Abstract

The nonlinear (NL) response of a glass–ceramic with sodium niobate (NaNbO3) nanocrystals (NCs) was investigated exciting the samples at 385 nm, in resonance with the samples’ optical absorption edge. Besides the observation of optical limiting (OL) behavior, we characterized the optical response of the samples in the 0.1–1.0 ms range that was attributed to the accumulated electronic population in trapping states associated with the NCs. The NL absorption properties of samples heat-treated during several hours were studied and modeled using a system of coupled rate equations to determine the parameters that characterize the OL process.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. F. Borrelli and M. M. Leyton, “Dielectric and optical properties of transparent ferroelectric glass-ceramic systems,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 6, 197–212 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. A. Tick, N. F. Borrelli, and I. M. Reaney, “The relationship between structure and transparency in glass-ceramic materials,” Opt. Mater. 15, 81–91 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. R. Pinckney, “Transparent glass-ceramics based on ZnO crystals,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 47, 127–130 (2006).
  4. J. Dong, K. I. Ueda, A. Shirakawa, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Composite Yb:YAG/Cr4+:YAG ceramics picoseconds microchip lasers,” Opt. Express 15, 14516–14523 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Mattarelli, G. Gasperi, M. Montagna, and P. Verrocchio, “Transparency and long-ranged fluctuations: the case of glass-ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 094204 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Guo, F. Li, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Luminescent properties of Eu-doped transparent glass-ceramics containing YPO4 nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1651–1653 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. S. Maciel, N. Rakov, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. Tagantsev, “Optical limiting behavior of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 584–586 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. A. C. Bosco, E. L. Falcão-Filho, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Near-infrared nonlinear properties of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6223–6225 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. A. C. Bosco, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Third-order optical nonlinearity of a transparent glass ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 134204 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Valdez, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Second harmonic scattered light from a transparent glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031901 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. R. Oliveira, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Nonlinear absorption of transparent glass ceramics containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 134207 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. A. Heisler, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, E. V. Rodriguez, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Femtosecond third-harmonic generation in a glass ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1077–1081 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Almeida, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Luminescence properties and optical dephasing in a glass-ceramic containing sodium-niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. A. Zhilin, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and M. P. Shepilov, “Phase transformations in Na2O–K2O–Nb2O5–SiO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 182–186 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Malakho, E. Fargin, M. Lahaye, B. Lazoryak, V. Morozov, G. van Tendeloo, V. Rodriguez, and F. Adamietz, “Enhancement of second harmonic generation signal in thermally poled glass ceramic with NaNbO3 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Optical waveguides in electrooptical nanophase glass-ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 58, 1231–1233 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Kioka, T. Honma, K. Oh-ishi, S. Reibstein, N. Da, L. Wondraczek, and T. Komatsu, “Effect of Al2O3 addition on the formation of perovskite-type NaNb2O3 nanocrystals in silicate-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358, 1523–1529 (2012), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. Tomeno, Y. Tsunoda, K. Oka, M. Matsuura, and M. Nishi, “Lattice dynamics of cubic NaNbO3: an inelastic neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 104101 (2009), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. K. Mishra, N. Choudhury, S. L. Chaplot, P. S. R. Krishna, and R. Mittal, “Competing antiferroelectric and ferroelectric interactions in NaNbO3: neutron diffraction and theoretical studies,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 024110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and A. A. Vetrov, “The origin of the electro-optical sensitivity of glassy materials: crystal motifs in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 318, 268–283 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. C. L. Almeida, “Ultrafast dynamics of nanoscale systems: NaNbO3 nanocrystals, colloidal silver nanoparticles and dye-functionalized TiO2 particles,” D.Sc. Thesis (Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 2012).
  23. E. Almeida, L. de S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araújo, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco 50670-901, Brazil and A. A. Lipovskii are preparing a manuscript to be called “Ultrafast transient absorption in the blue in a silicate-niobate glass ceramic,” (yet to publish).
  24. C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. F. Leheny, and J. Shah, “Dynamics of photoexcited GaAs band-edge absorption with subpicosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112–115 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. M. Smith and S. Nie, “Semiconductor nanocrystals: structure, properties, and band gap engineering,” Acc. Chem. Res. 43, 190–200 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Nemec and P. Maly, “Temperature study of trap-related photoluminescence decay in CdSXSe1−X nanocrystals in glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3342–3348 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. Miyoshi, A. Hirano, T. Suenaga, J. Nagata, T. Nagai, and N. Matsuo, “Photodarkening and photobrightening in glasses doped with CdS and CdSXSe1−X nanocrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 6290–6292 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

