Abstract

The tunable optical response of elliptical nanohole arrays penetrating through metal–phase change material–metal (AuGe2Sb1Te4Au) films is numerically investigated using the finite difference time domain method in the mid-infrared spectral region. The influence of amorphous and crystalline structural states of Ge2Sb1Te4 on the effective optical parameters of the structure is analyzed. Switching between these states provides a large wavelength shift of the structure’s effective optical parameters.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

T. Cao and M. J. Cryan, “Study of incident angle dependence for dual-band double negative-index material using elliptical nanohole arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 209–215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the speed limits of phase-change memory,” Science 336, 1566–1569 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominga, “Interfacial phase-change memory,” Nature Nanotechnol. 6, 501–505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5, 523–530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tunable fishnet metamaterials infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 193103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5,” Nano Lett. 10, 414–419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Burr, M. J. Breitwisch, M. Franceschini, D. Garetto, K. Gopalakrishnan, B. Jackson, B. Kurdi, C. Lam, L. A. Lastras, A. Padilla, B. Rajendran, S. Raoux, and R. S. Shenoy, “Phase change memory technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 223–262 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nature 7, 653–658 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Qiu and L. Gao, “Resonant light scattering by small coated nonmagnetic spheres: magnetic resonances, negative refraction and prediction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1728–1737 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials”, Nat. Photonics 1, 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813 nm and single negative at 772 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1671–1673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Li, J. Q. Li, F. M. Wang, Q. J. Wang, H. Liu, S. N. Zhu, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Exploring magnetic plasmon polaritons in optical transmission through hole arrays perforated in trilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, D. H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434–438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, A. Schaedle, S. Burger, and S. Linden, “Observation of magnetization waves in negative-index photonic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. W. Ziolkowski, “Design, fabrication, and testing of double negative metamaterials,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 1516–1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. P. Berenger, “Three-dimensional perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 127, 363–379 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

A. M. Nicolson and G. F. Ross, “Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time-domain techniques,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 19, 377–382 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

S. Ovshinsky, “Reversible electrical switching phenomena in disordered structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1450–1453 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

J. C. Swihart, “Field solution for a thin‐film superconducting strip transmission line,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 461–469 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, “Three-dimensional perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 127, 363–379 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, A. B.

M. Born, E. Wolf, and A. B. Bhatia, Principles of Optics(Cambridge University, 1997) pp. 61–70.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, and A. B. Bhatia, Principles of Optics(Cambridge University, 1997) pp. 61–70.

Breitwisch, M. J.

G. W. Burr, M. J. Breitwisch, M. Franceschini, D. Garetto, K. Gopalakrishnan, B. Jackson, B. Kurdi, C. Lam, L. A. Lastras, A. Padilla, B. Rajendran, S. Raoux, and R. S. Shenoy, “Phase change memory technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 223–262 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R.

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434–438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, A. Schaedle, S. Burger, and S. Linden, “Observation of magnetization waves in negative-index photonic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burr, G. W.

G. W. Burr, M. J. Breitwisch, M. Franceschini, D. Garetto, K. Gopalakrishnan, B. Jackson, B. Kurdi, C. Lam, L. A. Lastras, A. Padilla, B. Rajendran, S. Raoux, and R. S. Shenoy, “Phase change memory technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 223–262 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Cai, W. S.

Cao, T.

Chen, X. D.

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Chong, T. C.

D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the speed limits of phase-change memory,” Science 336, 1566–1569 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cryan, M. J.

De Angelis, F.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Di Fabrizio, E.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, A. Schaedle, S. Burger, and S. Linden, “Observation of magnetization waves in negative-index photonic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

Du, B.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, S. R.

D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the speed limits of phase-change memory,” Science 336, 1566–1569 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

Fons, P.

R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominga, “Interfacial phase-change memory,” Nature Nanotechnol. 6, 501–505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5,” Nano Lett. 10, 414–419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Franceschini, M.

