Abstract

We show that the simple interaction of spatial optical solitons in nematic liquid crystals with dielectric particles preserves in most cases the self-confinement of these robust nonlinear self-trapped beams, also known as nematicons. Employing spherical defects such as air bubbles and glass spheres, we report on the experimental observation of total internal reflection as well as refractive deflection of nematicons, with angular changes as large as nearly 90°. We also show multiple reflections and the interaction of a particle with two counterpropagating nematicons.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. Yu. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons. From Fibers to Photonic Crystals (Academic, 2003).
  2. Z. Chen, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Optical spatial solitons: historical overview and recent advances,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 086401 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Bjorkhol and A. Ashkin, “CW self-focusing and self-trapping of light in sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129–132 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, “Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699–3702 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 15, 471–473 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, J. Gonzalo, and J. Solis, “Transverse nonlinear optics in heavy metal oxide glass,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043808 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Shalaby and A. Barthelemy, “Experimental spatial soliton trapping and switching,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1472–1474 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, T. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49–54 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. DelRe and M. Segev, “Self-focusing and solitons in photorefractive media,” in Self-Focusing: Past and Present, Vol. 114 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 2009), pp. 547–572.
  10. C. Rotschild, O. Manela, and M. Segev, “Solitons in nonlinear media with an infinite range of nonlocality: first observation of coherent elliptic solitons and of vortex-ring solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213904 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Schiek, Y. Baek, and G. Stegeman, “One-dimensional spatial solitary waves due to cascaded second-order nonlinearities in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138–1141 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. Lawrence, R. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, “All-optical switching by spatial walkoff compensation and solitary-wave locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449–1451(1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Leo, A. Amoroso, L. Colace, G. Assanto, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-threshold spatial solitons in reverse proton exchanged PPLN waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1778–1780(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Gallo, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Parametric solitons in two-dimensional lattices of purely nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 053901 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Conti, E. D’Asaro, S. Stivala, A. C. Busacca, and G. Assanto, “Parametric self-trapping in the presence of random quasi-phase-matching,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3760–3762 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Lamhot, A. Barak, O. Peleg, and M. Segev, “Self-trapping of optical beams through thermophoresis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163906 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Derrien, J. F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and G. Abbate, “A thermal (2D+1) spatial optical soliton in a dye doped liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 2, 332–337 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Assanto and M. Karpierz, “Nematicons: self-localized beams in nematic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 36, 1161–1172 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, “Nematicons,” Phys. Rep. 516, 147–208 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. U. A. Laudyn, F. A. Sala, and M. Karpierz, “Nematicons properties and stability in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 21, 1250036 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. I. B. Burgess, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Accessible light bullets via synergetic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203903 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Enhancement of third harmonic generation in nonlocal spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3342–3344 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Route to nonlocality and observation of accessible solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “Routing of highly anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals,” Nature 432, 733–737 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Spatial solitons in liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Lett. 34, 737–739 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Signal processing by opto-optical interactions between self-localized and free propagating beams in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Spatial soliton all-optical logic gates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287–1289 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Soliton gating and switching in liquid crystal light valve,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, and G. Assanto, “Nonlocal spatial soliton interactions in bulk nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1460–1462 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Fratalocchi, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinearly controlled angular momentum of soliton clusters,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1447–1449 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. G. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Z. Krolikowski, M. Belic, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Counterpropagating nematicons in bias-free liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 18, 3258–3263 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Y. V. Izdebskaya, J. Rebling, A. S. Desyatnikov, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, “All-optical switching of a signal by a pair of interacting nematicons,” Opt. Express 20, 24701–24707 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Tunable refraction and reflection of self-confined light beams,” Nat. Phys. 2, 737–742 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, “Nematicons across interfaces: anomalous refraction and reflection of solitons in liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 8021–8028 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  36. Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Soliton bending and routing induced by interaction with curved surfaces in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1692–1694 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “In-plane steering of nematicon waveguides across an electrically adjusted interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinear bouncing of nonlocal spatial solitons at the boundaries,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2795–2797 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  39. A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, “Soliton self-deflection via power-dependent walk-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  40. A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, “Self-turning self-confined light beams in guest-host media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213904 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  41. A. Alberucci, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Propagation of spatial optical solitons in a dielectric with adjustable nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023806 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  42. G. Assanto, A. Minzoni, and N. F. Smyth, “Light self-localization in nematic liquid crystals: modelling solitons in reorientational media,” J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 657–691 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  43. M. Peccianti, A. Fratalocchi, and G. Assanto, “Transverse dynamics of nematicons,” Opt. Express 12, 6524–6529 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (5)

