Abstract

Ring-resonator-based silicon optical modulators have tremendous potential for forming compact and power-efficient optical transmitters. In this paper we demonstrate high-speed modulation from a device based upon carrier depletion in a self-aligned pn junction. Furthermore, the role that focused ion beams can play in the error correction of silicon photonic devices is also demonstrated.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electro-refraction and electro-absorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1–14 μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 1171–1180 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, P. Sanchis, J. Herrera, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High speed silicon electro-optical modulators enhanced via slow light propagation,” Opt. Express 19, 20876–20885 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. C. Nguyen, S. Hashimoto, M. Shinkawa, and T. Baba, “Compact and fast photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express 20, 22465–22474 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible siring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200–202 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J.-M. Fedeli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17, 21986–21991 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 22484–22490 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-B. You, M. Park, J.-W. Park, and G. Kim, “12.5 Gbps optical modulation of silicon racetrack resonator based on carrier-depletion in asymmetric p-n diode,” Opt. Express 16, 18340–18344 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power 30 Gbps silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–2.
  12. X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “44  Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714(2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Hu, X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed silicon modulator based on cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Express 20, 15079–15085 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40  Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.
  15. X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25  Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 2507–2515 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fedeli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten  Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express 19, 14690–14695 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18, 10941–10946 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. M. Gutierrez, A. Brimont, G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fedeli, L. Vivien, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Ring-assisted Mach–Zehnder interferometer silicon modulator for enhanced performance,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 9–14 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. A. Zortmann, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19, 26017–26026 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High speed silicon optical modulator with self aligned fabrication process,” Opt. Express 18, 19064–19069 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.
  22. G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25  Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19, 20435–20443 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (5)

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “44  Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714(2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Gutierrez, A. Brimont, G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fedeli, L. Vivien, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Ring-assisted Mach–Zehnder interferometer silicon modulator for enhanced performance,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 9–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25  Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed silicon modulator based on cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Express 20, 15079–15085 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Nguyen, S. Hashimoto, M. Shinkawa, and T. Baba, “Compact and fast photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express 20, 22465–22474 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Amberg, P.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Asghari, M.

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18, 10941–10946 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Assefa, S.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power 30 Gbps silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–2.

Baba, T.

Barwicz, T.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power 30 Gbps silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–2.

Beattie, J.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible siring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brimont, A.

Carothers, D.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible siring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chen, Y.-K.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible siring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Cunningham, J. E.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25  Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19, 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40  Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

Dong, F.

Dong, P.

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18, 10941–10946 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Dumon, P.

Fedeli, J. M.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18, 10941–10946 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Feng, N.-N.

Gardes, F. Y.

Gill, D. M.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible siring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power 30 Gbps silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–2.

Grosse, P.

Gutierrez, A. M.

A. M. Gutierrez, A. Brimont, G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fedeli, L. Vivien, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Ring-assisted Mach–Zehnder interferometer silicon modulator for enhanced performance,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 9–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, S.

Herrera, J.

Hill, C.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible siring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Hu, Y.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25  Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed silicon modulator based on cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Express 20, 15079–15085 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “44  Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714(2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kamocsai, R.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible siring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25  Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19, 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18, 10941–10946 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40  Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

Kung, C.-C.

Kuo, B. P.-P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

Lexau, J.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Li, G.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25  Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19, 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18, 10941–10946 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40  Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18, 10941–10946 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Luo, Y.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25  Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19, 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40  Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Marris-Morini, D.

Marti, J.

A. M. Gutierrez, A. Brimont, G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fedeli, L. Vivien, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Ring-assisted Mach–Zehnder interferometer silicon modulator for enhanced performance,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 9–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martí, J.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526(2010).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electro-refraction and electro-absorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1–14 μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 1171–1180 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Milesi, F.

Myslivets, E.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nedeljkovic, M.

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electro-refraction and electro-absorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1–14 μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 1171–1180 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

O’Faolain, L.

Park, J.-W.

Park, M.

Patel, S. S.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible siring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pinckney, N.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Pomerene, A.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible siring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Radic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raj, K.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25  Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19, 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40  Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Rasigade, G.

Rasras, M.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible siring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Rosenberg, J. C.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power 30 Gbps silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–2.

Sanchis, P.

Shafiiha, R.

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18, 10941–10946 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Shank, S. M.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power 30 Gbps silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–2.

Shi, J.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Shinkawa, M.

Shubin, I.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25  Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19, 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40  Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

Soref, R.

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electro-refraction and electro-absorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1–14 μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 1171–1180 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25  Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19, 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40  Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Thomson, D. J.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, P. Sanchis, J. Herrera, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High speed silicon electro-optical modulators enhanced via slow light propagation,” Opt. Express 19, 20876–20885 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High speed silicon optical modulator with self aligned fabrication process,” Opt. Express 18, 19064–19069 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526(2010).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

Tu, K.-Y.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible siring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power 30 Gbps silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–2.

Watts, M. R.

White, A. E.

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible siring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

Xiong, K.

Xu, H.

Yang, M.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power 30 Gbps silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–2.

Yao, J.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25  Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19, 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40  Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

You, J.-B.

Yu, J.

Yu, Y.

Zheng, D.

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Zheng, X.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25  Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19, 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18, 10941–10946 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40  Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

Ziebell, M.

A. M. Gutierrez, A. Brimont, G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fedeli, L. Vivien, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Ring-assisted Mach–Zehnder interferometer silicon modulator for enhanced performance,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 9–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fedeli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten  Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express 19, 14690–14695 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zlatanovic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zortmann, W. A.

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. M. Gutierrez, A. Brimont, G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fedeli, L. Vivien, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Ring-assisted Mach–Zehnder interferometer silicon modulator for enhanced performance,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 9–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electro-refraction and electro-absorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1–14 μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 1171–1180 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50  Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible siring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “44  Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1712–1714(2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526(2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

J.-B. You, M. Park, J.-W. Park, and G. Kim, “12.5 Gbps optical modulation of silicon racetrack resonator based on carrier-depletion in asymmetric p-n diode,” Opt. Express 16, 18340–18344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J.-M. Fedeli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17, 21986–21991 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18, 10941–10946 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High speed silicon optical modulator with self aligned fabrication process,” Opt. Express 18, 19064–19069 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fedeli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten  Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express 19, 14690–14695 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25  Gb/s 1 V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19, 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, P. Sanchis, J. Herrera, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High speed silicon electro-optical modulators enhanced via slow light propagation,” Opt. Express 19, 20876–20885 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Zortmann, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19, 26017–26026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25  Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20, 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed silicon modulator based on cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Express 20, 15079–15085 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Nguyen, S. Hashimoto, M. Shinkawa, and T. Baba, “Compact and fast photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express 20, 22465–22474 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40  Gb/s thermally tunable CMOS ring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–3.

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power 30 Gbps silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–2.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Self-aligned pn junction ring modulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM images showing (a) FIB milled hole in center electrode, (b) device post HF dip aligned for platinum deposition, and (c) finished device milled hole refilled with platinum. Also shown are cross-sectional diagrams of the device at different stages in the FIB correction process (note that these do not all match the SEM images above). (d) Device precorrection, (e) device hole milled down to the doped slab region, and (f) device with milled hole refilled.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized passive spectral response of the ring resonator.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Modulation efficiency with reverse bias voltage.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Device S11 magnitude response.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optical eye diagram from the ring resonator modulator measured at (a) 20Gbit/s; (b) 25Gbit/s; (c) 30Gbit/s; and (d) 40Gbit/s.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Electrical drive signal at 40Gbit/s.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Device S11 phase response.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P=CJV24.

Metrics