G. W. Burr, M. J. Breitwisch, M. Franceschini, D. Garetto, K. Gopalakrishnan, B. Jackson, B. Kurdi, C. Lam, L. A. Lastras, A. Padilla, B. Rajendran, S. Raoux, and R. S. Shenoy, “Phase change memory technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 223–262 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fukaya, T.

R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominga, “Interfacial phase-change memory,” Nature Nanotechnol. 6, 501–505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

Garetto, D.

G. W. Burr, M. J. Breitwisch, M. Franceschini, D. Garetto, K. Gopalakrishnan, B. Jackson, B. Kurdi, C. Lam, L. A. Lastras, A. Padilla, B. Rajendran, S. Raoux, and R. S. Shenoy, “Phase change memory technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 223–262 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gholipour, B.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gopalakrishnan, K.

G. W. Burr, M. J. Breitwisch, M. Franceschini, D. Garetto, K. Gopalakrishnan, B. Jackson, B. Kurdi, C. Lam, L. A. Lastras, A. Padilla, B. Rajendran, S. Raoux, and R. S. Shenoy, “Phase change memory technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 223–262 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, H. T.

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. C.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, B.

G. W. Burr, M. J. Breitwisch, M. Franceschini, D. Garetto, K. Gopalakrishnan, B. Jackson, B. Kurdi, C. Lam, L. A. Lastras, A. Padilla, B. Rajendran, S. Raoux, and R. S. Shenoy, “Phase change memory technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 223–262 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jagadish, C.

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kang, L.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

X. Wang, D. H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tunable fishnet metamaterials infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 193103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knight, K.

Z. L. Samson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 143105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, A. V.

R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominga, “Interfacial phase-change memory,” Nature Nanotechnol. 6, 501–505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5,” Nano Lett. 10, 414–419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kolobov, Photo-Induced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors (John Wiley & Sons, 2006).

Kong, J. A.

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krbal, M.

R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominga, “Interfacial phase-change memory,” Nature Nanotechnol. 6, 501–505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5,” Nano Lett. 10, 414–419 (2010).
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G. W. Burr, M. J. Breitwisch, M. Franceschini, D. Garetto, K. Gopalakrishnan, B. Jackson, B. Kurdi, C. Lam, L. A. Lastras, A. Padilla, B. Rajendran, S. Raoux, and R. S. Shenoy, “Phase change memory technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 223–262 (2010).
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X. Wang, D. H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143122 (2007).
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G. W. Burr, M. J. Breitwisch, M. Franceschini, D. Garetto, K. Gopalakrishnan, B. Jackson, B. Kurdi, C. Lam, L. A. Lastras, A. Padilla, B. Rajendran, S. Raoux, and R. S. Shenoy, “Phase change memory technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 223–262 (2010).
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A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 115109 (2010).
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G. W. Burr, M. J. Breitwisch, M. Franceschini, D. Garetto, K. Gopalakrishnan, B. Jackson, B. Kurdi, C. Lam, L. A. Lastras, A. Padilla, B. Rajendran, S. Raoux, and R. S. Shenoy, “Phase change memory technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 223–262 (2010).
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D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the speed limits of phase-change memory,” Science 336, 1566–1569 (2012).
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K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nature 7, 653–658 (2008).
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Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
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T. Li, J. Q. Li, F. M. Wang, Q. J. Wang, H. Liu, S. N. Zhu, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Exploring magnetic plasmon polaritons in optical transmission through hole arrays perforated in trilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251112 (2007).
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T. Li, J. Q. Li, F. M. Wang, Q. J. Wang, H. Liu, S. N. Zhu, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Exploring magnetic plasmon polaritons in optical transmission through hole arrays perforated in trilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251112 (2007).
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Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
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A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tunable fishnet metamaterials infiltrated by liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 193103 (2010).
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R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominga, “Interfacial phase-change memory,” Nature Nanotechnol. 6, 501–505 (2011).
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A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 115109 (2010).
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Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
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R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5,” Nano Lett. 10, 414–419 (2010).
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R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5,” Nano Lett. 10, 414–419 (2010).
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R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominga, “Interfacial phase-change memory,” Nature Nanotechnol. 6, 501–505 (2011).
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R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5,” Nano Lett. 10, 414–419 (2010).
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D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the speed limits of phase-change memory,” Science 336, 1566–1569 (2012).
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Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
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Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
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Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
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T. Li, J. Q. Li, F. M. Wang, Q. J. Wang, H. Liu, S. N. Zhu, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Exploring magnetic plasmon polaritons in optical transmission through hole arrays perforated in trilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251112 (2007).
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T. Li, J. Q. Li, F. M. Wang, Q. J. Wang, H. Liu, S. N. Zhu, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Exploring magnetic plasmon polaritons in optical transmission through hole arrays perforated in trilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251112 (2007).
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G. Dolling, M. Wegener, A. Schaedle, S. Burger, and S. Linden, “Observation of magnetization waves in negative-index photonic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231118 (2006).
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T. Li, J. Q. Li, F. M. Wang, Q. J. Wang, H. Liu, S. N. Zhu, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Exploring magnetic plasmon polaritons in optical transmission through hole arrays perforated in trilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251112 (2007).
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Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
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Nano Lett. (1)

