Abstract

We have carried out sub-Doppler resolution spectroscopy of the ν3 band of CH412 using a difference-frequency-generation source, an enhanced cavity absorption cell, and an optical frequency comb, and we have added 150 lines to the transition frequency list published earlier [Opt. Express 19, 23878 (2011)]. It now covers 204 lines from the P(12) to R(8) transitions, involving 21 weak forbidden transitions, with a typical uncertainty of 3 kHz for allowed transitions and 12 kHz for forbidden transitions. The combination differences between the allowed and forbidden transitions enable us to determine a scalar rotational constant and three scalar distortion constants of the ground vibrational state with greatly reduced uncertainties.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Shimoda, “Absolute frequency stabilization of the 3.39 μm laser on a CH4 line,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-17, 343–346(1968).
  2. R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, “Pressure shift and broadening of methane line at 3.39 μ studied by laser-saturated molecular absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4–8 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia 40, 103–133 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, “Direct optical resolution of the recoil effect using saturated absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1339–1342 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane CH412 in the region from 0 to 4800  cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356, 131–146 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, A. J. Alcock, A. Czajkowski, and S. Chepurov, “Accurate absolute frequencies of the ν1+ν3 band of C2H213 determined using an infrared mode-locked Cr:YAG laser frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 741–749 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Madej, A. J. Alcock, A. Czajkowski, J. E. Bernard, and S. Chepurov, “Accurate absolute reference frequencies from 1511 to 1545 nm of the ν1+ν3 band of C2H212 determined with laser frequency comb interval measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2200–2208 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Anzai, X. M. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, “Narrow Lamb dip of 3.4 μm band transition of methane with difference frequency generation and enhancement cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2771–2775 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Abe, K. Takahata, and H. Sasada, “Sub-Doppler resolution 3.4 μm spectrometer with an efficient difference-frequency-generation source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1744–1746 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “High-power, tunable difference frequency generation source for absorption spectroscopy based on a ridge waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 564–571 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F.-L. Hong, “Absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4 μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 032518 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, and H. Sasada, “Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10−11,” Opt. Express 19, 23878–23888 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Oka, “‘Forbidden’ Rotational Transitions,” in Molecular Spectroscopy: Modern Research, K. N. Rao, ed. (Academic, 1976), Vol. 2, pp. 229–253.
  20. M. Takami, K. Uehara, and K. Shimoda, “Rotational transitions of CH4 in the v3=1 excited state observed by an infrared-microwave double resonance method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 924–925 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. F. Curl, “Infrared-radio frequency double resonance observations of pure rotational Q-branch transitions of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 48, 165–173 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. F. Curl, T. Oka, and D. S. Smith, “The observation of a pure rotational Q-branch transition of methane by infrared-radio frequency double resonance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 46, 518–520 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Oldani, M. Andrist, A. Bauder, and A. G. Robiette, “Pure rotational spectra of methane and methane-d4 in the vibrational ground state observed by microwave Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 110, 93–105 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. J. Pursell and D. P. Weliky, “Pure rotational transitions in the ν3 state of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 153, 303–306(1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. I. Ozier, “The tensor J8 contribution to the rotational energy of a tetrahedral molecule,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 53, 336–345 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. S. Ering, D. A. Tyurikov, G. Kramer, and B. Lipphardt, “Measurement of the absolute frequency of the methane E-line at 88 THz,” Opt. Commun. 151, 229–234 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. Féjard, J. Champion, J. Jouvard, L. R. Brown, and A. S. Pine, “The intensities of methane in the 3–5 μm region revisited,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 83–94 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, and H. Sasada, “Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10−11,” Opt. Express 19, 23878–23888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

