Abstract

We present theoretical estimates for a low-loss, all-optical transistor using a microresonator device whose fields interact evanescently with rubidium vapor. We use a four-level, electromagnetically induced absorption scheme to couple the light fields of the transistor. We show results indicating that a weak control beam with less than single-photon intensities can switch a much stronger signal beam with switching contrast of greater than 25 dB and loss less than 0.5 dB.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

S. M. Hendrickson, C. N. Weiler, R. M. Camacho, P. T. Rakich, A. I. Young, M. J. Shaw, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical switching demonstration using two-photon absorption and the Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader, S. M. Hendrickson, R. M. Camacho, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical microdisk switch using EIT,” Opt. Express 21, 6169–6179 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

T. Peyronel, O. Firstenberg, Q. Liang, S. Hofferberth, A. Gorshkov, T. Pohl, M. Lukin, and V. Vuletic´, “Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms,” Nature 488, 57–60 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

M. Albert, A. Dantan, and M. Drewsen, “Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency and all-optical switching using ion coulomb crystals,” Nat. Photonics 5, 633–636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Gorshkov, J. Otterbach, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pohl, and M. D. Lukin, “Photon–photon interactions via Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Shahmoon, G. Kurizki, M. Fleischhauer, and D. Petrosyan, “Strongly interacting photons in hollow-core waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033806 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Reinhard, T. Volz, M. Winger, A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, E. Hu, and A. Imamog¯lu, “Strongly correlated photons on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 93–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

D. Miller, “Are optical transistors the logical next step?” Nat. Photonics 4, 3–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Hosseini, S. Yegnanarayanan, A. H. Atabaki, M. Soltani, and A. Adibi, “Systematic design and fabrication of high-q single-mode pulley-coupled planar silicon nitride microdisk resonators at visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express 18, 2127–2136 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hofer, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Cavity optomechanics with ultrahigh-q crystalline microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom–light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Jacobs and J. D. Franson, “All-optical switching using the quantum Zeno effect and two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2, 185–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vukovi, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gourevitch, G. Venus, V. Smirnov, D. A. Hostutler, and L. Glebov, “Continuous wave, 30 W laser-diode bar with 10 GHz linewidth for Rb laser pumping,” Opt. Lett. 33, 702–704 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, “Integration of fiber-coupled high-QSiNx microdisks with atom chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, “All-optical switching in rubidium vapor,” Science 308, 672–674 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. Boozer, T. Northup, and H. Kimble, “Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom,” Nature 436, 87–90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

N. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. Hu, M. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, “Leakage current: Moore’s law meets static power,” Computer 36, 68–75 (2003).

2001 (2)

K. J. Resch, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, “Nonlinear optics with less than one photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123603 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, “Nonlinear absorption by quantum interference in cold atoms,” Opt. Lett. 26, 548–550 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

M. J. Werner and A. Imamog¯lu, “Photon–photon interactions in cavity electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 011801 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611–3614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Grangier, D. F. Walls, and K. M. Gheri, “Comment on ‘strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear cavity’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Imamog¯lu, H. Schmidt, G. Woods, and M. Deutsch, “Strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1467–1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50, 36–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C. S.

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom–light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

Albert, M.

M. Albert, A. Dantan, and M. Drewsen, “Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency and all-optical switching using ion coulomb crystals,” Nat. Photonics 5, 633–636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Atabaki, A. H.

Austin, T.

N. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. Hu, M. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, “Leakage current: Moore’s law meets static power,” Computer 36, 68–75 (2003).

Baauw, D.

N. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. Hu, M. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, “Leakage current: Moore’s law meets static power,” Computer 36, 68–75 (2003).

Badolato, A.

A. Reinhard, T. Volz, M. Winger, A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, E. Hu, and A. Imamog¯lu, “Strongly correlated photons on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 93–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bajcsy, M.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balic, V.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, P. E.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, “Integration of fiber-coupled high-QSiNx microdisks with atom chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, K.

K. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. Boozer, T. Northup, and H. Kimble, “Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom,” Nature 436, 87–90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boca, A.

K. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. Boozer, T. Northup, and H. Kimble, “Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom,” Nature 436, 87–90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boozer, A.

K. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. Boozer, T. Northup, and H. Kimble, “Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom,” Nature 436, 87–90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Camacho, R. M.

S. M. Hendrickson, C. N. Weiler, R. M. Camacho, P. T. Rakich, A. I. Young, M. J. Shaw, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical switching demonstration using two-photon absorption and the Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader, S. M. Hendrickson, R. M. Camacho, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical microdisk switch using EIT,” Opt. Express 21, 6169–6179 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Clader, B. D.

