Abstract

The weak strain induced by uniaxial strain device is calibrated by strain-induced second-harmonic generation (SISHG) from silicon (111) surface. Dependences of the strain-induced second-harmonic intensity on sample azimuth angle show that the strain leads to increase of SH intensity. The high consistency of the SH-measured strain and the applied strain indicates that weak strain can be accurately calibrated by SISHG. The small applied strain does not greatly affect the 3 m symmetry of silicon (111) surface, but enhances the SH intensity evidently. The bulk inversion symmetry of crystal silicon vanished under applying of uniaxial strain and this also has demonstrated by first-principles simulation. Furthermore, the theoretical relative variation of Si–Si bond length agrees exactly with the applied strain along [111] direction.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Z. Kovats, T. Salditt, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, T. Stimpel, H. Lorenz, J. O. Chu, and K. Ismail, “Interface morphology in strained layer epitaxy of Si/Si1−xGex layers studied by x-ray scattering under grazing incidence and atomic force microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, 359–368 (1999).
  2. H. M. Nayfeh, J. L. Hoyt, and D. A. Antoniadis, “Investigation of scaling methodology for strained Si n-MOSFETs using a calibrated transport model,” in 2003 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Technical Digest (IEEE, 2003), pp. 475–478.
  3. I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, C. N. Chleirigh, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Electron and hole mobility enhancements in sub-10 nm-thick strained silicon directly on insulator fabricated by a bond and etch-back technique,” in 2004 Symposium on Vlsi Technology, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 52–53.
  4. I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Fabrication of strained Si/strained SiGe/strained si heterostructures on insulator by a bond and etch-back technique,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Soi Conference (IEEE, 2004), pp. 35–36.
  5. M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, M. Gioffre, G. Coppola, and I. Rendina, “Silicon resonant cavity enhanced photodetector based on the internal photoemission effect at 1.55 μm: fabrication and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. E. Belford, “Uniaxial tensile-strained Si devices,” J. Electron. Mater. 30, 807–811 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Lüpke, D. J. Bottomley, and H. M. van Driel, “SiO2/Si interfacial structure on vicinal Si (100) studied with second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10389–10394 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Daum, H. J. Krause, U. Reichel, and H. Ibach, “Identification of strained silicon layers at Si-SiO2 interfaces and clean Si surfaces by nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1234–1237 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Ibach, “The role of surface stress in reconstruction, epitaxial growth and stabilization of mesoscopic structures,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 35, 71–73 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Y. Huang, “Probing inhomogeneous lattice deformation at interface of Si(111)/SiO2 by optical second-harmonic reflection and Raman spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 3878–3886 (1994).
  11. F. H. Pollak and M. Cardona, “Piezo-electroreflectance in Ge, GaAs, and Si,” Phys. Rev. 172, 816–837 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. C. Larson, C. W. White, T. S. Noggle, and D. Mills, “Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of silicon during pulsed-laser annealing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 337–340 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. Verheijen, and T. Rasing, “Vicinal Si (111) surfaces studied by optical second-harmonic generation: step-induced anisotropy and surface-bulk discrimination,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 9263–9266 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. H. Zhao, Q. D. Chen, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. X. Yan, T. V. Dolgova, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and H. B. Sun, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation from silicon stripes under external cylindrical strain,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3340–3342 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. H. Zhao, B. W. Cheng, Q. D. Chen, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Near-infrared femtosecond laser for studying the strain in Si1−xGex alloy films via second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 974–980 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. H. Zhao, W. Su, Q. D. Chen, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Strain at native SiO2/Si(111) interface characterized by strain-scanning second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 55–59 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Liarokapis, D. Papadimitriou, J. Rumberg, and W. Richter, “Raman and RAS measurements on uniaxially strained thin semiconductor layers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 211, 309–316 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Papadimitriou and W. Richter, “Highly sensitive strain detection in silicon by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 075212 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Liarokapis and W. Richter, “Design of two devices for biaxial stresses and their application to silicon wafers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 347–351 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. V. Govorkov, V. I. Emel’yanov, N. I. Koroteev, G. I. Petrov, I. L. Shumay, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Inhomogeneous deformation of silicon surface layers probed by second-harmonic generation in reflection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1117–1124 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. D. Segall, Philip J. D. Lindan, M. J. Probert, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, S. J. Clark, and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation: ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 2717–2744 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Vanderbilt, “Soft self-consistent pseudopotentials in a generalized eigenvalue formalism,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 7892–7895 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2011