M. Abe, K. Takahata, and H. Sasada, “Sub-Doppler resolution 3.4 μm spectrometer with an efficient difference-frequency-generation source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1744–1746 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F.-L. Hong, “Absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4 μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 032518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane CH412 in the region from 0 to 4800  cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356, 131–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, A. J. Alcock, A. Czajkowski, and S. Chepurov, “Accurate absolute frequencies of the ν1+ν3 band of C2H213 determined using an infrared mode-locked Cr:YAG laser frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 741–749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Madej, A. J. Alcock, A. Czajkowski, J. E. Bernard, and S. Chepurov, “Accurate absolute reference frequencies from 1511 to 1545 nm of the ν1+ν3 band of C2H212 determined with laser frequency comb interval measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2200–2208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Anzai, X. M. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, “Narrow Lamb dip of 3.4 μm band transition of methane with difference frequency generation and enhancement cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2771–2775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. de Natale, “A 3.5 mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 μm for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 141–145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia 40, 103–133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Féjard, J. Champion, J. Jouvard, L. R. Brown, and A. S. Pine, “The intensities of methane in the 3–5 μm region revisited,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. S. Ering, D. A. Tyurikov, G. Kramer, and B. Lipphardt, “Measurement of the absolute frequency of the methane E-line at 88 THz,” Opt. Commun. 151, 229–234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. J. Pursell and D. P. Weliky, “Pure rotational transitions in the ν3 state of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 153, 303–306(1992).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. Oldani, M. Andrist, A. Bauder, and A. G. Robiette, “Pure rotational spectra of methane and methane-d4 in the vibrational ground state observed by microwave Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 110, 93–105 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, “Direct optical resolution of the recoil effect using saturated absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1339–1342 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

I. Ozier, “The tensor J8 contribution to the rotational energy of a tetrahedral molecule,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 53, 336–345 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (3)

M. Takami, K. Uehara, and K. Shimoda, “Rotational transitions of CH4 in the v3=1 excited state observed by an infrared-microwave double resonance method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 924–925 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Curl, “Infrared-radio frequency double resonance observations of pure rotational Q-branch transitions of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 48, 165–173 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Curl, T. Oka, and D. S. Smith, “The observation of a pure rotational Q-branch transition of methane by infrared-radio frequency double resonance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 46, 518–520 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, R. L. Barger, and J. L. Hall, “Speed of light from direct frequency and wavelength measurements of the methane-stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1346–1349 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, “Pressure shift and broadening of methane line at 3.39 μ studied by laser-saturated molecular absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4–8 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

K. Shimoda, “Absolute frequency stabilization of the 3.39 μm laser on a CH4 line,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-17, 343–346(1968).

Abe, M.

Albert, S.

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane CH412 in the region from 0 to 4800  cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356, 131–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alcock, A. J.

Andrist, M.

M. Oldani, M. Andrist, A. Bauder, and A. G. Robiette, “Pure rotational spectra of methane and methane-d4 in the vibrational ground state observed by microwave Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 110, 93–105 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Anzai, K.

K. Anzai, X. M. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, “Narrow Lamb dip of 3.4 μm band transition of methane with difference frequency generation and enhancement cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2771–2775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “High-power, tunable difference frequency generation source for absorption spectroscopy based on a ridge waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 564–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Auwera, J. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barger, R. L.

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, R. L. Barger, and J. L. Hall, “Speed of light from direct frequency and wavelength measurements of the methane-stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1346–1349 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, “Pressure shift and broadening of methane line at 3.39 μ studied by laser-saturated molecular absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4–8 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bauder, A.

M. Oldani, M. Andrist, A. Bauder, and A. G. Robiette, “Pure rotational spectra of methane and methane-d4 in the vibrational ground state observed by microwave Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 110, 93–105 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bauerecker, S.

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane CH412 in the region from 0 to 4800  cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356, 131–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, E.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, J. E.

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bordé, C. J.

J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, “Direct optical resolution of the recoil effect using saturated absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1339–1342 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane CH412 in the region from 0 to 4800  cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356, 131–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane CH412 in the region from 0 to 4800  cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356, 131–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Féjard, J. Champion, J. Jouvard, L. R. Brown, and A. S. Pine, “The intensities of methane in the 3–5 μm region revisited,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Champion, J.