Clark, S. M.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, “All-optical switching in rubidium vapor,” Science 308, 672–674 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dantan, A.

M. Albert, A. Dantan, and M. Drewsen, “Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency and all-optical switching using ion coulomb crystals,” Nat. Photonics 5, 633–636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, A. M. C.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, “All-optical switching in rubidium vapor,” Science 308, 672–674 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, M.

A. Imamog¯lu, H. Schmidt, G. Woods, and M. Deutsch, “Strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1467–1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ding, C.

X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2, 185–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drewsen, M.

M. Albert, A. Dantan, and M. Drewsen, “Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency and all-optical switching using ion coulomb crystals,” Nat. Photonics 5, 633–636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ducreay, D. G.

Englund, D.

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vukovi, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faraon, A.

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vukovi, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Firstenberg, O.

T. Peyronel, O. Firstenberg, Q. Liang, S. Hofferberth, A. Gorshkov, T. Pohl, M. Lukin, and V. Vuletic´, “Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms,” Nature 488, 57–60 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flautner, K.

N. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. Hu, M. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, “Leakage current: Moore’s law meets static power,” Computer 36, 68–75 (2003).

Fleischhauer, M.

A. V. Gorshkov, J. Otterbach, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pohl, and M. D. Lukin, “Photon–photon interactions via Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Shahmoon, G. Kurizki, M. Fleischhauer, and D. Petrosyan, “Strongly interacting photons in hollow-core waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033806 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Franson, J. D.

S. M. Hendrickson, C. N. Weiler, R. M. Camacho, P. T. Rakich, A. I. Young, M. J. Shaw, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical switching demonstration using two-photon absorption and the Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Jacobs and J. D. Franson, “All-optical switching using the quantum Zeno effect and two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fushman, I.

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vukovi, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gauguet, A.

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom–light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, “All-optical switching in rubidium vapor,” Science 308, 672–674 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gheri, K. M.

P. Grangier, D. F. Walls, and K. M. Gheri, “Comment on ‘strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear cavity’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L.

Gong, Q.

X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2, 185–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gorshkov, A.

T. Peyronel, O. Firstenberg, Q. Liang, S. Hofferberth, A. Gorshkov, T. Pohl, M. Lukin, and V. Vuletic´, “Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms,” Nature 488, 57–60 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gorshkov, A. V.

A. V. Gorshkov, J. Otterbach, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pohl, and M. D. Lukin, “Photon–photon interactions via Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gourevitch, A.

Grangier, P.

P. Grangier, D. F. Walls, and K. M. Gheri, “Comment on ‘strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear cavity’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hafezi, M.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611–3614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50, 36–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, Wave and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

Hendrickson, S. M.

B. D. Clader, S. M. Hendrickson, R. M. Camacho, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical microdisk switch using EIT,” Opt. Express 21, 6169–6179 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hendrickson, C. N. Weiler, R. M. Camacho, P. T. Rakich, A. I. Young, M. J. Shaw, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical switching demonstration using two-photon absorption and the Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hennessy, K.

A. Reinhard, T. Volz, M. Winger, A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, E. Hu, and A. Imamog¯lu, “Strongly correlated photons on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 93–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, G.

Hofer, J.

J. Hofer, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Cavity optomechanics with ultrahigh-q crystalline microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hofferberth, S.

T. Peyronel, O. Firstenberg, Q. Liang, S. Hofferberth, A. Gorshkov, T. Pohl, M. Lukin, and V. Vuletic´, “Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms,” Nature 488, 57–60 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, E. S.

Hostutler, D. A.

Hu, E.

A. Reinhard, T. Volz, M. Winger, A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, E. Hu, and A. Imamog¯lu, “Strongly correlated photons on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 93–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

N. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. Hu, M. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, “Leakage current: Moore’s law meets static power,” Computer 36, 68–75 (2003).

Hu, X.

X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2, 185–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Illing, L.

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, “All-optical switching in rubidium vapor,” Science 308, 672–674 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imamog¯lu, A.

A. Reinhard, T. Volz, M. Winger, A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, E. Hu, and A. Imamog¯lu, “Strongly correlated photons on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 93–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Werner and A. Imamog¯lu, “Photon–photon interactions in cavity electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 011801 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Imamog¯lu, H. Schmidt, G. Woods, and M. Deutsch, “Strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1467–1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Irwin, M.

N. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. Hu, M. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, “Leakage current: Moore’s law meets static power,” Computer 36, 68–75 (2003).

Jacobs, B. C.

S. M. Hendrickson, C. N. Weiler, R. M. Camacho, P. T. Rakich, A. I. Young, M. J. Shaw, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical switching demonstration using two-photon absorption and the Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Clader, S. M. Hendrickson, R. M. Camacho, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical microdisk switch using EIT,” Opt. Express 21, 6169–6179 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Jacobs and J. D. Franson, “All-optical switching using the quantum Zeno effect and two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, P.

X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2, 185–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M. P. A.

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom–light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kandemir, M.

N. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. Hu, M. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, “Leakage current: Moore’s law meets static power,” Computer 36, 68–75 (2003).

Kim, N.

N. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. Hu, M. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, “Leakage current: Moore’s law meets static power,” Computer 36, 68–75 (2003).

Kimble, H.

K. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. Boozer, T. Northup, and H. Kimble, “Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom,” Nature 436, 87–90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

J. Hofer, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Cavity optomechanics with ultrahigh-q crystalline microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kurizki, G.

E. Shahmoon, G. Kurizki, M. Fleischhauer, and D. Petrosyan, “Strongly interacting photons in hollow-core waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033806 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lev, B.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, “Integration of fiber-coupled high-QSiNx microdisks with atom chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Q.

T. Peyronel, O. Firstenberg, Q. Liang, S. Hofferberth, A. Gorshkov, T. Pohl, M. Lukin, and V. Vuletic´, “Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms,” Nature 488, 57–60 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M.

T. Peyronel, O. Firstenberg, Q. Liang, S. Hofferberth, A. Gorshkov, T. Pohl, M. Lukin, and V. Vuletic´, “Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms,” Nature 488, 57–60 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

A. V. Gorshkov, J. Otterbach, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pohl, and M. D. Lukin, “Photon–photon interactions via Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lundeen, J. S.

K. J. Resch, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, “Nonlinear optics with less than one photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123603 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mabuchi, H.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, “Integration of fiber-coupled high-QSiNx microdisks with atom chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, D.

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom–light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

D. Miller, “Are optical transistors the logical next step?” Nat. Photonics 4, 3–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R.

K. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. Boozer, T. Northup, and H. Kimble, “Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom,” Nature 436, 87–90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mudge, T.

N. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. Hu, M. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, “Leakage current: Moore’s law meets static power,” Computer 36, 68–75 (2003).

Mulchan, N.

Narayanan, V.

N. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. Hu, M. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, “Leakage current: Moore’s law meets static power,” Computer 36, 68–75 (2003).

Northup, T.

K. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. Boozer, T. Northup, and H. Kimble, “Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom,” Nature 436, 87–90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Otterbach, J.

A. V. Gorshkov, J. Otterbach, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pohl, and M. D. Lukin, “Photon–photon interactions via Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, “Integration of fiber-coupled high-QSiNx microdisks with atom chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P.

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vukovi, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrosyan, D.

E. Shahmoon, G. Kurizki, M. Fleischhauer, and D. Petrosyan, “Strongly interacting photons in hollow-core waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033806 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peyronel, T.

T. Peyronel, O. Firstenberg, Q. Liang, S. Hofferberth, A. Gorshkov, T. Pohl, M. Lukin, and V. Vuletic´, “Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms,” Nature 488, 57–60 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pina, R.

Pittman, T. B.

S. M. Hendrickson, C. N. Weiler, R. M. Camacho, P. T. Rakich, A. I. Young, M. J. Shaw, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical switching demonstration using two-photon absorption and the Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, T.

T. Peyronel, O. Firstenberg, Q. Liang, S. Hofferberth, A. Gorshkov, T. Pohl, M. Lukin, and V. Vuletic´, “Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms,” Nature 488, 57–60 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Gorshkov, J. Otterbach, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pohl, and M. D. Lukin, “Photon–photon interactions via Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pritchard, J. D.

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom–light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P. T.

S. M. Hendrickson, C. N. Weiler, R. M. Camacho, P. T. Rakich, A. I. Young, M. J. Shaw, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical switching demonstration using two-photon absorption and the Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, A.

A. Reinhard, T. Volz, M. Winger, A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, E. Hu, and A. Imamog¯lu, “Strongly correlated photons on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 93–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Resch, K. J.

K. J. Resch, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, “Nonlinear optics with less than one photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123603 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rickey, E. G.

Schliesser, A.