K. Kioka, T. Honma, K. Oh-ishi, S. Reibstein, N. Da, L. Wondraczek, and T. Komatsu, “Effect of Al2O3 addition on the formation of perovskite-type NaNb2O3 nanocrystals in silicate-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358, 1523–1529 (2012), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

I. A. Heisler, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, E. V. Rodriguez, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Femtosecond third-harmonic generation in a glass ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1077–1081 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Almeida, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Luminescence properties and optical dephasing in a glass-ceramic containing sodium-niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, F. Li, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Luminescent properties of Eu-doped transparent glass-ceramics containing YPO4 nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1651–1653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

M. Mattarelli, G. Gasperi, M. Montagna, and P. Verrocchio, “Transparency and long-ranged fluctuations: the case of glass-ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 094204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Smith and S. Nie, “Semiconductor nanocrystals: structure, properties, and band gap engineering,” Acc. Chem. Res. 43, 190–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

I. Tomeno, Y. Tsunoda, K. Oka, M. Matsuura, and M. Nishi, “Lattice dynamics of cubic NaNbO3: an inelastic neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 104101 (2009), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. K. Mishra, N. Choudhury, S. L. Chaplot, P. S. R. Krishna, and R. Mittal, “Competing antiferroelectric and ferroelectric interactions in NaNbO3: neutron diffraction and theoretical studies,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 024110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, K. I. Ueda, A. Shirakawa, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Composite Yb:YAG/Cr4+:YAG ceramics picoseconds microchip lasers,” Opt. Express 15, 14516–14523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Oliveira, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Nonlinear absorption of transparent glass ceramics containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 134207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. Malakho, E. Fargin, M. Lahaye, B. Lazoryak, V. Morozov, G. van Tendeloo, V. Rodriguez, and F. Adamietz, “Enhancement of second harmonic generation signal in thermally poled glass ceramic with NaNbO3 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Pinckney, “Transparent glass-ceramics based on ZnO crystals,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 47, 127–130 (2006).

E. Valdez, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Second harmonic scattered light from a transparent glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. A. C. Bosco, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Third-order optical nonlinearity of a transparent glass ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 134204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zhilin, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and M. P. Shepilov, “Phase transformations in Na2O–K2O–Nb2O5–SiO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 182–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Optical waveguides in electrooptical nanophase glass-ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 58, 1231–1233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and A. A. Vetrov, “The origin of the electro-optical sensitivity of glassy materials: crystal motifs in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 318, 268–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. A. C. Bosco, E. L. Falcão-Filho, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Near-infrared nonlinear properties of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6223–6225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. S. Maciel, N. Rakov, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. Tagantsev, “Optical limiting behavior of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 584–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

P. A. Tick, N. F. Borrelli, and I. M. Reaney, “The relationship between structure and transparency in glass-ceramic materials,” Opt. Mater. 15, 81–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Nemec and P. Maly, “Temperature study of trap-related photoluminescence decay in CdSXSe1−X nanocrystals in glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3342–3348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyoshi, A. Hirano, T. Suenaga, J. Nagata, T. Nagai, and N. Matsuo, “Photodarkening and photobrightening in glasses doped with CdS and CdSXSe1−X nanocrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 6290–6292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. F. Leheny, and J. Shah, “Dynamics of photoexcited GaAs band-edge absorption with subpicosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112–115 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

N. F. Borrelli and M. M. Leyton, “Dielectric and optical properties of transparent ferroelectric glass-ceramic systems,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 6, 197–212 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Acioli, L. H.

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. A. C. Bosco, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Third-order optical nonlinearity of a transparent glass ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 134204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. C. Bosco, E. L. Falcão-Filho, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Near-infrared nonlinear properties of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6223–6225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adamietz, F.

