Abstract

A kind of label-free refractive index biosensor based on long-period gratings (LPGs) inscribed in microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) is theoretically studied. The finite element method is used to visualize the mode field distribution along the grapefruit MOF. The transmission spectrum of LPG in the air or liquid is simulated by the coupled-mode theory. An immobilized biorecognition molecules layer on the inner walls of the holes in the MOF provides the ability to capture analyte molecules selectively. Numerical results show that an ultrahigh refractive index sensitivity of approximately 397.3nm/RIU over the refractive index range of 1.4–1.5 is achieved. Moreover, the sensitivity of the grapefruit MOF can be improved by reducing the periods of gratings. In addition, the shift of the resonant wavelength is linear to the analyte thickness with good sensitivity about 0.6nm/nm. It is expected to play a great role in theoretical guidance for further development of biosensors.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

P. B. Liu, H. Huang, T. Cao, Z. N. Tang, X. Y. Liu, Z. B. Qi, M. K. Ren, and H. B. Wu, “An optofluidics biosensor consisted of high-finesse Fabry–Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilla, A. Sandomenico, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, M. Ruvo, and A. Cusano, “A protein-based biointerfacing route toward label-free immunoassays with long period gratings in transition mode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31, 486–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Wang and C. Y. Luo, “Long-period fiber grating sensors for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity,” Sensors 12, 4578–4593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Dante, D. Duval, B. Sepulveda, A. B. Gonzalez-Guerrero, J. R. Sendra, and L. M. Lechuga, “All-optical phase modulation for integrated interferometric biosensors,” Opt. Express 20, 7195–7205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

S. S. Mishra and V. K. Singh, “Designing of index-guiding photonic crystal fiber by finite element method simulation,” Int J. Adv. Net. Appl. 02, 666–670 (2010).

Z. H. He, Y. N. Zhu, J. Kaňka, and H. Du, “Core-cladding mode coupling and recoupling in photonic crystal fiber for enhanced overlap of evanescent field using long-period gratings,” Opt. Express 18, 507–512 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. Rindorf and O. Bang, “Highly sensitive refractometer with a photonic crystal-fiber long-period grating,” Opt. Lett. 33, 563–565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ott, M. Heuck, C. Agger, P. D. Rasmussen, and O. Bang, “Label-free and selective nonlinear fiber-optical biosensing,” Opt. Express 16, 20834–20847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108, 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

K. Dossou, M. A. Byrne, and L. C. Botten, “Finite element computation of grating scattering matrices and application to photonic crystal band calculations,” J. Comput. Phys. 219, 120–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Express 14, 8224–8231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Highly sensitive optical response of optical fiber long period gratings to nanometer-thick ionic self-assembled multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Resonance peak shift and dual peak separation of long-period fiber gratings for sensing applications,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 699–701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

X. W. Shu and D. X. Huang, “Highly sensitive chemical sensor based on the measurement of the separation of dual resonant peaks in a 100 μm-period fiber grating,” Opt. Commun. 171, 65–69 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

Agger, C.

Ambrosio, L.

Anh, D. D.

T. Q. Huy, N. T. Hong-Hanh, P. V. Chung, D. D. Anh, P. T. Nga, and M. A. Tuah, “Characterization of immobilization methods of antiviral antibodies in serum for electrochemical biosensors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 7090–7095 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Borriello, A.

P. Pilla, A. Sandomenico, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, M. Ruvo, and A. Cusano, “A protein-based biointerfacing route toward label-free immunoassays with long period gratings in transition mode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31, 486–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilla, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, A. Buosciolo, M. Giordano, L. Ambrosio, A. Cutolo, and A. Cusano, “Transition mode long period grating biosensor with functional multilayer coatings,” Opt. Express 19, 512–526 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Botten, L. C.

K. Dossou, M. A. Byrne, and L. C. Botten, “Finite element computation of grating scattering matrices and application to photonic crystal band calculations,” J. Comput. Phys. 219, 120–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buosciolo, A.

Byrne, M. A.

K. Dossou, M. A. Byrne, and L. C. Botten, “Finite element computation of grating scattering matrices and application to photonic crystal band calculations,” J. Comput. Phys. 219, 120–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, T.