Z. Chen, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Optical spatial solitons: historical overview and recent advances,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 086401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, “Nematicons,” Phys. Rep. 516, 147–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Laudyn, F. A. Sala, and M. Karpierz, “Nematicons properties and stability in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 21, 1250036 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Izdebskaya, J. Rebling, A. S. Desyatnikov, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, “All-optical switching of a signal by a pair of interacting nematicons,” Opt. Express 20, 24701–24707 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “In-plane steering of nematicon waveguides across an electrically adjusted interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (9)

Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. G. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Z. Krolikowski, M. Belic, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Counterpropagating nematicons in bias-free liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 18, 3258–3263 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Enhancement of third harmonic generation in nonlocal spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3342–3344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Soliton gating and switching in liquid crystal light valve,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, E. D’Asaro, S. Stivala, A. C. Busacca, and G. Assanto, “Parametric self-trapping in the presence of random quasi-phase-matching,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3760–3762 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lamhot, A. Barak, O. Peleg, and M. Segev, “Self-trapping of optical beams through thermophoresis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, “Soliton self-deflection via power-dependent walk-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, “Self-turning self-confined light beams in guest-host media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Propagation of spatial optical solitons in a dielectric with adjustable nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023806 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Soliton bending and routing induced by interaction with curved surfaces in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1692–1694 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

G. Assanto, A. Minzoni, and N. F. Smyth, “Light self-localization in nematic liquid crystals: modelling solitons in reorientational media,” J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 657–691 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Burgess, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Accessible light bullets via synergetic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto and M. Karpierz, “Nematicons: self-localized beams in nematic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 36, 1161–1172 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Spatial solitons in liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Lett. 34, 737–739 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

K. Gallo, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Parametric solitons in two-dimensional lattices of purely nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, J. Gonzalo, and J. Solis, “Transverse nonlinear optics in heavy metal oxide glass,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Spatial soliton all-optical logic gates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Tunable refraction and reflection of self-confined light beams,” Nat. Phys. 2, 737–742 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Signal processing by opto-optical interactions between self-localized and free propagating beams in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Rotschild, O. Manela, and M. Segev, “Solitons in nonlinear media with an infinite range of nonlocality: first observation of coherent elliptic solitons and of vortex-ring solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

G. Leo, A. Amoroso, L. Colace, G. Assanto, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-threshold spatial solitons in reverse proton exchanged PPLN waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1778–1780(2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “Routing of highly anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals,” Nature 432, 733–737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Fratalocchi, and G. Assanto, “Transverse dynamics of nematicons,” Opt. Express 12, 6524–6529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Route to nonlocality and observation of accessible solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

F. Derrien, J. F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and G. Abbate, “A thermal (2D+1) spatial optical soliton in a dye doped liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 2, 332–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, T. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

R. Schiek, Y. Baek, and G. Stegeman, “One-dimensional spatial solitary waves due to cascaded second-order nonlinearities in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138–1141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. Lawrence, R. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, “All-optical switching by spatial walkoff compensation and solitary-wave locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449–1451(1996).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, “Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699–3702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1974 (1)

J. Bjorkhol and A. Ashkin, “CW self-focusing and self-trapping of light in sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129–132 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Abbate, G.

F. Derrien, J. F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and G. Abbate, “A thermal (2D+1) spatial optical soliton in a dye doped liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 2, 332–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Yu. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons. From Fibers to Photonic Crystals (Academic, 2003).

Aitchison, J. S.

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, “Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699–3702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 15, 471–473 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N.

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, “Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699–3702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alberucci, A.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “In-plane steering of nematicon waveguides across an electrically adjusted interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Soliton gating and switching in liquid crystal light valve,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, “Soliton self-deflection via power-dependent walk-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, “Self-turning self-confined light beams in guest-host media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Propagation of spatial optical solitons in a dielectric with adjustable nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023806 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinear bouncing of nonlocal spatial solitons at the boundaries,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2795–2797 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Signal processing by opto-optical interactions between self-localized and free propagating beams in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Amoroso, A.

Ashkin, A.