J. H. Zhao, W. Su, Q. D. Chen, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Strain at native SiO2/Si(111) interface characterized by strain-scanning second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 55–59 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. H. Zhao, B. W. Cheng, Q. D. Chen, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Near-infrared femtosecond laser for studying the strain in Si1−xGex alloy films via second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 974–980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, M. Gioffre, G. Coppola, and I. Rendina, “Silicon resonant cavity enhanced photodetector based on the internal photoemission effect at 1.55 μm: fabrication and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. Papadimitriou and W. Richter, “Highly sensitive strain detection in silicon by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 075212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. D. Segall, Philip J. D. Lindan, M. J. Probert, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, S. J. Clark, and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation: ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 2717–2744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. E. Belford, “Uniaxial tensile-strained Si devices,” J. Electron. Mater. 30, 807–811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Ibach, “The role of surface stress in reconstruction, epitaxial growth and stabilization of mesoscopic structures,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 35, 71–73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kovats, T. Salditt, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, T. Stimpel, H. Lorenz, J. O. Chu, and K. Ismail, “Interface morphology in strained layer epitaxy of Si/Si1−xGex layers studied by x-ray scattering under grazing incidence and atomic force microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, 359–368 (1999).

E. Liarokapis, D. Papadimitriou, J. Rumberg, and W. Richter, “Raman and RAS measurements on uniaxially strained thin semiconductor layers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 211, 309–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Y. Huang, “Probing inhomogeneous lattice deformation at interface of Si(111)/SiO2 by optical second-harmonic reflection and Raman spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 3878–3886 (1994).

1993

G. Lüpke, D. J. Bottomley, and H. M. van Driel, “SiO2/Si interfacial structure on vicinal Si (100) studied with second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10389–10394 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Daum, H. J. Krause, U. Reichel, and H. Ibach, “Identification of strained silicon layers at Si-SiO2 interfaces and clean Si surfaces by nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1234–1237 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

E. Liarokapis and W. Richter, “Design of two devices for biaxial stresses and their application to silicon wafers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 347–351 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. Verheijen, and T. Rasing, “Vicinal Si (111) surfaces studied by optical second-harmonic generation: step-induced anisotropy and surface-bulk discrimination,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 9263–9266 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Vanderbilt, “Soft self-consistent pseudopotentials in a generalized eigenvalue formalism,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 7892–7895 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1987

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982

B. C. Larson, C. W. White, T. S. Noggle, and D. Mills, “Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of silicon during pulsed-laser annealing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 337–340 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1968

F. H. Pollak and M. Cardona, “Piezo-electroreflectance in Ge, GaAs, and Si,” Phys. Rev. 172, 816–837 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aberg, I.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, C. N. Chleirigh, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Electron and hole mobility enhancements in sub-10 nm-thick strained silicon directly on insulator fabricated by a bond and etch-back technique,” in 2004 Symposium on Vlsi Technology, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 52–53.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Fabrication of strained Si/strained SiGe/strained si heterostructures on insulator by a bond and etch-back technique,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Soi Conference (IEEE, 2004), pp. 35–36.

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

Antoniadis, D. A.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, C. N. Chleirigh, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Electron and hole mobility enhancements in sub-10 nm-thick strained silicon directly on insulator fabricated by a bond and etch-back technique,” in 2004 Symposium on Vlsi Technology, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 52–53.

H. M. Nayfeh, J. L. Hoyt, and D. A. Antoniadis, “Investigation of scaling methodology for strained Si n-MOSFETs using a calibrated transport model,” in 2003 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Technical Digest (IEEE, 2003), pp. 475–478.

Belford, R. E.

R. E. Belford, “Uniaxial tensile-strained Si devices,” J. Electron. Mater. 30, 807–811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bottomley, D. J.

G. Lüpke, D. J. Bottomley, and H. M. van Driel, “SiO2/Si interfacial structure on vicinal Si (100) studied with second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10389–10394 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

F. H. Pollak and M. Cardona, “Piezo-electroreflectance in Ge, GaAs, and Si,” Phys. Rev. 172, 816–837 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Casalino, M.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, M. Gioffre, G. Coppola, and I. Rendina, “Silicon resonant cavity enhanced photodetector based on the internal photoemission effect at 1.55 μm: fabrication and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q. D.