P. B. Liu, H. Huang, T. Cao, Z. N. Tang, X. Y. Liu, Z. B. Qi, M. K. Ren, and H. B. Wu, “An optofluidics biosensor consisted of high-finesse Fabry–Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cardenas-Sevilla, G. A.

Chung, P. V.

T. Q. Huy, N. T. Hong-Hanh, P. V. Chung, D. D. Anh, P. T. Nga, and M. A. Tuah, “Characterization of immobilization methods of antiviral antibodies in serum for electrochemical biosensors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 7090–7095 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Resonance peak shift and dual peak separation of long-period fiber gratings for sensing applications,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 699–701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, M. A.

M. A. Cooper, Label-Free Biosensors: Techniques and Applications, 1st ed. (Cambridge University, 2009).

Cusano, A.

P. Pilla, A. Sandomenico, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, M. Ruvo, and A. Cusano, “A protein-based biointerfacing route toward label-free immunoassays with long period gratings in transition mode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31, 486–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilla, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, A. Buosciolo, M. Giordano, L. Ambrosio, A. Cutolo, and A. Cusano, “Transition mode long period grating biosensor with functional multilayer coatings,” Opt. Express 19, 512–526 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

P. Pilla, A. Sandomenico, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, M. Ruvo, and A. Cusano, “A protein-based biointerfacing route toward label-free immunoassays with long period gratings in transition mode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31, 486–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilla, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, A. Buosciolo, M. Giordano, L. Ambrosio, A. Cutolo, and A. Cusano, “Transition mode long period grating biosensor with functional multilayer coatings,” Opt. Express 19, 512–526 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dale, P. S.

Dante, S.

Do, D.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dossou, K.

K. Dossou, M. A. Byrne, and L. C. Botten, “Finite element computation of grating scattering matrices and application to photonic crystal band calculations,” J. Comput. Phys. 219, 120–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Du, H.

Dufva, M.

Duval, D.

Erdogan, T.

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. D.

Finazzi, V.

Giordano, M.

P. Pilla, A. Sandomenico, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, M. Ruvo, and A. Cusano, “A protein-based biointerfacing route toward label-free immunoassays with long period gratings in transition mode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31, 486–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilla, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, A. Buosciolo, M. Giordano, L. Ambrosio, A. Cutolo, and A. Cusano, “Transition mode long period grating biosensor with functional multilayer coatings,” Opt. Express 19, 512–526 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez-Guerrero, A. B.

Han, W. T.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Resonance peak shift and dual peak separation of long-period fiber gratings for sensing applications,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 699–701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. G.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Resonance peak shift and dual peak separation of long-period fiber gratings for sensing applications,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 699–701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

He, Z. H.

Heflin, J. R.

Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Highly sensitive optical response of optical fiber long period gratings to nanometer-thick ionic self-assembled multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heidecker, B.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heuck, M.

Hoiby, P. E.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108, 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong-Hanh, N. T.

T. Q. Huy, N. T. Hong-Hanh, P. V. Chung, D. D. Anh, P. T. Nga, and M. A. Tuah, “Characterization of immobilization methods of antiviral antibodies in serum for electrochemical biosensors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 7090–7095 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D. X.

X. W. Shu and D. X. Huang, “Highly sensitive chemical sensor based on the measurement of the separation of dual resonant peaks in a 100 μm-period fiber grating,” Opt. Commun. 171, 65–69 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

P. B. Liu, H. Huang, T. Cao, Z. N. Tang, X. Y. Liu, Z. B. Qi, M. K. Ren, and H. B. Wu, “An optofluidics biosensor consisted of high-finesse Fabry–Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huy, T. Q.

T. Q. Huy, N. T. Hong-Hanh, P. V. Chung, D. D. Anh, P. T. Nga, and M. A. Tuah, “Characterization of immobilization methods of antiviral antibodies in serum for electrochemical biosensors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 7090–7095 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. B.

Jung, L. S.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanka, J.

Lechuga, L. M.

Lee, B. H.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Resonance peak shift and dual peak separation of long-period fiber gratings for sensing applications,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 699–701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P. B.

P. B. Liu, H. Huang, T. Cao, Z. N. Tang, X. Y. Liu, Z. B. Qi, M. K. Ren, and H. B. Wu, “An optofluidics biosensor consisted of high-finesse Fabry–Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. Y.

