshida, N. Shimizu, and M. Nakazawa, “A 40 GHz 0.9 ps regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser with a tuning range of 1530–1560 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1587–1589 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. D. Lee, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Jeong, and C.-S. Kim, “Characterization of wavelength-swept active mode locking fiber laser based on reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Express 19, 14586–14593 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. E. Villanueva, M. Ferri, and P. Pérez-Millán, “Active and passive mode-locked fiber lasers for high-speed high-resolution photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1443–1452 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Wu and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 145–150 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively mode-locked polarisation-maintaing erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1603–1605 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. S. Wey, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic mode-locking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry–Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1171–1180 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Horowitz, C. R. Menyuk, T. F. Carruthers, and I. N. Duling, “Theoretical and experimental study of harmonically mode-locked fiber lasers for optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1565–1574 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, and K. Noguchi, “Generation of highly stable 20 GHz transform-limited optical pulses from actively mode-locked Er3+-doped fibre lasers with an all-polarisation maintaining ring cavity,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2095–2096 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “10 GHz harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser stabilized by cavity length control for over 16 hours,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 1455–1459 (2006).
  10. H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Stabilisation of mode-locked Er-doped fibre laser by suppressing the relaxation oscillation frequency component,” Electron. Lett. 31, 292–293 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, Y. M. Jhon, S. Y. Ko, J. C. Jo, and S. S. Choi, “Relaxation-free harmonically mode-locked semiconductor-fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 521–523 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G.-R. Lin, M.-C. Wu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Suppression of phase and supermode noise in a harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with a semiconductor-optical–amplifier-based high-pass filter,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1834–1836 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “Wavelength tunable 1.0 ps pulse generation in 1530–1550 μm region from PLL, regeneratively mode-locked fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1753–1754 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Liao, and J.-R. Wu, “Harmonic injection-locking behavior of frequency-detuned optical pulse in erbium-doped fiber laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5204–5208 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G.-R. Lin and J.-R. Wu, “Tenth-order rational-harmonic frequency multiplication and detuning of optical pulse injection-locked erbium-doped fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2416–2420 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G.-R. Lin, P.-S. Hsueh, H.-H. Wu, and Y.-S. Liao, “The detuning characteristics of rational harmonic mode-locked semiconductor optical amplifier fiber-ring laser using backward optical sinusoidal-wave injection modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1325–1333 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Li, C. Lou, M. Han, and Y. Gao, “Detuning characteristics of the AM mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 589–597 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. M. Chang, J. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Q-switched mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser using cavity modulation frequency detuning,” Appl. Opt. 51, 5295–5301 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J.-H. Lin, H.-R. Chen, H.-H. Hsu, M.-D. Wei, K.-H. Lin, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Stable Q-switched mode-locked Nd3+LuVO4 laser by Cr4+:YAG crystal,” Opt. Express 16, 16538–16545 (2008).
  21. Agilent Technologies, “86100 infiniium DCA online help archive,” http://www.home.agilent.com/agilent/editorial.jspx?cc=US&lc= eng&ckey=98996&nid=-33196.536905494.00&id=98996 .

2012 (2)

G. E. Villanueva, M. Ferri, and P. Pérez-Millán, “Active and passive mode-locked fiber lasers for high-speed high-resolution photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1443–1452 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, J. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Q-switched mode-locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser using cavity modulation frequency detuning,” Appl. Opt. 51, 5295–5301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “10 GHz harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser stabilized by cavity length control for over 16 hours,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 1455–1459 (2006).

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

G.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Liao, and J.-R. Wu, “Harmonic injection-locking behavior of frequency-detuned optical pulse in erbium-doped fiber laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5204–5208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Li, C. Lou, M. Han, and Y. Gao, “Detuning characteristics of the AM mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 589–597 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Horowitz, C. R. Menyuk, T. F. Carruthers, and I. N. Duling, “Theoretical and experimental study of harmonically mode-locked fiber lasers for optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1565–1574 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 145–150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

D. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, Y. M. Jhon, S. Y. Ko, J. C. Jo, and S. S. Choi, “Relaxation-free harmonically mode-locked semiconductor-fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 521–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Yoshida, N. Shimizu, and M. Nakazawa, “A 40 GHz 0.9 ps regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser with a tuning range of 1530–1560 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1587–1589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “Wavelength tunable 1.0 ps pulse generation in 1530–1550 μm region from PLL, regeneratively mode-locked fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1753–1754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. S. Wey, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic mode-locking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry–Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1171–1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Stabilisation of mode-locked Er-doped fibre laser by suppressing the relaxation oscillation frequency component,” Electron. Lett. 31, 292–293 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively mode-locked polarisation-maintaing erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1603–1605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, and K. Noguchi, “Generation of highly stable 20 GHz transform-limited optical pulses from actively mode-locked Er3+-doped fibre lasers with an all-polarisation maintaining ring cavity,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2095–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Blondel, M.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burdge, G. L.