J. H. Zhao, W. Su, Q. D. Chen, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Strain at native SiO2/Si(111) interface characterized by strain-scanning second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 55–59 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, B. W. Cheng, Q. D. Chen, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Near-infrared femtosecond laser for studying the strain in Si1−xGex alloy films via second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 974–980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, Q. D. Chen, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. X. Yan, T. V. Dolgova, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and H. B. Sun, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation from silicon stripes under external cylindrical strain,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3340–3342 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. G.

J. H. Zhao, W. Su, Q. D. Chen, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Strain at native SiO2/Si(111) interface characterized by strain-scanning second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 55–59 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, B. W. Cheng, Q. D. Chen, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Near-infrared femtosecond laser for studying the strain in Si1−xGex alloy films via second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 974–980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, Q. D. Chen, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. X. Yan, T. V. Dolgova, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and H. B. Sun, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation from silicon stripes under external cylindrical strain,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3340–3342 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B. W.

J. H. Zhao, B. W. Cheng, Q. D. Chen, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Near-infrared femtosecond laser for studying the strain in Si1−xGex alloy films via second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 974–980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chleirigh, C. N.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, C. N. Chleirigh, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Electron and hole mobility enhancements in sub-10 nm-thick strained silicon directly on insulator fabricated by a bond and etch-back technique,” in 2004 Symposium on Vlsi Technology, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 52–53.

Chu, J. O.

Z. Kovats, T. Salditt, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, T. Stimpel, H. Lorenz, J. O. Chu, and K. Ismail, “Interface morphology in strained layer epitaxy of Si/Si1−xGex layers studied by x-ray scattering under grazing incidence and atomic force microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, 359–368 (1999).

Clark, S. J.

M. D. Segall, Philip J. D. Lindan, M. J. Probert, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, S. J. Clark, and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation: ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 2717–2744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coppola, G.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, M. Gioffre, G. Coppola, and I. Rendina, “Silicon resonant cavity enhanced photodetector based on the internal photoemission effect at 1.55 μm: fabrication and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Daum, W.

W. Daum, H. J. Krause, U. Reichel, and H. Ibach, “Identification of strained silicon layers at Si-SiO2 interfaces and clean Si surfaces by nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1234–1237 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dolgova, T. V.

Emel’yanov, V. I.

Gioffre, M.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, M. Gioffre, G. Coppola, and I. Rendina, “Silicon resonant cavity enhanced photodetector based on the internal photoemission effect at 1.55 μm: fabrication and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Govorkov, S. V.

Hasnip, P. J.

M. D. Segall, Philip J. D. Lindan, M. J. Probert, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, S. J. Clark, and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation: ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 2717–2744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoyt, J. L.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Fabrication of strained Si/strained SiGe/strained si heterostructures on insulator by a bond and etch-back technique,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Soi Conference (IEEE, 2004), pp. 35–36.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, C. N. Chleirigh, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Electron and hole mobility enhancements in sub-10 nm-thick strained silicon directly on insulator fabricated by a bond and etch-back technique,” in 2004 Symposium on Vlsi Technology, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 52–53.

H. M. Nayfeh, J. L. Hoyt, and D. A. Antoniadis, “Investigation of scaling methodology for strained Si n-MOSFETs using a calibrated transport model,” in 2003 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Technical Digest (IEEE, 2003), pp. 475–478.

Huang, J. Y.

J. Y. Huang, “Probing inhomogeneous lattice deformation at interface of Si(111)/SiO2 by optical second-harmonic reflection and Raman spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 3878–3886 (1994).

Hull, R.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, C. N. Chleirigh, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Electron and hole mobility enhancements in sub-10 nm-thick strained silicon directly on insulator fabricated by a bond and etch-back technique,” in 2004 Symposium on Vlsi Technology, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 52–53.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Fabrication of strained Si/strained SiGe/strained si heterostructures on insulator by a bond and etch-back technique,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Soi Conference (IEEE, 2004), pp. 35–36.

Ibach, H.

H. Ibach, “The role of surface stress in reconstruction, epitaxial growth and stabilization of mesoscopic structures,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 35, 71–73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Daum, H. J. Krause, U. Reichel, and H. Ibach, “Identification of strained silicon layers at Si-SiO2 interfaces and clean Si surfaces by nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1234–1237 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, K.