A. Malakho, E. Fargin, M. Lahaye, B. Lazoryak, V. Morozov, G. van Tendeloo, V. Rodriguez, and F. Adamietz, “Enhancement of second harmonic generation signal in thermally poled glass ceramic with NaNbO3 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, E.

E. Almeida, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Luminescence properties and optical dephasing in a glass-ceramic containing sodium-niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Almeida, L. de S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araújo, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco 50670-901, Brazil and A. A. Lipovskii are preparing a manuscript to be called “Ultrafast transient absorption in the blue in a silicate-niobate glass ceramic,” (yet to publish).

Almeida, E. C. L.

E. C. L. Almeida, “Ultrafast dynamics of nanoscale systems: NaNbO3 nanocrystals, colloidal silver nanoparticles and dye-functionalized TiO2 particles,” D.Sc. Thesis (Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 2012).

Borrelli, N. F.

P. A. Tick, N. F. Borrelli, and I. M. Reaney, “The relationship between structure and transparency in glass-ceramic materials,” Opt. Mater. 15, 81–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Borrelli and M. M. Leyton, “Dielectric and optical properties of transparent ferroelectric glass-ceramic systems,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 6, 197–212 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bosco, C. A. C.

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. A. C. Bosco, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Third-order optical nonlinearity of a transparent glass ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 134204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. C. Bosco, E. L. Falcão-Filho, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Near-infrared nonlinear properties of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6223–6225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chaplot, S. L.

S. K. Mishra, N. Choudhury, S. L. Chaplot, P. S. R. Krishna, and R. Mittal, “Competing antiferroelectric and ferroelectric interactions in NaNbO3: neutron diffraction and theoretical studies,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 024110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choudhury, N.

S. K. Mishra, N. Choudhury, S. L. Chaplot, P. S. R. Krishna, and R. Mittal, “Competing antiferroelectric and ferroelectric interactions in NaNbO3: neutron diffraction and theoretical studies,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 024110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Da, N.

K. Kioka, T. Honma, K. Oh-ishi, S. Reibstein, N. Da, L. Wondraczek, and T. Komatsu, “Effect of Al2O3 addition on the formation of perovskite-type NaNb2O3 nanocrystals in silicate-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358, 1523–1529 (2012), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

E. Almeida, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Luminescence properties and optical dephasing in a glass-ceramic containing sodium-niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Heisler, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, E. V. Rodriguez, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Femtosecond third-harmonic generation in a glass ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1077–1081 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Oliveira, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Nonlinear absorption of transparent glass ceramics containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 134207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Valdez, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Second harmonic scattered light from a transparent glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. A. C. Bosco, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Third-order optical nonlinearity of a transparent glass ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 134204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. C. Bosco, E. L. Falcão-Filho, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Near-infrared nonlinear properties of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6223–6225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Maciel, N. Rakov, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. Tagantsev, “Optical limiting behavior of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 584–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Almeida, L. de S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araújo, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco 50670-901, Brazil and A. A. Lipovskii are preparing a manuscript to be called “Ultrafast transient absorption in the blue in a silicate-niobate glass ceramic,” (yet to publish).

Dong, J.

Falcão-Filho, E. L.

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. A. C. Bosco, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Third-order optical nonlinearity of a transparent glass ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 134204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. C. Bosco, E. L. Falcão-Filho, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Near-infrared nonlinear properties of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6223–6225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fargin, E.

A. Malakho, E. Fargin, M. Lahaye, B. Lazoryak, V. Morozov, G. van Tendeloo, V. Rodriguez, and F. Adamietz, “Enhancement of second harmonic generation signal in thermally poled glass ceramic with NaNbO3 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. F. Leheny, and J. Shah, “Dynamics of photoexcited GaAs band-edge absorption with subpicosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112–115 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gasperi, G.

M. Mattarelli, G. Gasperi, M. Montagna, and P. Verrocchio, “Transparency and long-ranged fluctuations: the case of glass-ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 094204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Golubkov, V. V.