P. B. Liu, H. Huang, T. Cao, Z. N. Tang, X. Y. Liu, Z. B. Qi, M. K. Ren, and H. B. Wu, “An optofluidics biosensor consisted of high-finesse Fabry–Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Amo, M.

A. M. R. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, “Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” J. Sens.2012, 598178 (2012).

Luo, C. Y.

J. N. Wang and C. Y. Luo, “Long-period fiber grating sensors for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity,” Sensors 12, 4578–4593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Malachovska, V.

P. Pilla, A. Sandomenico, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, M. Ruvo, and A. Cusano, “A protein-based biointerfacing route toward label-free immunoassays with long period gratings in transition mode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31, 486–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilla, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, A. Buosciolo, M. Giordano, L. Ambrosio, A. Cutolo, and A. Cusano, “Transition mode long period grating biosensor with functional multilayer coatings,” Opt. Express 19, 512–526 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Markos, C.

Mishra, S. S.

S. S. Mishra and V. K. Singh, “Designing of index-guiding photonic crystal fiber by finite element method simulation,” Int J. Adv. Net. Appl. 02, 666–670 (2010).

Nga, P. T.

T. Q. Huy, N. T. Hong-Hanh, P. V. Chung, D. D. Anh, P. T. Nga, and M. A. Tuah, “Characterization of immobilization methods of antiviral antibodies in serum for electrochemical biosensors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 7090–7095 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nock, S.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ott, J. R.

Paek, U.

Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Resonance peak shift and dual peak separation of long-period fiber gratings for sensing applications,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 699–701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

Peluso, P.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phelan, M.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pilla, P.

P. Pilla, A. Sandomenico, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, M. Ruvo, and A. Cusano, “A protein-based biointerfacing route toward label-free immunoassays with long period gratings in transition mode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31, 486–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilla, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, A. Buosciolo, M. Giordano, L. Ambrosio, A. Cutolo, and A. Cusano, “Transition mode long period grating biosensor with functional multilayer coatings,” Opt. Express 19, 512–526 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, A. M. R.

A. M. R. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, “Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” J. Sens.2012, 598178 (2012).

Poindexter, K.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

Qi, Z. B.

P. B. Liu, H. Huang, T. Cao, Z. N. Tang, X. Y. Liu, Z. B. Qi, M. K. Ren, and H. B. Wu, “An optofluidics biosensor consisted of high-finesse Fabry–Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Quincy, D.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Highly sensitive optical response of optical fiber long period gratings to nanometer-thick ionic self-assembled multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, P. D.

Ren, M. K.

P. B. Liu, H. Huang, T. Cao, Z. N. Tang, X. Y. Liu, Z. B. Qi, M. K. Ren, and H. B. Wu, “An optofluidics biosensor consisted of high-finesse Fabry–Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rindorf, L.

Ruvo, M.

P. Pilla, A. Sandomenico, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, M. Ruvo, and A. Cusano, “A protein-based biointerfacing route toward label-free immunoassays with long period gratings in transition mode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31, 486–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sandomenico, A.

P. Pilla, A. Sandomenico, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, M. Ruvo, and A. Cusano, “A protein-based biointerfacing route toward label-free immunoassays with long period gratings in transition mode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31, 486–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sendra, J. R.

Sepulveda, B.

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X. W.

X. W. Shu and D. X. Huang, “Highly sensitive chemical sensor based on the measurement of the separation of dual resonant peaks in a 100 μm-period fiber grating,” Opt. Commun. 171, 65–69 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Singh, V. K.

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Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Highly sensitive optical response of optical fiber long period gratings to nanometer-thick ionic self-assembled multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223104 (2005).
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Sun, Y. Z.

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[CrossRef]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
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H. Y. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. D. Fan, “Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors,” Opt. Express 15, 9139–9146(2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z. N.

P. B. Liu, H. Huang, T. Cao, Z. N. Tang, X. Y. Liu, Z. B. Qi, M. K. Ren, and H. B. Wu, “An optofluidics biosensor consisted of high-finesse Fabry–Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tolani, N.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Town, G. E.

Tran, H.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tuah, M. A.

T. Q. Huy, N. T. Hong-Hanh, P. V. Chung, D. D. Anh, P. T. Nga, and M. A. Tuah, “Characterization of immobilization methods of antiviral antibodies in serum for electrochemical biosensors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 7090–7095 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Venkatasubbaiah, M.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Villatoro, J.