Z. Kovats, T. Salditt, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, T. Stimpel, H. Lorenz, J. O. Chu, and K. Ismail, “Interface morphology in strained layer epitaxy of Si/Si1−xGex layers studied by x-ray scattering under grazing incidence and atomic force microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, 359–368 (1999).

Jia, G.

J. H. Zhao, W. Su, Q. D. Chen, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Strain at native SiO2/Si(111) interface characterized by strain-scanning second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 55–59 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, B. W. Cheng, Q. D. Chen, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Near-infrared femtosecond laser for studying the strain in Si1−xGex alloy films via second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 974–980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, Q. D. Chen, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. X. Yan, T. V. Dolgova, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and H. B. Sun, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation from silicon stripes under external cylindrical strain,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3340–3342 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

J. H. Zhao, W. Su, Q. D. Chen, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Strain at native SiO2/Si(111) interface characterized by strain-scanning second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 55–59 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, B. W. Cheng, Q. D. Chen, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Near-infrared femtosecond laser for studying the strain in Si1−xGex alloy films via second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 974–980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, Q. D. Chen, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. X. Yan, T. V. Dolgova, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and H. B. Sun, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation from silicon stripes under external cylindrical strain,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3340–3342 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koroteev, N. I.

Kovats, Z.

Z. Kovats, T. Salditt, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, T. Stimpel, H. Lorenz, J. O. Chu, and K. Ismail, “Interface morphology in strained layer epitaxy of Si/Si1−xGex layers studied by x-ray scattering under grazing incidence and atomic force microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, 359–368 (1999).

Krause, H. J.

W. Daum, H. J. Krause, U. Reichel, and H. Ibach, “Identification of strained silicon layers at Si-SiO2 interfaces and clean Si surfaces by nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1234–1237 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Larson, B. C.

B. C. Larson, C. W. White, T. S. Noggle, and D. Mills, “Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of silicon during pulsed-laser annealing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 337–340 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lauer, I.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, C. N. Chleirigh, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Electron and hole mobility enhancements in sub-10 nm-thick strained silicon directly on insulator fabricated by a bond and etch-back technique,” in 2004 Symposium on Vlsi Technology, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 52–53.

Li, J.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, C. N. Chleirigh, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Electron and hole mobility enhancements in sub-10 nm-thick strained silicon directly on insulator fabricated by a bond and etch-back technique,” in 2004 Symposium on Vlsi Technology, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 52–53.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Fabrication of strained Si/strained SiGe/strained si heterostructures on insulator by a bond and etch-back technique,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Soi Conference (IEEE, 2004), pp. 35–36.

Liarokapis, E.

E. Liarokapis, D. Papadimitriou, J. Rumberg, and W. Richter, “Raman and RAS measurements on uniaxially strained thin semiconductor layers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 211, 309–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Liarokapis and W. Richter, “Design of two devices for biaxial stresses and their application to silicon wafers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 347–351 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lindan, Philip J. D.

M. D. Segall, Philip J. D. Lindan, M. J. Probert, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, S. J. Clark, and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation: ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 2717–2744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, H.

Z. Kovats, T. Salditt, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, T. Stimpel, H. Lorenz, J. O. Chu, and K. Ismail, “Interface morphology in strained layer epitaxy of Si/Si1−xGex layers studied by x-ray scattering under grazing incidence and atomic force microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, 359–368 (1999).

Lüpke, G.

G. Lüpke, D. J. Bottomley, and H. M. van Driel, “SiO2/Si interfacial structure on vicinal Si (100) studied with second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10389–10394 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, T. H.

Z. Kovats, T. Salditt, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, T. Stimpel, H. Lorenz, J. O. Chu, and K. Ismail, “Interface morphology in strained layer epitaxy of Si/Si1−xGex layers studied by x-ray scattering under grazing incidence and atomic force microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, 359–368 (1999).

Mills, D.

B. C. Larson, C. W. White, T. S. Noggle, and D. Mills, “Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of silicon during pulsed-laser annealing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 337–340 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, L.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, M. Gioffre, G. Coppola, and I. Rendina, “Silicon resonant cavity enhanced photodetector based on the internal photoemission effect at 1.55 μm: fabrication and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nayfeh, H. M.