A. A. Zhilin, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and M. P. Shepilov, “Phase transformations in Na2O–K2O–Nb2O5–SiO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 182–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

H. Guo, F. Li, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Luminescent properties of Eu-doped transparent glass-ceramics containing YPO4 nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1651–1653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heisler, I. A.

Hirano, A.

T. Miyoshi, A. Hirano, T. Suenaga, J. Nagata, T. Nagai, and N. Matsuo, “Photodarkening and photobrightening in glasses doped with CdS and CdSXSe1−X nanocrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 6290–6292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Honma, T.

K. Kioka, T. Honma, K. Oh-ishi, S. Reibstein, N. Da, L. Wondraczek, and T. Komatsu, “Effect of Al2O3 addition on the formation of perovskite-type NaNb2O3 nanocrystals in silicate-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358, 1523–1529 (2012), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

Kazansky, P. G.

A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Optical waveguides in electrooptical nanophase glass-ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 58, 1231–1233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kioka, K.

K. Kioka, T. Honma, K. Oh-ishi, S. Reibstein, N. Da, L. Wondraczek, and T. Komatsu, “Effect of Al2O3 addition on the formation of perovskite-type NaNb2O3 nanocrystals in silicate-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358, 1523–1529 (2012), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, T.

K. Kioka, T. Honma, K. Oh-ishi, S. Reibstein, N. Da, L. Wondraczek, and T. Komatsu, “Effect of Al2O3 addition on the formation of perovskite-type NaNb2O3 nanocrystals in silicate-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358, 1523–1529 (2012), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Krishna, P. S. R.

S. K. Mishra, N. Choudhury, S. L. Chaplot, P. S. R. Krishna, and R. Mittal, “Competing antiferroelectric and ferroelectric interactions in NaNbO3: neutron diffraction and theoretical studies,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 024110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lahaye, M.

A. Malakho, E. Fargin, M. Lahaye, B. Lazoryak, V. Morozov, G. van Tendeloo, V. Rodriguez, and F. Adamietz, “Enhancement of second harmonic generation signal in thermally poled glass ceramic with NaNbO3 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lazoryak, B.

A. Malakho, E. Fargin, M. Lahaye, B. Lazoryak, V. Morozov, G. van Tendeloo, V. Rodriguez, and F. Adamietz, “Enhancement of second harmonic generation signal in thermally poled glass ceramic with NaNbO3 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leheny, R. F.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. F. Leheny, and J. Shah, “Dynamics of photoexcited GaAs band-edge absorption with subpicosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112–115 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Leyton, M. M.

N. F. Borrelli and M. M. Leyton, “Dielectric and optical properties of transparent ferroelectric glass-ceramic systems,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 6, 197–212 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

H. Guo, F. Li, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Luminescent properties of Eu-doped transparent glass-ceramics containing YPO4 nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1651–1653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

H. Guo, F. Li, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Luminescent properties of Eu-doped transparent glass-ceramics containing YPO4 nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1651–1653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lipovskii, A. A.

I. A. Heisler, L. Misoguti, S. C. Zilio, E. V. Rodriguez, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Femtosecond third-harmonic generation in a glass ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1077–1081 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Almeida, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Luminescence properties and optical dephasing in a glass-ceramic containing sodium-niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Oliveira, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Nonlinear absorption of transparent glass ceramics containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 134207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Valdez, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Second harmonic scattered light from a transparent glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zhilin, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and M. P. Shepilov, “Phase transformations in Na2O–K2O–Nb2O5–SiO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 182–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Optical waveguides in electrooptical nanophase glass-ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 58, 1231–1233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. A. C. Bosco, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Third-order optical nonlinearity of a transparent glass ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 134204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. C. Bosco, E. L. Falcão-Filho, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Near-infrared nonlinear properties of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6223–6225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and A. A. Vetrov, “The origin of the electro-optical sensitivity of glassy materials: crystal motifs in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 318, 268–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Maciel, N. Rakov, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. Tagantsev, “Optical limiting behavior of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 584–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Almeida, L. de S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araújo, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco 50670-901, Brazil and A. A. Lipovskii are preparing a manuscript to be called “Ultrafast transient absorption in the blue in a silicate-niobate glass ceramic,” (yet to publish).