Vlachos, K.

Wagner, P.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. N.

J. N. Wang and C. Y. Luo, “Long-period fiber grating sensors for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity,” Sensors 12, 4578–4593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Highly sensitive optical response of optical fiber long period gratings to nanometer-thick ionic self-assembled multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. D. Fan, “Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors,” Opt. Express 15, 9139–9146(2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. S.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Witte, K.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H. B.

P. B. Liu, H. Huang, T. Cao, Z. N. Tang, X. Y. Liu, Z. B. Qi, M. K. Ren, and H. B. Wu, “An optofluidics biosensor consisted of high-finesse Fabry–Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Zhu, H. Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. D. Fan, “Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors,” Opt. Express 15, 9139–9146(2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y. N.

Anal. Biochem.

P. Peluso, D. S. Wilson, D. Do, H. Tran, M. Venkatasubbaiah, D. Quincy, B. Heidecker, K. Poindexter, N. Tolani, M. Phelan, K. Witte, L. S. Jung, P. Wagner, and S. Nock, “Optimizing antibody immobilization strategies for the construction of protein microarrays,” Anal. Biochem. 312, 113–124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. B. Liu, H. Huang, T. Cao, Z. N. Tang, X. Y. Liu, Z. B. Qi, M. K. Ren, and H. B. Wu, “An optofluidics biosensor consisted of high-finesse Fabry–Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233705 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Highly sensitive optical response of optical fiber long period gratings to nanometer-thick ionic self-assembled multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

T. Q. Huy, N. T. Hong-Hanh, P. V. Chung, D. D. Anh, P. T. Nga, and M. A. Tuah, “Characterization of immobilization methods of antiviral antibodies in serum for electrochemical biosensors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 7090–7095 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

P. Pilla, A. Sandomenico, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, M. Ruvo, and A. Cusano, “A protein-based biointerfacing route toward label-free immunoassays with long period gratings in transition mode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31, 486–491 (2012).
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S. S. Mishra and V. K. Singh, “Designing of index-guiding photonic crystal fiber by finite element method simulation,” Int J. Adv. Net. Appl. 02, 666–670 (2010).

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K. Dossou, M. A. Byrne, and L. C. Botten, “Finite element computation of grating scattering matrices and application to photonic crystal band calculations,” J. Comput. Phys. 219, 120–143 (2006).
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J. R. Ott, M. Heuck, C. Agger, P. D. Rasmussen, and O. Bang, “Label-free and selective nonlinear fiber-optical biosensing,” Opt. Express 16, 20834–20847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. He, Y. N. Zhu, J. Kaňka, and H. Du, “Core-cladding mode coupling and recoupling in photonic crystal fiber for enhanced overlap of evanescent field using long-period gratings,” Opt. Express 18, 507–512 (2010).
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P. Pilla, V. Malachovska, A. Borriello, A. Buosciolo, M. Giordano, L. Ambrosio, A. Cutolo, and A. Cusano, “Transition mode long period grating biosensor with functional multilayer coatings,” Opt. Express 19, 512–526 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

H. Y. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. D. Fan, “Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors,” Opt. Express 15, 9139–9146(2007).
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J. N. Wang and C. Y. Luo, “Long-period fiber grating sensors for the measurement of liquid level and fluid-flow velocity,” Sensors 12, 4578–4593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of operation of label-free biosensor.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of biosensor based on MOF-LPG.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross section of the grapefruit MOF.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Cross section of MOF and the simulated LP04 mode field distribution.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Intensity distribution of several order modes at different radii.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmission spectra of MOF-LPG in air and immersed in liquid.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Transmission spectrum of MOF-LPG at different refractive indices. (b) Wavelength shift of MOF-LPG at different refractive indices.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Transmission spectrum under different lengths of LPGs.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Influences of the grating periods on the sensitivity.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Transmission spectra of the MOF-LPGs under the different thicknesses.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λm=(neffconeffcl,m)Λ,
(dλdn)m=(dλdneffcl,m)(dneffcl,mdn).
I(r)=12Re(E×H*),
{A:λ=109×(406.5n+1065.2),B:λ=109×(397.3n+981.84),C:λ=109×(391.4n+899.14).

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