H. M. Nayfeh, J. L. Hoyt, and D. A. Antoniadis, “Investigation of scaling methodology for strained Si n-MOSFETs using a calibrated transport model,” in 2003 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Technical Digest (IEEE, 2003), pp. 475–478.

Noggle, T. S.

B. C. Larson, C. W. White, T. S. Noggle, and D. Mills, “Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of silicon during pulsed-laser annealing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 337–340 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Olubuyide, O. O.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, C. N. Chleirigh, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Electron and hole mobility enhancements in sub-10 nm-thick strained silicon directly on insulator fabricated by a bond and etch-back technique,” in 2004 Symposium on Vlsi Technology, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 52–53.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Fabrication of strained Si/strained SiGe/strained si heterostructures on insulator by a bond and etch-back technique,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Soi Conference (IEEE, 2004), pp. 35–36.

Papadimitriou, D.

D. Papadimitriou and W. Richter, “Highly sensitive strain detection in silicon by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 075212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Liarokapis, D. Papadimitriou, J. Rumberg, and W. Richter, “Raman and RAS measurements on uniaxially strained thin semiconductor layers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 211, 309–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Payne, M. C.

M. D. Segall, Philip J. D. Lindan, M. J. Probert, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, S. J. Clark, and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation: ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 2717–2744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peisl, J.

Z. Kovats, T. Salditt, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, T. Stimpel, H. Lorenz, J. O. Chu, and K. Ismail, “Interface morphology in strained layer epitaxy of Si/Si1−xGex layers studied by x-ray scattering under grazing incidence and atomic force microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, 359–368 (1999).

Petrov, G. I.

Pickard, C. J.

M. D. Segall, Philip J. D. Lindan, M. J. Probert, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, S. J. Clark, and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation: ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 2717–2744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, F. H.

F. H. Pollak and M. Cardona, “Piezo-electroreflectance in Ge, GaAs, and Si,” Phys. Rev. 172, 816–837 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Probert, M. J.

M. D. Segall, Philip J. D. Lindan, M. J. Probert, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, S. J. Clark, and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation: ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 2717–2744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, T.

C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. Verheijen, and T. Rasing, “Vicinal Si (111) surfaces studied by optical second-harmonic generation: step-induced anisotropy and surface-bulk discrimination,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 9263–9266 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reichel, U.

W. Daum, H. J. Krause, U. Reichel, and H. Ibach, “Identification of strained silicon layers at Si-SiO2 interfaces and clean Si surfaces by nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1234–1237 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rendina, I.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, M. Gioffre, G. Coppola, and I. Rendina, “Silicon resonant cavity enhanced photodetector based on the internal photoemission effect at 1.55 μm: fabrication and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richter, W.

D. Papadimitriou and W. Richter, “Highly sensitive strain detection in silicon by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 075212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Liarokapis, D. Papadimitriou, J. Rumberg, and W. Richter, “Raman and RAS measurements on uniaxially strained thin semiconductor layers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 211, 309–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Liarokapis and W. Richter, “Design of two devices for biaxial stresses and their application to silicon wafers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 347–351 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rumberg, J.

E. Liarokapis, D. Papadimitriou, J. Rumberg, and W. Richter, “Raman and RAS measurements on uniaxially strained thin semiconductor layers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 211, 309–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salditt, T.

Z. Kovats, T. Salditt, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, T. Stimpel, H. Lorenz, J. O. Chu, and K. Ismail, “Interface morphology in strained layer epitaxy of Si/Si1−xGex layers studied by x-ray scattering under grazing incidence and atomic force microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, 359–368 (1999).

Segall, M. D.

M. D. Segall, Philip J. D. Lindan, M. J. Probert, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, S. J. Clark, and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation: ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 2717–2744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shumay, I. L.

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sirleto, L.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, M. Gioffre, G. Coppola, and I. Rendina, “Silicon resonant cavity enhanced photodetector based on the internal photoemission effect at 1.55 μm: fabrication and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stimpel, T.

Z. Kovats, T. Salditt, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, T. Stimpel, H. Lorenz, J. O. Chu, and K. Ismail, “Interface morphology in strained layer epitaxy of Si/Si1−xGex layers studied by x-ray scattering under grazing incidence and atomic force microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, 359–368 (1999).

Su, W.