Maciel, G. S.

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. A. C. Bosco, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Third-order optical nonlinearity of a transparent glass ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 134204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. C. Bosco, E. L. Falcão-Filho, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Near-infrared nonlinear properties of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6223–6225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Maciel, N. Rakov, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. Tagantsev, “Optical limiting behavior of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 584–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malakho, A.

A. Malakho, E. Fargin, M. Lahaye, B. Lazoryak, V. Morozov, G. van Tendeloo, V. Rodriguez, and F. Adamietz, “Enhancement of second harmonic generation signal in thermally poled glass ceramic with NaNbO3 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maly, P.

P. Nemec and P. Maly, “Temperature study of trap-related photoluminescence decay in CdSXSe1−X nanocrystals in glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3342–3348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, N.

T. Miyoshi, A. Hirano, T. Suenaga, J. Nagata, T. Nagai, and N. Matsuo, “Photodarkening and photobrightening in glasses doped with CdS and CdSXSe1−X nanocrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 6290–6292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, M.

I. Tomeno, Y. Tsunoda, K. Oka, M. Matsuura, and M. Nishi, “Lattice dynamics of cubic NaNbO3: an inelastic neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 104101 (2009), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Mattarelli, M.

M. Mattarelli, G. Gasperi, M. Montagna, and P. Verrocchio, “Transparency and long-ranged fluctuations: the case of glass-ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 094204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Menezes, L. de S.

E. Almeida, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Luminescence properties and optical dephasing in a glass-ceramic containing sodium-niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Oliveira, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Nonlinear absorption of transparent glass ceramics containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 134207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Almeida, L. de S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araújo, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco 50670-901, Brazil and A. A. Lipovskii are preparing a manuscript to be called “Ultrafast transient absorption in the blue in a silicate-niobate glass ceramic,” (yet to publish).

Mishra, S. K.

S. K. Mishra, N. Choudhury, S. L. Chaplot, P. S. R. Krishna, and R. Mittal, “Competing antiferroelectric and ferroelectric interactions in NaNbO3: neutron diffraction and theoretical studies,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 024110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Misoguti, L.

Mittal, R.

S. K. Mishra, N. Choudhury, S. L. Chaplot, P. S. R. Krishna, and R. Mittal, “Competing antiferroelectric and ferroelectric interactions in NaNbO3: neutron diffraction and theoretical studies,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 024110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyoshi, T.

T. Miyoshi, A. Hirano, T. Suenaga, J. Nagata, T. Nagai, and N. Matsuo, “Photodarkening and photobrightening in glasses doped with CdS and CdSXSe1−X nanocrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 6290–6292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Montagna, M.

M. Mattarelli, G. Gasperi, M. Montagna, and P. Verrocchio, “Transparency and long-ranged fluctuations: the case of glass-ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 094204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morozov, V.

A. Malakho, E. Fargin, M. Lahaye, B. Lazoryak, V. Morozov, G. van Tendeloo, V. Rodriguez, and F. Adamietz, “Enhancement of second harmonic generation signal in thermally poled glass ceramic with NaNbO3 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, T.

T. Miyoshi, A. Hirano, T. Suenaga, J. Nagata, T. Nagai, and N. Matsuo, “Photodarkening and photobrightening in glasses doped with CdS and CdSXSe1−X nanocrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 6290–6292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, J.

T. Miyoshi, A. Hirano, T. Suenaga, J. Nagata, T. Nagai, and N. Matsuo, “Photodarkening and photobrightening in glasses doped with CdS and CdSXSe1−X nanocrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 6290–6292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nemec, P.

P. Nemec and P. Maly, “Temperature study of trap-related photoluminescence decay in CdSXSe1−X nanocrystals in glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3342–3348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

A. M. Smith and S. Nie, “Semiconductor nanocrystals: structure, properties, and band gap engineering,” Acc. Chem. Res. 43, 190–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, M.

I. Tomeno, Y. Tsunoda, K. Oka, M. Matsuura, and M. Nishi, “Lattice dynamics of cubic NaNbO3: an inelastic neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 104101 (2009), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Oh-ishi, K.