J. Hofer, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Cavity optomechanics with ultrahigh-q crystalline microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

A. Imamog¯lu, H. Schmidt, G. Woods, and M. Deutsch, “Strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1467–1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shahmoon, E.

E. Shahmoon, G. Kurizki, M. Fleischhauer, and D. Petrosyan, “Strongly interacting photons in hollow-core waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033806 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, M. J.

S. M. Hendrickson, C. N. Weiler, R. M. Camacho, P. T. Rakich, A. I. Young, M. J. Shaw, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical switching demonstration using two-photon absorption and the Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, V.

Soltani, M.

Srinivasan, K.

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, “Integration of fiber-coupled high-QSiNx microdisks with atom chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, A. M.

K. J. Resch, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, “Nonlinear optics with less than one photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123603 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stoltz, N.

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vukovi, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Venus, G.

Volz, T.

A. Reinhard, T. Volz, M. Winger, A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, E. Hu, and A. Imamog¯lu, “Strongly correlated photons on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 93–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vukovi, J.

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vukovi, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vuletic, V.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vuletic´, V.

T. Peyronel, O. Firstenberg, Q. Liang, S. Hofferberth, A. Gorshkov, T. Pohl, M. Lukin, and V. Vuletic´, “Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms,” Nature 488, 57–60 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Walls, D. F.

P. Grangier, D. F. Walls, and K. M. Gheri, “Comment on ‘strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear cavity’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weatherill, K. J.

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom–light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weiler, C. N.

S. M. Hendrickson, C. N. Weiler, R. M. Camacho, P. T. Rakich, A. I. Young, M. J. Shaw, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical switching demonstration using two-photon absorption and the Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Werner, M. J.

M. J. Werner and A. Imamog¯lu, “Photon–photon interactions in cavity electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 011801 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Winger, M.

A. Reinhard, T. Volz, M. Winger, A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, E. Hu, and A. Imamog¯lu, “Strongly correlated photons on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 93–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Woods, G.

A. Imamog¯lu, H. Schmidt, G. Woods, and M. Deutsch, “Strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1467–1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611–3614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

Yang, H.

X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2, 185–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

Young, A. I.

S. M. Hendrickson, C. N. Weiler, R. M. Camacho, P. T. Rakich, A. I. Young, M. J. Shaw, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical switching demonstration using two-photon absorption and the Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhu, Y.

Zibrov, A. S.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, “Integration of fiber-coupled high-QSiNx microdisks with atom chips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Computer (1)

N. Kim, T. Austin, D. Baauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, J. Hu, M. Irwin, M. Kandemir, and V. Narayanan, “Leakage current: Moore’s law meets static power,” Computer 36, 68–75 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (4)

D. Miller, “Are optical transistors the logical next step?” Nat. Photonics 4, 3–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Reinhard, T. Volz, M. Winger, A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, E. Hu, and A. Imamog¯lu, “Strongly correlated photons on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 93–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2, 185–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Albert, A. Dantan, and M. Drewsen, “Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency and all-optical switching using ion coulomb crystals,” Nat. Photonics 5, 633–636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

T. Peyronel, O. Firstenberg, Q. Liang, S. Hofferberth, A. Gorshkov, T. Pohl, M. Lukin, and V. Vuletic´, “Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms,” Nature 488, 57–60 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. Boozer, T. Northup, and H. Kimble, “Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom,” Nature 436, 87–90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

J. Hofer, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Cavity optomechanics with ultrahigh-q crystalline microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Jacobs and J. D. Franson, “All-optical switching using the quantum Zeno effect and two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hendrickson, C. N. Weiler, R. M. Camacho, P. T. Rakich, A. I. Young, M. J. Shaw, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, and B. C. Jacobs, “All-optical switching demonstration using two-photon absorption and the Zeno effect,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 023808 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Shahmoon, G. Kurizki, M. Fleischhauer, and D. Petrosyan, “Strongly interacting photons in hollow-core waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033806 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Werner and A. Imamog¯lu, “Photon–photon interactions in cavity electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 011801 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom–light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Gorshkov, J. Otterbach, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pohl, and M. D. Lukin, “Photon–photon interactions via Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133602 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Imamog¯lu, H. Schmidt, G. Woods, and M. Deutsch, “Strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1467–1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Resch, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, “Nonlinear optics with less than one photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123603 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Grangier, D. F. Walls, and K. M. Gheri, “Comment on ‘strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear cavity’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2833 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611–3614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50, 36–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vukovi, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320, 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. C. Dawes, L. Illing, S. M. Clark, and D. J. Gauthier, “All-optical switching in rubidium vapor,” Science 308, 672–674 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. A. Steck, “Rubidium 87 D line data,” http://steck.us/alkalidata/ .