J. H. Zhao, W. Su, Q. D. Chen, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Strain at native SiO2/Si(111) interface characterized by strain-scanning second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 55–59 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, B. W. Cheng, Q. D. Chen, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Near-infrared femtosecond laser for studying the strain in Si1−xGex alloy films via second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 974–980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, Q. D. Chen, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. X. Yan, T. V. Dolgova, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and H. B. Sun, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation from silicon stripes under external cylindrical strain,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3340–3342 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

J. H. Zhao, W. Su, Q. D. Chen, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Strain at native SiO2/Si(111) interface characterized by strain-scanning second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 55–59 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, B. W. Cheng, Q. D. Chen, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Near-infrared femtosecond laser for studying the strain in Si1−xGex alloy films via second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 974–980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, Q. D. Chen, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. X. Yan, T. V. Dolgova, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and H. B. Sun, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation from silicon stripes under external cylindrical strain,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3340–3342 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

G. Lüpke, D. J. Bottomley, and H. M. van Driel, “SiO2/Si interfacial structure on vicinal Si (100) studied with second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10389–10394 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

van Hasselt, C. W.

C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. Verheijen, and T. Rasing, “Vicinal Si (111) surfaces studied by optical second-harmonic generation: step-induced anisotropy and surface-bulk discrimination,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 9263–9266 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, D.

D. Vanderbilt, “Soft self-consistent pseudopotentials in a generalized eigenvalue formalism,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 7892–7895 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Verheijen, M. A.

C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. Verheijen, and T. Rasing, “Vicinal Si (111) surfaces studied by optical second-harmonic generation: step-induced anisotropy and surface-bulk discrimination,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 9263–9266 (1990).
[CrossRef]

White, C. W.

B. C. Larson, C. W. White, T. S. Noggle, and D. Mills, “Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of silicon during pulsed-laser annealing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 337–340 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. V.

Yan, Z. X.

Zhao, J. H.

J. H. Zhao, W. Su, Q. D. Chen, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Strain at native SiO2/Si(111) interface characterized by strain-scanning second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 55–59 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, B. W. Cheng, Q. D. Chen, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Near-infrared femtosecond laser for studying the strain in Si1−xGex alloy films via second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 974–980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zhao, Q. D. Chen, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. X. Yan, T. V. Dolgova, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and H. B. Sun, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation from silicon stripes under external cylindrical strain,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3340–3342 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Casalino, L. Sirleto, L. Moretti, M. Gioffre, G. Coppola, and I. Rendina, “Silicon resonant cavity enhanced photodetector based on the internal photoemission effect at 1.55 μm: fabrication and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 251104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. H. Zhao, W. Su, Q. D. Chen, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Strain at native SiO2/Si(111) interface characterized by strain-scanning second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 55–59 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

J. H. Zhao, B. W. Cheng, Q. D. Chen, W. Su, Y. Jiang, Z. G. Chen, G. Jia, and H. B. Sun, “Near-infrared femtosecond laser for studying the strain in Si1−xGex alloy films via second-harmonic generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 974–980 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater.

R. E. Belford, “Uniaxial tensile-strained Si devices,” J. Electron. Mater. 30, 807–811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

M. D. Segall, Philip J. D. Lindan, M. J. Probert, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, S. J. Clark, and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation: ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 2717–2744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

Z. Kovats, T. Salditt, T. H. Metzger, J. Peisl, T. Stimpel, H. Lorenz, J. O. Chu, and K. Ismail, “Interface morphology in strained layer epitaxy of Si/Si1−xGex layers studied by x-ray scattering under grazing incidence and atomic force microscopy,” J. Phys. D 32, 359–368 (1999).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J. Y. Huang, “Probing inhomogeneous lattice deformation at interface of Si(111)/SiO2 by optical second-harmonic reflection and Raman spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 3878–3886 (1994).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

E. Liarokapis and W. Richter, “Design of two devices for biaxial stresses and their application to silicon wafers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 347–351 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

