Abstract

We present a Sellmeier equation for the temperature- and wavelength-dependent extraordinary refractive index of 5 mol. % MgO-doped congruent lithium niobate, which is valid for frequencies from 1 to 3 THz in a temperature range from 30°C to 200°C. The determination of the Sellmeier coefficients is based on the tuning behavior of a quasi-phase-matched, continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator with its idler wave in the terahertz regime.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 111–115 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 343–348 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. A. Kuznetsov, S. P. Kovalev, G. K. Kitaeva, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, Y. C. Huang, I. I. Naumova, and A. N. Penin, “Dispersion of the dielectric function real part for Mg:LiNbO3 crystals at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 811–815 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Kiessling, F. Fuchs, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Pump-enhanced optical parametric oscillator generating continuous wave tunable terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4374–4376 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Kiessling, R. Sowade, I. Breunig, K. Buse, and V. Dierolf, “Cascaded optical parametric oscillations generating tunable terahertz waves in periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Express 17, 87–91 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Y. Shen, H. Xu, Z. D. Zeng, W. X. Lin, R. F. Wu, and G. F. Xu, “Measurement of refractive indices and thermal refractive-index coefficients of LiNbO3 crystal doped with 5 mol. % MgO,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6695–6697 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. H. Jundt, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, ne, in congruent lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1553–1555 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Sowade, I. Breunig, C. Tulea, and K. Buse, “Nonlinear coefficient and temperature dependence of the refractive index of lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 63–66 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

K. A. Kuznetsov, S. P. Kovalev, G. K. Kitaeva, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, Y. C. Huang, I. I. Naumova, and A. N. Penin, “Dispersion of the dielectric function real part for Mg:LiNbO3 crystals at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 811–815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Sowade, I. Breunig, C. Tulea, and K. Buse, “Nonlinear coefficient and temperature dependence of the refractive index of lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 63–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 111–115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1992 (2)

H. Y. Shen, H. Xu, Z. D. Zeng, W. X. Lin, R. F. Wu, and G. F. Xu, “Measurement of refractive indices and thermal refractive-index coefficients of LiNbO3 crystal doped with 5 mol. % MgO,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6695–6697 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anstett, G.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 111–115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bartschke, J.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 111–115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, T.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 111–115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Breunig, I.

Buse, K.

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, F.

Galun, E.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gayer, O.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hebling, J.

L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. C.

K. A. Kuznetsov, S. P. Kovalev, G. K. Kitaeva, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, Y. C. Huang, I. I. Naumova, and A. N. Penin, “Dispersion of the dielectric function real part for Mg:LiNbO3 crystals at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 811–815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

D. H. Jundt, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, ne, in congruent lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1553–1555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kiessling, J.

Kitaeva, G. K.

K. A. Kuznetsov, S. P. Kovalev, G. K. Kitaeva, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, Y. C. Huang, I. I. Naumova, and A. N. Penin, “Dispersion of the dielectric function real part for Mg:LiNbO3 crystals at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 811–815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kovalev, S. P.

K. A. Kuznetsov, S. P. Kovalev, G. K. Kitaeva, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, Y. C. Huang, I. I. Naumova, and A. N. Penin, “Dispersion of the dielectric function real part for Mg:LiNbO3 crystals at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 811–815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, K. A.

K. A. Kuznetsov, S. P. Kovalev, G. K. Kitaeva, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, Y. C. Huang, I. I. Naumova, and A. N. Penin, “Dispersion of the dielectric function real part for Mg:LiNbO3 crystals at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 811–815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, J. A.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 111–115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. X.

Lin, Y. Y.

K. A. Kuznetsov, S. P. Kovalev, G. K. Kitaeva, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, Y. C. Huang, I. I. Naumova, and A. N. Penin, “Dispersion of the dielectric function real part for Mg:LiNbO3 crystals at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 811–815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Naumova, I. I.

K. A. Kuznetsov, S. P. Kovalev, G. K. Kitaeva, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, Y. C. Huang, I. I. Naumova, and A. N. Penin, “Dispersion of the dielectric function real part for Mg:LiNbO3 crystals at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 811–815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nittmann, M.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 111–115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palfalvi, L.

L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paul, O.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 111–115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Penin, A. N.

K. A. Kuznetsov, S. P. Kovalev, G. K. Kitaeva, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, Y. C. Huang, I. I. Naumova, and A. N. Penin, “Dispersion of the dielectric function real part for Mg:LiNbO3 crystals at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 811–815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peter, A.

L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polgar, K.

L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quosig, A.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 111–115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sacks, Z.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H. Y.

Sowade, R.

R. Sowade, I. Breunig, C. Tulea, and K. Buse, “Nonlinear coefficient and temperature dependence of the refractive index of lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 63–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kiessling, R. Sowade, I. Breunig, K. Buse, and V. Dierolf, “Cascaded optical parametric oscillations generating tunable terahertz waves in periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Express 17, 87–91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tulea, C.

R. Sowade, I. Breunig, C. Tulea, and K. Buse, “Nonlinear coefficient and temperature dependence of the refractive index of lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 63–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. D.

K. A. Kuznetsov, S. P. Kovalev, G. K. Kitaeva, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, Y. C. Huang, I. I. Naumova, and A. N. Penin, “Dispersion of the dielectric function real part for Mg:LiNbO3 crystals at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 811–815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R. F.

Xu, G. F.

Xu, H.

Zeng, Z. D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 111–115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Kuznetsov, S. P. Kovalev, G. K. Kitaeva, T. D. Wang, Y. Y. Lin, Y. C. Huang, I. I. Naumova, and A. N. Penin, “Dispersion of the dielectric function real part for Mg:LiNbO3 crystals at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 811–815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Sowade, I. Breunig, C. Tulea, and K. Buse, “Nonlinear coefficient and temperature dependence of the refractive index of lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz regime,” Appl. Phys. B 99, 63–66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Palfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, A. Peter, and K. Polgar, “Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup with a pump- and signal-resonant cavity, the temperature-stabilized nonlinear crystal, a piezo translator (PZT), and a spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Tunability of the idler wave for the forward (○) and backward (•) emitting process. Solid lines represent the theoretical tuning curves calculated using the Sellmeier equation derived in this work.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Deviation of the measured refractive index from the fitted Sellmeier function for all 382 data points.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Extraordinary refractive index calculated with the parameters in Table 1 in comparison with the refractive index from [4] for a crystal temperature of 300 K.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Extraordinary refractive index calculated with the parameters in Table 1 for temperatures above 300 K compared to the refractive index values given in [4].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Sellmeier Coefficients

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λp1=λs1+λi1.
np(λp,T)λpns(λs,T)λsni(λif,b,T)λif,b±1Λ(T)=Δk.
ne2=a0+b0f+a1+b1fλ2(a2+b2f)2,
f=(T24.5)(T+570.82).

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