J. S. Wey, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic mode-locking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry–Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1171–1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carruthers, T. F.

Chang, Y. M.

Chang, Y.-C.

Chen, H.-R.

Choi, S. S.

D. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, Y. M. Jhon, S. Y. Ko, J. C. Jo, and S. S. Choi, “Relaxation-free harmonically mode-locked semiconductor-fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 521–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deparis, O.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duling, I. N.

Dutta, N. K.

C. Wu and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 145–150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Emplit, P.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferri, M.

G. E. Villanueva, M. Ferri, and P. Pérez-Millán, “Active and passive mode-locked fiber lasers for high-speed high-resolution photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1443–1452 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Y. Li, C. Lou, M. Han, and Y. Gao, “Detuning characteristics of the AM mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 589–597 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goldhar, J.

J. S. Wey, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic mode-locking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry–Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1171–1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haelterman, M.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.

Y. Li, C. Lou, M. Han, and Y. Gao, “Detuning characteristics of the AM mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 589–597 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

Hsieh, W.-F.

Hsu, H.-H.

Hsueh, P.-S.

Jeong, M. Y.

Jhon, Y. M.

Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “10 GHz harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser stabilized by cavity length control for over 16 hours,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 1455–1459 (2006).

D. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, Y. M. Jhon, S. Y. Ko, J. C. Jo, and S. S. Choi, “Relaxation-free harmonically mode-locked semiconductor-fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 521–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jo, J. C.

D. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, Y. M. Jhon, S. Y. Ko, J. C. Jo, and S. S. Choi, “Relaxation-free harmonically mode-locked semiconductor-fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 521–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Stabilisation of mode-locked Er-doped fibre laser by suppressing the relaxation oscillation frequency component,” Electron. Lett. 31, 292–293 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, and K. Noguchi, “Generation of highly stable 20 GHz transform-limited optical pulses from actively mode-locked Er3+-doped fibre lasers with an all-polarisation maintaining ring cavity,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2095–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.-S.

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, Y. M. Jhon, S. Y. Ko, J. C. Jo, and S. S. Choi, “Relaxation-free harmonically mode-locked semiconductor-fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 521–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “10 GHz harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser stabilized by cavity length control for over 16 hours,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 1455–1459 (2006).

D. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, Y. M. Jhon, S. Y. Ko, J. C. Jo, and S. S. Choi, “Relaxation-free harmonically mode-locked semiconductor-fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 521–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, Y.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively mode-locked polarisation-maintaing erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1603–1605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kiyan, R.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ko, S. Y.

D. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, Y. M. Jhon, S. Y. Ko, J. C. Jo, and S. S. Choi, “Relaxation-free harmonically mode-locked semiconductor-fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 521–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. D.

Lee, J.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, S.

Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “10 GHz harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser stabilized by cavity length control for over 16 hours,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 1455–1459 (2006).

Li, Y.

Y. Li, C. Lou, M. Han, and Y. Gao, “Detuning characteristics of the AM mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 589–597 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.-S.

Lin, G.-R.

Lin, J.-H.

Lin, K.-H.

Lou, C.

Y. Li, C. Lou, M. Han, and Y. Gao, “Detuning characteristics of the AM mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 589–597 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mégret, P.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, C. R.

Nakazawa, M.

E. Yoshida, N. Shimizu, and M. Nakazawa, “A 40 GHz 0.9 ps regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser with a tuning range of 1530–1560 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1587–1589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “Wavelength tunable 1.0 ps pulse generation in 1530–1550 μm region from PLL, regeneratively mode-locked fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1753–1754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively mode-locked polarisation-maintaing erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1603–1605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, K.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, and K. Noguchi, “Generation of highly stable 20 GHz transform-limited optical pulses from actively mode-locked Er3+-doped fibre lasers with an all-polarisation maintaining ring cavity,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2095–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Millán, P.

G. E. Villanueva, M. Ferri, and P. Pérez-Millán, “Active and passive mode-locked fiber lasers for high-speed high-resolution photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1443–1452 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pottiez, O.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saruwatari, M.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Stabilisation of mode-locked Er-doped fibre laser by suppressing the relaxation oscillation frequency component,” Electron. Lett. 31, 292–293 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, and K. Noguchi, “Generation of highly stable 20 GHz transform-limited optical pulses from actively mode-locked Er3+-doped fibre lasers with an all-polarisation maintaining ring cavity,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2095–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, N.

E. Yoshida, N. Shimizu, and M. Nakazawa, “A 40 GHz 0.9 ps regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser with a tuning range of 1530–1560 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1587–1589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takara, H.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Stabilisation of mode-locked Er-doped fibre laser by suppressing the relaxation oscillation frequency component,” Electron. Lett. 31, 292–293 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, and K. Noguchi, “Generation of highly stable 20 GHz transform-limited optical pulses from actively mode-locked Er3+-doped fibre lasers with an all-polarisation maintaining ring cavity,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2095–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Villanueva, G. E.