L. Féjard, J. Champion, J. Jouvard, L. R. Brown, and A. S. Pine, “The intensities of methane in the 3–5 μm region revisited,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 83–94 (2000).
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Champion, J. -P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane CH412 in the region from 0 to 4800  cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356, 131–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Coddington, I.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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R. F. Curl, “Infrared-radio frequency double resonance observations of pure rotational Q-branch transitions of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 48, 165–173 (1973).
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R. F. Curl, T. Oka, and D. S. Smith, “The observation of a pure rotational Q-branch transition of methane by infrared-radio frequency double resonance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 46, 518–520 (1973).
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Czajkowski, A.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, R. L. Barger, and J. L. Hall, “Speed of light from direct frequency and wavelength measurements of the methane-stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1346–1349 (1972).
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Day, G. W.

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, R. L. Barger, and J. L. Hall, “Speed of light from direct frequency and wavelength measurements of the methane-stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1346–1349 (1972).
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de Natale, P.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. de Natale, “A 3.5 mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 μm for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 141–145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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P. S. Ering, D. A. Tyurikov, G. Kramer, and B. Lipphardt, “Measurement of the absolute frequency of the methane E-line at 88 THz,” Opt. Commun. 151, 229–234 (1998).
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Evenson, K. M.

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, R. L. Barger, and J. L. Hall, “Speed of light from direct frequency and wavelength measurements of the methane-stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1346–1349 (1972).
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Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Féjard, L.

L. Féjard, J. Champion, J. Jouvard, L. R. Brown, and A. S. Pine, “The intensities of methane in the 3–5 μm region revisited,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Fried, A.

Gagliardi, G.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. de Natale, “A 3.5 mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 μm for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 141–145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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K. Anzai, X. M. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, “Narrow Lamb dip of 3.4 μm band transition of methane with difference frequency generation and enhancement cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2771–2775 (2006).
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Giorgetta, F. R.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
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Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Hall, J. L.

J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, “Direct optical resolution of the recoil effect using saturated absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1339–1342 (1976).
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K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, R. L. Barger, and J. L. Hall, “Speed of light from direct frequency and wavelength measurements of the methane-stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1346–1349 (1972).
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R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, “Pressure shift and broadening of methane line at 3.39 μ studied by laser-saturated molecular absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4–8 (1969).
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Hong, F.-L.

K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F.-L. Hong, “Absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4 μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 032518 (2009).
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Inaba, H.

S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, and H. Sasada, “Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10−11,” Opt. Express 19, 23878–23888 (2011).
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K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F.-L. Hong, “Absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4 μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 032518 (2009).
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Iwakuni, K.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jouvard, J.

L. Féjard, J. Champion, J. Jouvard, L. R. Brown, and A. S. Pine, “The intensities of methane in the 3–5 μm region revisited,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 83–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F.-L. Hong, “Absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4 μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 032518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, G.

P. S. Ering, D. A. Tyurikov, G. Kramer, and B. Lipphardt, “Measurement of the absolute frequency of the methane E-line at 88 THz,” Opt. Commun. 151, 229–234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lipphardt, B.

P. S. Ering, D. A. Tyurikov, G. Kramer, and B. Lipphardt, “Measurement of the absolute frequency of the methane E-line at 88 THz,” Opt. Commun. 151, 229–234 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Loëte, M.

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane CH412 in the region from 0 to 4800  cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356, 131–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maddaloni, P.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. de Natale, “A 3.5 mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 μm for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 141–145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Madej, A. A.

Magari, K.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
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Malara, P.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. de Natale, “A 3.5 mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 μm for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 141–145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
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Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “High-power, tunable difference frequency generation source for absorption spectroscopy based on a ridge waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 564–571 (2007).
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O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Quack, M.

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane CH412 in the region from 0 to 4800  cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356, 131–146 (2009).
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Richter, D.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Robiette, A. G.

M. Oldani, M. Andrist, A. Bauder, and A. G. Robiette, “Pure rotational spectra of methane and methane-d4 in the vibrational ground state observed by microwave Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 110, 93–105 (1985).
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Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Sasada, H.