K. Kioka, T. Honma, K. Oh-ishi, S. Reibstein, N. Da, L. Wondraczek, and T. Komatsu, “Effect of Al2O3 addition on the formation of perovskite-type NaNb2O3 nanocrystals in silicate-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358, 1523–1529 (2012), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Oka, K.

I. Tomeno, Y. Tsunoda, K. Oka, M. Matsuura, and M. Nishi, “Lattice dynamics of cubic NaNbO3: an inelastic neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 104101 (2009), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, T. R.

T. R. Oliveira, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Nonlinear absorption of transparent glass ceramics containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 134207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petrovsky, G. T.

A. A. Zhilin, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and M. P. Shepilov, “Phase transformations in Na2O–K2O–Nb2O5–SiO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 182–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pinckney, L. R.

L. R. Pinckney, “Transparent glass-ceramics based on ZnO crystals,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 47, 127–130 (2006).

Rakov, N.

G. S. Maciel, N. Rakov, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. Tagantsev, “Optical limiting behavior of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 584–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reaney, I. M.

P. A. Tick, N. F. Borrelli, and I. M. Reaney, “The relationship between structure and transparency in glass-ceramic materials,” Opt. Mater. 15, 81–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reibstein, S.

K. Kioka, T. Honma, K. Oh-ishi, S. Reibstein, N. Da, L. Wondraczek, and T. Komatsu, “Effect of Al2O3 addition on the formation of perovskite-type NaNb2O3 nanocrystals in silicate-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358, 1523–1529 (2012), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, E. V.

Rodriguez, V.

A. Malakho, E. Fargin, M. Lahaye, B. Lazoryak, V. Morozov, G. van Tendeloo, V. Rodriguez, and F. Adamietz, “Enhancement of second harmonic generation signal in thermally poled glass ceramic with NaNbO3 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. F. Leheny, and J. Shah, “Dynamics of photoexcited GaAs band-edge absorption with subpicosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112–115 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. F. Leheny, and J. Shah, “Dynamics of photoexcited GaAs band-edge absorption with subpicosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112–115 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shepilov, M. P.

A. A. Zhilin, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and M. P. Shepilov, “Phase transformations in Na2O–K2O–Nb2O5–SiO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 182–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shirakawa, A.

Smith, A. M.

A. M. Smith and S. Nie, “Semiconductor nanocrystals: structure, properties, and band gap engineering,” Acc. Chem. Res. 43, 190–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suenaga, T.

T. Miyoshi, A. Hirano, T. Suenaga, J. Nagata, T. Nagai, and N. Matsuo, “Photodarkening and photobrightening in glasses doped with CdS and CdSXSe1−X nanocrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 6290–6292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Svistunov, D. V.

A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Optical waveguides in electrooptical nanophase glass-ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 58, 1231–1233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tagantsev, D.

G. S. Maciel, N. Rakov, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. Tagantsev, “Optical limiting behavior of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 584–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tagantsev, D. K.

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. A. C. Bosco, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Third-order optical nonlinearity of a transparent glass ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 134204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Optical waveguides in electrooptical nanophase glass-ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 58, 1231–1233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zhilin, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and M. P. Shepilov, “Phase transformations in Na2O–K2O–Nb2O5–SiO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 182–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. C. Bosco, E. L. Falcão-Filho, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Near-infrared nonlinear properties of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6223–6225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and A. A. Vetrov, “The origin of the electro-optical sensitivity of glassy materials: crystal motifs in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 318, 268–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tatarintsev, B. V.

A. A. Zhilin, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and M. P. Shepilov, “Phase transformations in Na2O–K2O–Nb2O5–SiO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 182–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Optical waveguides in electrooptical nanophase glass-ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 58, 1231–1233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and A. A. Vetrov, “The origin of the electro-optical sensitivity of glassy materials: crystal motifs in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 318, 268–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tick, P. A.

P. A. Tick, N. F. Borrelli, and I. M. Reaney, “The relationship between structure and transparency in glass-ceramic materials,” Opt. Mater. 15, 81–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tomeno, I.