J. Bjorkhol and A. Ashkin, “CW self-focusing and self-trapping of light in sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129–132 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, “Nematicons,” Phys. Rep. 516, 147–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “In-plane steering of nematicon waveguides across an electrically adjusted interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Izdebskaya, J. Rebling, A. S. Desyatnikov, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, “All-optical switching of a signal by a pair of interacting nematicons,” Opt. Express 20, 24701–24707 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. G. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Z. Krolikowski, M. Belic, G. Assanto, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Counterpropagating nematicons in bias-free liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 18, 3258–3263 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Soliton gating and switching in liquid crystal light valve,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Enhancement of third harmonic generation in nonlocal spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3342–3344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, E. D’Asaro, S. Stivala, A. C. Busacca, and G. Assanto, “Parametric self-trapping in the presence of random quasi-phase-matching,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3760–3762 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, “Self-turning self-confined light beams in guest-host media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, “Soliton self-deflection via power-dependent walk-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Propagation of spatial optical solitons in a dielectric with adjustable nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023806 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, A. Minzoni, and N. F. Smyth, “Light self-localization in nematic liquid crystals: modelling solitons in reorientational media,” J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 657–691 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto and M. Karpierz, “Nematicons: self-localized beams in nematic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 36, 1161–1172 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Burgess, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Accessible light bullets via synergetic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Spatial solitons in liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Lett. 34, 737–739 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Parametric solitons in two-dimensional lattices of purely nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, J. Gonzalo, and J. Solis, “Transverse nonlinear optics in heavy metal oxide glass,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Fratalocchi, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinearly controlled angular momentum of soliton clusters,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1447–1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, “Nematicons across interfaces: anomalous refraction and reflection of solitons in liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 8021–8028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinear bouncing of nonlocal spatial solitons at the boundaries,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2795–2797 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Tunable refraction and reflection of self-confined light beams,” Nat. Phys. 2, 737–742 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Spatial soliton all-optical logic gates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Signal processing by opto-optical interactions between self-localized and free propagating beams in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “Routing of highly anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals,” Nature 432, 733–737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Leo, A. Amoroso, L. Colace, G. Assanto, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-threshold spatial solitons in reverse proton exchanged PPLN waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1778–1780(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Fratalocchi, and G. Assanto, “Transverse dynamics of nematicons,” Opt. Express 12, 6524–6529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Route to nonlocality and observation of accessible solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, and G. Assanto, “Nonlocal spatial soliton interactions in bulk nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1460–1462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. Lawrence, R. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, “All-optical switching by spatial walkoff compensation and solitary-wave locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449–1451(1996).
[CrossRef]

Baek, Y.

R. Schiek, Y. Baek, and G. Stegeman, “One-dimensional spatial solitary waves due to cascaded second-order nonlinearities in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138–1141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barak, A.

Y. Lamhot, A. Barak, O. Peleg, and M. Segev, “Self-trapping of optical beams through thermophoresis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barboza, R.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “In-plane steering of nematicon waveguides across an electrically adjusted interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, A.

Bartuch, U.

U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, T. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Belic, M.

Bjorkhol, J.

J. Bjorkhol and A. Ashkin, “CW self-focusing and self-trapping of light in sodium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129–132 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bortolozzo, U.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Soliton gating and switching in liquid crystal light valve,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Spatial solitons in liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Lett. 34, 737–739 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brzdakiewicz, K. A.

Buchnev, O.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “In-plane steering of nematicon waveguides across an electrically adjusted interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, I. B.

I. B. Burgess, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Accessible light bullets via synergetic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Busacca, A. C.

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Optical spatial solitons: historical overview and recent advances,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 086401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Optical spatial solitons: historical overview and recent advances,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 086401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Colace, L.

Conti, C.

C. Conti, E. D’Asaro, S. Stivala, A. C. Busacca, and G. Assanto, “Parametric self-trapping in the presence of random quasi-phase-matching,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3760–3762 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “Routing of highly anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals,” Nature 432, 733–737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Route to nonlocality and observation of accessible solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, E.

De Luca, A.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “Routing of highly anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals,” Nature 432, 733–737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DelRe, E.

E. DelRe and M. Segev, “Self-focusing and solitons in photorefractive media,” in Self-Focusing: Past and Present, Vol. 114 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 2009), pp. 547–572.

Derrien, F.

F. Derrien, J. F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and G. Abbate, “A thermal (2D+1) spatial optical soliton in a dye doped liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 2, 332–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Desyatnikov, A. S.

Dyadyusha, A.

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Tunable refraction and reflection of self-confined light beams,” Nat. Phys. 2, 737–742 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fratalocchi, A.