F. H. Pollak and M. Cardona, “Piezo-electroreflectance in Ge, GaAs, and Si,” Phys. Rev. 172, 816–837 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. Verheijen, and T. Rasing, “Vicinal Si (111) surfaces studied by optical second-harmonic generation: step-induced anisotropy and surface-bulk discrimination,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 9263–9266 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Papadimitriou and W. Richter, “Highly sensitive strain detection in silicon by reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 075212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Lüpke, D. J. Bottomley, and H. M. van Driel, “SiO2/Si interfacial structure on vicinal Si (100) studied with second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10389–10394 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Vanderbilt, “Soft self-consistent pseudopotentials in a generalized eigenvalue formalism,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 7892–7895 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. Daum, H. J. Krause, U. Reichel, and H. Ibach, “Identification of strained silicon layers at Si-SiO2 interfaces and clean Si surfaces by nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1234–1237 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Larson, C. W. White, T. S. Noggle, and D. Mills, “Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of silicon during pulsed-laser annealing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 337–340 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B

E. Liarokapis, D. Papadimitriou, J. Rumberg, and W. Richter, “Raman and RAS measurements on uniaxially strained thin semiconductor layers,” Phys. Status Solidi B 211, 309–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. Rep.

H. Ibach, “The role of surface stress in reconstruction, epitaxial growth and stabilization of mesoscopic structures,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 35, 71–73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. M. Nayfeh, J. L. Hoyt, and D. A. Antoniadis, “Investigation of scaling methodology for strained Si n-MOSFETs using a calibrated transport model,” in 2003 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Technical Digest (IEEE, 2003), pp. 475–478.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, C. N. Chleirigh, I. Lauer, D. A. Antoniadis, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Electron and hole mobility enhancements in sub-10 nm-thick strained silicon directly on insulator fabricated by a bond and etch-back technique,” in 2004 Symposium on Vlsi Technology, Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 52–53.

I. Aberg, O. O. Olubuyide, J. Li, R. Hull, and J. L. Hoyt, “Fabrication of strained Si/strained SiGe/strained si heterostructures on insulator by a bond and etch-back technique,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Soi Conference (IEEE, 2004), pp. 35–36.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SHG experimental setup. The s-polarized fundamental light of 800 nm was focused onto the strained sample at an incident angle of 45° with respect to Si [111] direction. The reflected p-polarized and s-polarized SHG signal was selected using a polarimeter, filtered by the saturated CuSO4 solution, and then detected by detector. Inset is a schematic diagram of uniaxial strain device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) s-polarized input/p-polarized output SH intensity as a function of azimuthal angle of Si (111) sample. Curve A corresponds to the SHG from unstrained Si (111) wafer and curve B is measured when the tensile strain is equal to 3.86×104. (b) Fourier transforms of SHG patterns of (a). Graph A is the Fourier transform corresponding to curve A of (a) and graph B is the Fourier transform corresponding to curve B of (a).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) s-polarized input/s-polarized output SH intensity as a function of azimuthal angle of Si (111) sample. Curve A corresponds to the SHG from unstrained Si (111) wafer and curve B is measured when the tensile strain is equal to 3.86×104. (b) Fourier transforms of SHG patterns of (a). Graph A is the Fourier transform corresponding to curve A of (a) and graph B is the Fourier transform corresponding to curve B of (a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Silicon crystal structure without external strain. (b) Silicon crystal structure with the existence of strain of εzz=1.37×104.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Lattice Parameters Corresponding to Unstrained and Strained Silicon Crystal Structure, Respectivelya

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Isp(2ω)=|asp+cspcos3ϕ|2=[|asp|2+|csp|22]+Re(aspcsp*)[ei3ϕ+ei3ϕ]+|csp|24[ei6ϕ+ei6ϕ],
Iss(2ω)=|bsssin3ϕ|2=|bss|22|bss|24[ei6ϕ+ei6ϕ],
Esp(2ω)iχzyy(2),strain+K2z(2ω)χzyzyP,
χzyy(2),strain(esu)=1.03×106ε0.
χyyy(2),strain(esu)=0.78×106ε0.
|csp(strain)|2|csp(0)|2=|iχzyy(2),strain+K2zχzyzyP|2|K2zχzyzyP|2=1+|χzyy(2),strainK2zχzyzyP|2.
ε=(εxx0000000εzz).
(εxxεyyεzzεyzεzxεxy)=((3εxx+2εzz)/6(3εxx+2εzz)/6εzz/3εzz/3εzz/3(3εxx+2εzz)/6)=(1.472×1041.472×1040.458×1040.458×1040.458×1042.388×104),
σ=(σxxσyyσzzσyzσzxσxy)=(0.030920.030920.011270.003650.003650.01901)(GPa).

Metrics