I. Tomeno, Y. Tsunoda, K. Oka, M. Matsuura, and M. Nishi, “Lattice dynamics of cubic NaNbO3: an inelastic neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 104101 (2009), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Tsunoda, Y.

I. Tomeno, Y. Tsunoda, K. Oka, M. Matsuura, and M. Nishi, “Lattice dynamics of cubic NaNbO3: an inelastic neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 104101 (2009), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K. I.

Valdez, E.

E. Valdez, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Second harmonic scattered light from a transparent glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

van Tendeloo, G.

A. Malakho, E. Fargin, M. Lahaye, B. Lazoryak, V. Morozov, G. van Tendeloo, V. Rodriguez, and F. Adamietz, “Enhancement of second harmonic generation signal in thermally poled glass ceramic with NaNbO3 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verrocchio, P.

M. Mattarelli, G. Gasperi, M. Montagna, and P. Verrocchio, “Transparency and long-ranged fluctuations: the case of glass-ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 094204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vetrov, A. A.

A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and A. A. Vetrov, “The origin of the electro-optical sensitivity of glassy materials: crystal motifs in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 318, 268–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wondraczek, L.

K. Kioka, T. Honma, K. Oh-ishi, S. Reibstein, N. Da, L. Wondraczek, and T. Komatsu, “Effect of Al2O3 addition on the formation of perovskite-type NaNb2O3 nanocrystals in silicate-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358, 1523–1529 (2012), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Yagi, H.

Yanagitani, T.

Zhang, H.

H. Guo, F. Li, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Luminescent properties of Eu-doped transparent glass-ceramics containing YPO4 nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1651–1653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhilin, A. A.

A. A. Zhilin, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and M. P. Shepilov, “Phase transformations in Na2O–K2O–Nb2O5–SiO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 182–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zilio, S. C.

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

A. M. Smith and S. Nie, “Semiconductor nanocrystals: structure, properties, and band gap engineering,” Acc. Chem. Res. 43, 190–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. S. Maciel, N. Rakov, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. Tagantsev, “Optical limiting behavior of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 584–586 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Valdez, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Second harmonic scattered light from a transparent glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

H. Guo, F. Li, J. Li, and H. Zhang, “Luminescent properties of Eu-doped transparent glass-ceramics containing YPO4 nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94, 1651–1653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

E. Almeida, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Luminescence properties and optical dephasing in a glass-ceramic containing sodium-niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Malakho, E. Fargin, M. Lahaye, B. Lazoryak, V. Morozov, G. van Tendeloo, V. Rodriguez, and F. Adamietz, “Enhancement of second harmonic generation signal in thermally poled glass ceramic with NaNbO3 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. A. C. Bosco, E. L. Falcão-Filho, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Near-infrared nonlinear properties of a glass-ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6223–6225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Nemec and P. Maly, “Temperature study of trap-related photoluminescence decay in CdSXSe1−X nanocrystals in glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3342–3348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (4)

A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and A. A. Vetrov, “The origin of the electro-optical sensitivity of glassy materials: crystal motifs in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 318, 268–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Borrelli and M. M. Leyton, “Dielectric and optical properties of transparent ferroelectric glass-ceramic systems,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 6, 197–212 (1971).
[CrossRef]

K. Kioka, T. Honma, K. Oh-ishi, S. Reibstein, N. Da, L. Wondraczek, and T. Komatsu, “Effect of Al2O3 addition on the formation of perovskite-type NaNb2O3 nanocrystals in silicate-based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358, 1523–1529 (2012), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zhilin, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Lipovskii, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and M. P. Shepilov, “Phase transformations in Na2O–K2O–Nb2O5–SiO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 182–186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Miyoshi, A. Hirano, T. Suenaga, J. Nagata, T. Nagai, and N. Matsuo, “Photodarkening and photobrightening in glasses doped with CdS and CdSXSe1−X nanocrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 6290–6292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

A. A. Lipovskii, D. V. Svistunov, D. K. Tagantsev, B. V. Tatarintsev, and P. G. Kazansky, “Optical waveguides in electrooptical nanophase glass-ceramics,” Mater. Lett. 58, 1231–1233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

P. A. Tick, N. F. Borrelli, and I. M. Reaney, “The relationship between structure and transparency in glass-ceramic materials,” Opt. Mater. 15, 81–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

L. R. Pinckney, “Transparent glass-ceramics based on ZnO crystals,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 47, 127–130 (2006).