Fuerst, R.

W. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. Lawrence, R. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, “All-optical switching by spatial walkoff compensation and solitary-wave locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449–1451(1996).
[CrossRef]

Gabler, T.

U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, T. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gallo, K.

K. Gallo, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Parametric solitons in two-dimensional lattices of purely nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalo, J.

A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, J. Gonzalo, and J. Solis, “Transverse nonlinear optics in heavy metal oxide glass,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henninot, J. F.

F. Derrien, J. F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and G. Abbate, “A thermal (2D+1) spatial optical soliton in a dye doped liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 2, 332–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hörhold, H.-H.

U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, T. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Izdebskaya, Y. V.

Jackel, J. L.

Kaczmarek, M.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “In-plane steering of nematicon waveguides across an electrically adjusted interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Propagation of spatial optical solitons in a dielectric with adjustable nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023806 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Tunable refraction and reflection of self-confined light beams,” Nat. Phys. 2, 737–742 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, “Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699–3702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Karpierz, M.

U. A. Laudyn, F. A. Sala, and M. Karpierz, “Nematicons properties and stability in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 21, 1250036 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto and M. Karpierz, “Nematicons: self-localized beams in nematic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 36, 1161–1172 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Kivshar, Yu. S.

Yu. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons. From Fibers to Photonic Crystals (Academic, 2003).

Krolikowski, W.

Krolikowski, W. Z.

Lamhot, Y.

Y. Lamhot, A. Barak, O. Peleg, and M. Segev, “Self-trapping of optical beams through thermophoresis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laudyn, U. A.

U. A. Laudyn, F. A. Sala, and M. Karpierz, “Nematicons properties and stability in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 21, 1250036 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, B.

W. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. Lawrence, R. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, “All-optical switching by spatial walkoff compensation and solitary-wave locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449–1451(1996).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

Leo, G.

Manela, O.

C. Rotschild, O. Manela, and M. Segev, “Solitons in nonlinear media with an infinite range of nonlocality: first observation of coherent elliptic solitons and of vortex-ring solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minzoni, A.

G. Assanto, A. Minzoni, and N. F. Smyth, “Light self-localization in nematic liquid crystals: modelling solitons in reorientational media,” J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 657–691 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Enhancement of third harmonic generation in nonlocal spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3342–3344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Burgess, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Accessible light bullets via synergetic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, M. K.

Pasquazi, A.

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Enhancement of third harmonic generation in nonlocal spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3342–3344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, J. Gonzalo, and J. Solis, “Transverse nonlinear optics in heavy metal oxide glass,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Parametric solitons in two-dimensional lattices of purely nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Signal processing by opto-optical interactions between self-localized and free propagating beams in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peccianti, M.

M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, “Nematicons,” Phys. Rep. 516, 147–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Enhancement of third harmonic generation in nonlocal spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3342–3344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Propagation of spatial optical solitons in a dielectric with adjustable nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023806 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Burgess, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Accessible light bullets via synergetic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Fratalocchi, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinearly controlled angular momentum of soliton clusters,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1447–1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, “Nematicons across interfaces: anomalous refraction and reflection of solitons in liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 8021–8028 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinear bouncing of nonlocal spatial solitons at the boundaries,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2795–2797 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Tunable refraction and reflection of self-confined light beams,” Nat. Phys. 2, 737–742 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Spatial soliton all-optical logic gates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Signal processing by opto-optical interactions between self-localized and free propagating beams in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “Routing of highly anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals,” Nature 432, 733–737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Fratalocchi, and G. Assanto, “Transverse dynamics of nematicons,” Opt. Express 12, 6524–6529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Route to nonlocality and observation of accessible solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, and G. Assanto, “Nonlocal spatial soliton interactions in bulk nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1460–1462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peleg, O.

Y. Lamhot, A. Barak, O. Peleg, and M. Segev, “Self-trapping of optical beams through thermophoresis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, T. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Piccardi, A.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “In-plane steering of nematicon waveguides across an electrically adjusted interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Soliton gating and switching in liquid crystal light valve,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, “Soliton self-deflection via power-dependent walk-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, “Self-turning self-confined light beams in guest-host media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Propagation of spatial optical solitons in a dielectric with adjustable nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023806 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Spatial solitons in liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Lett. 34, 737–739 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Fratalocchi, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinearly controlled angular momentum of soliton clusters,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1447–1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rebling, J.