G. E. Villanueva, M. Ferri, and P. Pérez-Millán, “Active and passive mode-locked fiber lasers for high-speed high-resolution photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1443–1452 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M.-D.

Wey, J. S.

J. S. Wey, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic mode-locking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry–Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1171–1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 145–150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.-H.

Wu, J.-R.

G.-R. Lin and J.-R. Wu, “Tenth-order rational-harmonic frequency multiplication and detuning of optical pulse injection-locked erbium-doped fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2416–2420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Liao, and J.-R. Wu, “Harmonic injection-locking behavior of frequency-detuned optical pulse in erbium-doped fiber laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5204–5208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.-C.

Yoshida, E.

E. Yoshida, N. Shimizu, and M. Nakazawa, “A 40 GHz 0.9 ps regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser with a tuning range of 1530–1560 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1587–1589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “Wavelength tunable 1.0 ps pulse generation in 1530–1550 μm region from PLL, regeneratively mode-locked fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1753–1754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively mode-locked polarisation-maintaing erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1603–1605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (4)

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “Wavelength tunable 1.0 ps pulse generation in 1530–1550 μm region from PLL, regeneratively mode-locked fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1753–1754 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, “Ultrastable harmonically and regeneratively mode-locked polarisation-maintaing erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1603–1605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, and K. Noguchi, “Generation of highly stable 20 GHz transform-limited optical pulses from actively mode-locked Er3+-doped fibre lasers with an all-polarisation maintaining ring cavity,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2095–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Stabilisation of mode-locked Er-doped fibre laser by suppressing the relaxation oscillation frequency component,” Electron. Lett. 31, 292–293 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

G. E. Villanueva, M. Ferri, and P. Pérez-Millán, “Active and passive mode-locked fiber lasers for high-speed high-resolution photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1443–1452 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 145–150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

E. Yoshida, N. Shimizu, and M. Nakazawa, “A 40 GHz 0.9 ps regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser with a tuning range of 1530–1560 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1587–1589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, Y. M. Jhon, S. Y. Ko, J. C. Jo, and S. S. Choi, “Relaxation-free harmonically mode-locked semiconductor-fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 521–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

Y. M. Jhon, S. Lee, and S. H. Kim, “10 GHz harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser stabilized by cavity length control for over 16 hours,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 1455–1459 (2006).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Liao, and J.-R. Wu, “Harmonic injection-locking behavior of frequency-detuned optical pulse in erbium-doped fiber laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5204–5208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Li, C. Lou, M. Han, and Y. Gao, “Detuning characteristics of the AM mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 589–597 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Agilent Technologies, “86100 infiniium DCA online help archive,” http://www.home.agilent.com/agilent/editorial.jspx?cc=US&lc= eng&ckey=98996&nid=-33196.536905494.00&id=98996 .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of active harmonically mode-locked EDF laser used in this investigation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured average output power as a function of pump power. Inset: measured output optical spectrum.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured real time digital oscilloscope trace of the output pulse train for various frequency detunings. (a) With no frequency detuning (inset: close-up view). (b) With frequency detuning of 10 kHz, (c) 16 kHz, (d) 26 kHz, (e) 36 kHz, and (f) 56 kHz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured electrical spectra of the output pulse train for various frequency detunings. (a) With no frequency detuning (inset: wide-span view). (b) With frequency detuning of 10 kHz (inset: wide-span view), (c) 16 kHz, (d) 26 kHz, (e) 36 kHz, and (f) 56 kHz. The measurement resolution bandwidth was 300 Hz.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Magnified view of the Q-switched mode-locked pulses at frequency detuning of 16 kHz over various time spans. The red line is a theoretical fitting curve for the Q-switching envelope. (a) Over a 10 μs time span. (b) Over a 400 ns span. (c) Over a 5 ns span.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Measured repetition rate and temporal width of the Q-switching envelope as a function of the applied frequency detuning (Δfm). (b) Measured relative ratio between peak powers of the fundamental repetition rate pulses and harmonic repetition rate pulses under a Q-switching envelope as a function of frequency detuning (Δfm).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured digital sampling oscilloscope trace of the output pulse train for various frequency detunings. (a) With no frequency detuning. (b) With frequency detuning of 10 kHz, (c) 16 kHz, (d) 26 kHz, (e) 36 kHz, and (f) 56 kHz.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Measured average optical power of the laser output, and the corresponding normalized peak power of the main pulse at a pump power of 105mW. (b) Measured temporal width of the main pulse as a function of frequency detuning of the measured pulse width as a function of frequency detuning.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Measured Frequency Detuning Range for Various Pump Powers and Harmonic Frequencies in the Harmonic Mode-Locking Mode

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Table 2. Measured Frequency Detuning Range for Various Pump Powers and Harmonic Frequencies in the Q-Switched Harmonic/Fundamental Mode-Locking Mode

Equations (1)

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Δt1fm.

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