H. A. Haus, Wave and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Four-level system modeled in this paper, including numbering scheme, laser fields, and decay terms. The two ground states are the F=1 and F=2 hyperfine levels of the 52S1/2 ground state of Rb87. The excited states are the hyperfine manifolds of the 52P1/2 and 52P3/2 excited states for the D1 (795 nm) and D2 (780 nm) lines, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the CTPA-based all-optical switch. (a) When only a single input beam is weakly coupled to the cavity the free-space EIT beam eliminates the evanescent coupling of the signal beam to the atoms surrounding the cavity. This reduces the external cavity loss, allowing the signal beam to build in the resonator and exit through the drop-port Ed. (b) When two beams are present, strong CTPA inhibits field buildup in one of the beams, causing it to bypass the resonator and exit via the through-port Et. In this way, the presence or absence of the blue beam controls whether or not the red beam couples into the resonator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated normalized electric field profile of the microdisk, showing the radial component of the mode used in the calculation of the average absorption coefficient [see Eq. (7)]. The output is in units normalized to 1 at the maximum intensity. The thickness of the disk is chosen such that 30% of the field is outside the resonator.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission plots of the through-port (left column) and drop-port (right column) for equal-power inputs (top row) and unequal-power inputs (bottom row). The transmission plots are for the Ω2 beam, where we assume the Ω1 beam is the control and enters the resonator first and is allowed to build up to steady state. The blue (solid) curves indicate the control beam is off, while the red (dashed) curves indicate the control beam is on. In the bottom row, we demonstrate that a low-power input can switch a stronger-power input.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission plots of the through-port (left column) and drop-port (right column) for equal-power inputs (top row) and unequal-power inputs (bottom row). In contrast to Fig. 4 these transmission plots are for the Ω1 beam. Here we assume the Ω2 beam is the control and enters the resonator first and is allowed to build up to steady state. The blue (solid) curves indicate the control beam is off, while the red (dashed) curves indicate the control beam is on. In the bottom row, we demonstrate that a low-power input can switch a stronger-power input.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Performance Results—795 nm Control

Tables Icon

Table 2. Performance Results—780 nm Control

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H=Δ1|22|+(Δ1Δc)|33|+(Δ1+Δ2Δc)|44|Ω12|12|Ωc2|32|Ω22|34|+h.c,
ρ˙11=iΩ1*2ρ21iΩ12ρ12+Γ12ρ22+Γ14ρ44,
ρ˙22=iΩc2ρ32iΩc*2ρ23+iΩ12ρ12iΩ1*2ρ21(Γ12+Γ23)ρ22,
ρ˙33=iΩc*2ρ23iΩc2ρ32+iΩ2*2ρ43iΩ22ρ34+Γ23ρ22+Γ34ρ44,
ρ˙12=iΩ1*2(ρ22ρ11)iΩc*2ρ13+i(Δ1+iγ12)ρ12,
ρ˙13=iΩ1*2ρ23iΩc2ρ12iΩ22ρ14+i(Δ1Δc+iγ13)ρ13,
ρ˙14=iΩ1*2ρ24iΩ2*2ρ13+i(Δ1+Δ2Δc+iγ14)ρ14,
ρ˙23=iΩc2(ρ33ρ22)iΩ22ρ24+iΩ12ρ13i(Δcγ23)ρ23,
ρ˙24=iΩ2*2ρ23+iΩ12ρ14+iΩc2ρ34i(ΔcΔ2iγ24)ρ24,
ρ˙34=iΩ2*2(ρ44ρ33)+iΩc*2ρ24+i(Δ2+iγ34)ρ34,
T=4Δ2+(κ0+κeκ1+κ2)24Δ2+(κ0+κe+κ1+κ2)2,
D=4κ1κ24Δ2+(κ0+κe+κ1+κ2)2,
α1,2(Ω1,Ω2,Ωc)=4Nd2ωχ12,34(Ω1,Ω2,Ωc)ϵ0c,
F(Δ)=12πσDeδ1,222σD2,
α¯=κec=Veα(Ω1(r⃗),Ω2(r⃗),Ωc)w(r⃗)dV,
w(r⃗)=|Ω1,2(r⃗)|2Vt|Ω1,2(r⃗)|2dV

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