Residori, S.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Soliton gating and switching in liquid crystal light valve,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Spatial solitons in liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Lett. 34, 737–739 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rotschild, C.

C. Rotschild, O. Manela, and M. Segev, “Solitons in nonlinear media with an infinite range of nonlocality: first observation of coherent elliptic solitons and of vortex-ring solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Sala, F. A.

U. A. Laudyn, F. A. Sala, and M. Karpierz, “Nematicons properties and stability in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 21, 1250036 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schiek, R.

R. Schiek, Y. Baek, and G. Stegeman, “One-dimensional spatial solitary waves due to cascaded second-order nonlinearities in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138–1141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Optical spatial solitons: historical overview and recent advances,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 086401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lamhot, A. Barak, O. Peleg, and M. Segev, “Self-trapping of optical beams through thermophoresis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 163906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Rotschild, O. Manela, and M. Segev, “Solitons in nonlinear media with an infinite range of nonlocality: first observation of coherent elliptic solitons and of vortex-ring solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe and M. Segev, “Self-focusing and solitons in photorefractive media,” in Self-Focusing: Past and Present, Vol. 114 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 2009), pp. 547–572.

Serak, S. V.

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Spatial soliton all-optical logic gates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaby, M.

Shvedov, V.

Shvedov, V. G.

Silberberg, Y.

Smith, P. W. E.

Smyth, N. F.

G. Assanto, A. Minzoni, and N. F. Smyth, “Light self-localization in nematic liquid crystals: modelling solitons in reorientational media,” J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 657–691 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, J. Gonzalo, and J. Solis, “Transverse nonlinear optics in heavy metal oxide glass,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

R. Schiek, Y. Baek, and G. Stegeman, “One-dimensional spatial solitary waves due to cascaded second-order nonlinearities in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138–1141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

W. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. Lawrence, R. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, “All-optical switching by spatial walkoff compensation and solitary-wave locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449–1451(1996).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, “Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699–3702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stivala, S.

C. Conti, E. D’Asaro, S. Stivala, A. C. Busacca, and G. Assanto, “Parametric self-trapping in the presence of random quasi-phase-matching,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3760–3762 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, and G. Assanto, “Parametric solitons in two-dimensional lattices of purely nonlinear origin,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 053901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, J. Gonzalo, and J. Solis, “Transverse nonlinear optics in heavy metal oxide glass,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Spatial soliton all-optical logic gates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Torruellas, W.

W. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. Lawrence, R. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, “All-optical switching by spatial walkoff compensation and solitary-wave locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449–1451(1996).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “Routing of highly anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals,” Nature 432, 733–737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, E. M.

Waldhäusl, R.

U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, T. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Warenghem, M.

F. Derrien, J. F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and G. Abbate, “A thermal (2D+1) spatial optical soliton in a dye doped liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 2, 332–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

W. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. Lawrence, R. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, “All-optical switching by spatial walkoff compensation and solitary-wave locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449–1451(1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Pasquazi, A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Signal processing by opto-optical interactions between self-localized and free propagating beams in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Soliton gating and switching in liquid crystal light valve,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, R. Barboza, O. Buchnev, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “In-plane steering of nematicon waveguides across an electrically adjusted interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 251107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, “Soliton self-deflection via power-dependent walk-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Spatial soliton all-optical logic gates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287–1289 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

U. A. Laudyn, F. A. Sala, and M. Karpierz, “Nematicons properties and stability in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 21, 1250036 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

G. Assanto, A. Minzoni, and N. F. Smyth, “Light self-localization in nematic liquid crystals: modelling solitons in reorientational media,” J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 657–691 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

F. Derrien, J. F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and G. Abbate, “A thermal (2D+1) spatial optical soliton in a dye doped liquid crystal,” J. Opt. A 2, 332–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

G. Assanto and M. Karpierz, “Nematicons: self-localized beams in nematic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 36, 1161–1172 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Peccianti, A. Dyadyusha, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Tunable refraction and reflection of self-confined light beams,” Nat. Phys. 2, 737–742 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “Routing of highly anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals,” Nature 432, 733–737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

U. Bartuch, U. Peschel, T. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of spatial solitons in planar polymer waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 134, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (10)