Phys. Rev. B (5)

M. Mattarelli, G. Gasperi, M. Montagna, and P. Verrocchio, “Transparency and long-ranged fluctuations: the case of glass-ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 094204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. A. C. Bosco, G. S. Maciel, L. H. Acioli, C. B. de Araújo, A. A. Lipovskii, and D. K. Tagantsev, “Third-order optical nonlinearity of a transparent glass ceramic containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 134204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Oliveira, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Nonlinear absorption of transparent glass ceramics containing sodium niobate nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 134207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Tomeno, Y. Tsunoda, K. Oka, M. Matsuura, and M. Nishi, “Lattice dynamics of cubic NaNbO3: an inelastic neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 104101 (2009), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

S. K. Mishra, N. Choudhury, S. L. Chaplot, P. S. R. Krishna, and R. Mittal, “Competing antiferroelectric and ferroelectric interactions in NaNbO3: neutron diffraction and theoretical studies,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 024110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. F. Leheny, and J. Shah, “Dynamics of photoexcited GaAs band-edge absorption with subpicosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112–115 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. C. L. Almeida, “Ultrafast dynamics of nanoscale systems: NaNbO3 nanocrystals, colloidal silver nanoparticles and dye-functionalized TiO2 particles,” D.Sc. Thesis (Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 2012).

E. Almeida, L. de S. Menezes, and C. B. de Araújo, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco 50670-901, Brazil and A. A. Lipovskii are preparing a manuscript to be called “Ultrafast transient absorption in the blue in a silicate-niobate glass ceramic,” (yet to publish).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup used in this work. BBO, BBO crystal for second-harmonic generation; λ / 2 , half-wave plate; GL, Glan-laser prism; BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption spectra of the samples: BG (black solid line), A (red dashed line), and B (blue dotted line). The vertical dashed line indicates the laser wavelength.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time-dependent samples’ transmittances as a function of excitation intensity. (a) Sample BG, (b) sample A, and (c) sample B. The excitation intensities are 1616 MW / cm 2 (red squares), 1341 MW / cm 2 (blue circles), 1120 MW / cm 2 (green up triangles), 775 MW / cm 2 (magenta diamonds), and 445 MW / cm 2 (violet-dropped triangles). The gray solid lines are the results of the proposed theoretical model.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

OL data for samples (a) BG, (b) A, and (c) B for t = 0 μs (blue squares) and for t (red circles). At t = 0 no OL is observed, while for t the OL behavior is clear. Each data point represents an average over five runs with the same experimental conditions.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Scheme used for modeling the OL behavior. The levels scheme involves populations on the top of the GC-SNN VB—state | 0 , at the bottom of the CB—state | 1 , in high-lying states inside the CB—state | 2 , and in in-gap trapping-states—state | t . W i j ( t ) are time-dependent pump rates and the gammas are relaxation rates.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Samples’ Parametersa

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Table 2. Parameters Used for Modeling the OL Behavior: γ i b = γ n r = 10 12 s 1

Equations (4)

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α 0 = 1 L ln [ ( 1 R ) 2 I ( z = 0 , t = 0 ) I ( z = L , t = 0 ) ] ,
n ˙ 0 = W 01 ( t ) n 0 + γ f n 1 + γ n t n ˙ 1 = W 01 ( t ) n 0 [ γ f + γ n r + W 12 ( t ) ] n 1 + γ i b n 2 n ˙ 2 = W 12 ( t ) n 1 + W t 2 ( t ) n 2 γ i b n 2 n ˙ t = γ n r n 1 [ W t 2 ( t ) + γ ] n t .
I ( z , t ) z = [ α 0 + σ 12 n 1 ( t ) + σ t 2 n t ( t ) ] I ( z , t ) = α eff ( t ) I ( z , t ) .
I ( z = L , t ) = I ( z = 0 ) ( 1 R ) 2 exp [ α eff ( t ) L ] ,

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