R. E. Simpson, M. Krbal, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, J. Tominaga, T. Uruga, and H. Tanida, “Toward the ultimate limit of phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5,” Nano Lett. 10, 414–419 (2010).
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V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials”, Nat. Photonics 1, 41–48 (2007).
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Nature (2)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the MDM structure consisting of a 30 nm thick Ge2Sb1Te4 dielectric layer between two 30 nm thick Au films perforated with a square array of elliptical holes suspended in air. The lattice constant is L=400nm and hole diameters are d1=380nm, d2=190nm. (b) Illustration of the square lattice of ENA.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dielectric constant (a) ε1(ω) versus wavelength and (b) ε2(ω) versus wavelength for both amorphous and crystalline phases of Ge2Sb1Te4.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

3D FDTD simulation of (a) spectrum of transmittance and (b) spectrum of reflectance for different phases of Ge2Sb1Te4 for p polarization at normal incidence angle.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

3D FDTD simulation of (a) phase of the transmission coefficient and (b) phase of reflection coefficient, for different forms of Ge2Sb1Te4 for p polarization at normal incidence.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

3D FDTD simulation of absorptance of the ENA for different phases of Ge2Sb1Te4 at normal incidence.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

3D FDTD simulation of (a) real part of neff for different phases of Ge2Sb1Te4; (b) imaginary part of neff for different phases of Ge2Sb1Te4; and (c) FOM for different phases of Ge2Sb1Te4 for p polarization at normal incident angle.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

3D FDTD simulation of (a) the real part of μeff for different phases of Ge2Sb1Te4; (b) the imaginary part of μeff for different phases of Ge2Sb1Te4; (c) the real part of εeff for different forms of Ge2Sb1Te4; and (d) the imaginary part of εeff for different forms of Ge2Sb1Te4 for p polarization at normal incident angle.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Map of the normalized total magnetic field intensity distribution (color bar) and displacement current (JD) (arrows) along the plane β: (a) Resonance wavelength at 2992 nm for amorphous Ge2Sb1Te4 and (b) resonance wavelength at 4258 nm for crystalline Ge2Sb1Te4.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Comparison of FOM between the idealized lossless Ge2Sb1Te4 ENA and the real, lossy Ge2Sb1Te4 ENA in the amorphous phase. (b) Comparison of FOM between the idealized lossless Ge2Sb1Te4 ENA and the real, lossy Ge2Sb1Te4 ENA in the crystalline phase.

Equations (3)

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η=±(1+r)2t2n12(1r)2n32t2,
neff=±1kharccos[1tn1(1r2)+n3t2n1+n3+r(n3n1)]+2πmkh.
εeff=neffη,μeff=neffη,

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