M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, and G. Assanto, “Nonlocal spatial soliton interactions in bulk nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1460–1462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Fratalocchi, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinearly controlled angular momentum of soliton clusters,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1447–1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Izdebskaya, V. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Soliton bending and routing induced by interaction with curved surfaces in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1692–1694 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, “Nonlinear bouncing of nonlocal spatial solitons at the boundaries,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2795–2797 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, and G. Assanto, “Spatial solitons in liquid crystal light valves,” Opt. Lett. 34, 737–739 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, G. Assanto, and R. Morandotti, “Enhancement of third harmonic generation in nonlocal spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3342–3344 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 15, 471–473 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, E. D’Asaro, S. Stivala, A. C. Busacca, and G. Assanto, “Parametric self-trapping in the presence of random quasi-phase-matching,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3760–3762 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Leo, A. Amoroso, L. Colace, G. Assanto, R. V. Roussev, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-threshold spatial solitons in reverse proton exchanged PPLN waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1778–1780(2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Shalaby and A. Barthelemy, “Experimental spatial soliton trapping and switching,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1472–1474 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, “Nematicons,” Phys. Rep. 516, 147–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

A. Pasquazi, S. Stivala, G. Assanto, J. Gonzalo, and J. Solis, “Transverse nonlinear optics in heavy metal oxide glass,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 043808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Alberucci, A. Piccardi, M. Peccianti, M. Kaczmarek, and G. Assanto, “Propagation of spatial optical solitons in a dielectric with adjustable nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023806 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

R. Schiek, Y. Baek, and G. Stegeman, “One-dimensional spatial solitary waves due to cascaded second-order nonlinearities in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138–1141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, “Self-turning self-confined light beams in guest-host media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213904 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Other (2)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Geometry of the planar cell with NLC. (b) Sketch of the two dielectric particles investigated in this work: air bubble on left, glass sphere on right. (c) Top sketch of a planar cell with a dielectric particle of radius R, molecular director n aligned along Θ0, and a couple of extraordinarily polarized solitary beams launched with kz undergoing interaction with the particle (angular deviation α) and birefringent walkoff at angle δ; d is the relative distance between the nematicon axis and the particle boundary.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Acquired images of (a) an ordinarily polarized beam, undergoing diffraction while propagating along its wavevector k parallel to z, (b) an extraordinarily polarized beam of power P=3.5mW generating a self-confined size-invariant nematicon with its Poynting vector at the walkoff angle with respect to z. Images are recorded in a defect-free NLC cell.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Deviation of a nematicon traveling close to a glass sphere: (a), (c) d27μm and (b), (d) d=0μm. (a) and (b) Nematicon approaching from above; (c) and (d) nematicon approaching from below. In (a) and (b), steering and walkoff reinforce the beam deviation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Deviation of a nematicon traveling close to an air bubble: (a) nematicon approaching from above, (b) nematicon approaching from below. In (a), refractive steering and walkoff reinforce the beam deviation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

TIR of a nematicon impinging on the curved surface of an air bubble with R=270μm: (a) TIR with angular steering of 80°, (b) TIR with angular steering of 90°.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Angular deviation α of nematicons interacting with bubbles of radii R=270μm (a) and R=529μm (b), respectively. The data refer to nematicons approaching the particle from (green and black symbols) above and (red and yellow symbols) below, respectively. Solid lines: fit with exponential decay, αexp(d/D), where D=8.21±0.71 (green curve), D=5.68±0.52 (red curve), D=7.95±0.52 (black curve), and D=7.07±0.37 (yellow curve).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a), (b) Color-coded orientation Θ(z;x) of the director n (black dashes) and (c), (d) corresponding distribution of the extraordinary-wave refractive index n for planar (a), (c) and homeotropic (b), (d) anchoring of molecules at the cylindrical interface between air and the nematic 6CHBT.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Double TIR of a nematicon interacting with two closely spaced air bubbles. After the first deviation of about 85° the self-confined beam is reflected again by nearly 58°.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Two counterproapagting nematicons, P=3.5mW each, form a bound state, i.e., a vector spatial soliton traveling far enough from the bubble with R=954μm (above the beams, d108μm), hence unperturbed by its presence. (b) and (c) As the distance d is reduced [d61μm (b) and d18μm (c)], the two nematicons separate and undergo individual bending due to the interaction with the curved interface. (d) As d is further reduced, each of the two counterpropagating solitons undergoes TIR.

Equations (3)

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4iπn0lambda(Az+tanδAy)+2Ax2+Dy2Ay2+4π2λ2Δne2A=0,
2Δθ+γsin[2(Θ0+Δθδ)]|A|2=0,
δ=tan1{(n2n2)sin(2θ)n2+n2+(n2n2)cos(2θ)}.

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