S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, and H. Sasada, “Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10−11,” Opt. Express 19, 23878–23888 (2011).
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M. Abe, K. Takahata, and H. Sasada, “Sub-Doppler resolution 3.4 μm spectrometer with an efficient difference-frequency-generation source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1744–1746 (2009).
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K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F.-L. Hong, “Absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4 μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 032518 (2009).
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K. Anzai, X. M. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, “Narrow Lamb dip of 3.4 μm band transition of methane with difference frequency generation and enhancement cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2771–2775 (2006).
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Shimoda, K.

M. Takami, K. Uehara, and K. Shimoda, “Rotational transitions of CH4 in the v3=1 excited state observed by an infrared-microwave double resonance method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 924–925 (1973).
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Šimecková, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Smith, D. S.

R. F. Curl, T. Oka, and D. S. Smith, “The observation of a pure rotational Q-branch transition of methane by infrared-radio frequency double resonance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 46, 518–520 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Suzuki, H.

D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “High-power, tunable difference frequency generation source for absorption spectroscopy based on a ridge waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 564–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, A. M. Zolot, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Spectroscopy of the methane ν3 band with an accurate midinfrared coherent dual-comb spectrometer,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “High-power, tunable difference frequency generation source for absorption spectroscopy based on a ridge waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 564–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3 μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahata, K.

M. Abe, K. Takahata, and H. Sasada, “Sub-Doppler resolution 3.4 μm spectrometer with an efficient difference-frequency-generation source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1744–1746 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F.-L. Hong, “Absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4 μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 032518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takami, M.

M. Takami, K. Uehara, and K. Shimoda, “Rotational transitions of CH4 in the v3=1 excited state observed by an infrared-microwave double resonance method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 924–925 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, “Direct optical resolution of the recoil effect using saturated absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1339–1342 (1976).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. -P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

K. Anzai, X. M. Gao, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, “Narrow Lamb dip of 3.4 μm band transition of methane with difference frequency generation and enhancement cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2771–2775 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

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K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, R. L. Barger, and J. L. Hall, “Speed of light from direct frequency and wavelength measurements of the methane-stabilized laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1346–1349 (1972).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Resolution 1 of the 17th meeting of the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (1983).

T. Oka, “‘Forbidden’ Rotational Transitions,” in Molecular Spectroscopy: Modern Research, K. N. Rao, ed. (Academic, 1976), Vol. 2, pp. 229–253.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Energy level diagram of the J=6 levels in the v3=1 state and the levels in the ground vibrational state associated with the ν3 band transitions. Allowed transitions are shown by arrows with solid lines, and forbidden transitions are shown by arrows with dotted lines. Actual tetrahedral sublevels are not equidistant in energy.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Observed sub-Doppler resolution spectrum of the A1(1), F1(1), and E(1) components of the Q(12) allowed transition.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Sub-Doppler resolution wavelength-modulation spectra of the A1 component of the Q(8) forbidden transition and the F1(1) component of the Q(7) forbidden transition. The observed spectrum is shown in gray, and the calculated spectrum is shown in black. The frequency separation between the lines is determined to be only 3.41 MHz.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured Allowed-Transition Frequencies of the ν3 Band of CH412a

Tables Icon

Table 2. Measured Forbidden-Transition Frequencies of the ν3 Band of CH412a

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Table 3. Measured Combination Differences in the Ground Vibrational State of CH412a

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J=R+l,
H={BsJ(J+1)Ds[J(J+1)]2+Hs[J(J+1)]3+Ls[J(J+1)]4}I+{D4TJ(J+1)+H4T[J(J+1)]2+L4T[J(J+1)]3}Ω4+{H6TJ(J+1)+L6T[J(J+1)]2}Ω6+L8TJ(J+1)Ω8,
Bs=(157122614.2±1.5)kHz,
Ds=(3328.545±0.031)kHz,
Hs=(190.90±0.26)Hz,
Ls=(13.16±0.76)mHz.
x=μEh
S=2π3ε0hc2νflowμ2,
μf=μaSfSa,

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