Abstract

We present a comprehensive analysis of the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced absorption. Interaction of plasmonic dipoles with plasmonic quadrupoles in the special case for nonvanishing retardation introduces an additional phase factor in the coupling constant, which can result in constructive interference of the two resonances. This leads to narrow resonances in the complex plasmonic absorption spectrum. We present simulations for a broad parameter space, matching experiments, as well as an extensive model analysis. Our paper comprises a situation that represents an intermediate plasmonic coupling regime, between near-field and far-field coupling.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Taubert, M. Hentschel, J. Kästel, and H. Giessen, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced absorption,” Nano Lett. 12, 1367–1371 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Verslegers, Z. Yu, Z. Ruan, P. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “From electromagnetically induced transparency to superscattering with a single structure: a coupled-mode theory for doubly resonant structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 083903 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Tassin, L. Zhang, R. Zhao, A. Jain, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in metamaterials: the radiating two-oscillator model and its experimental confirmation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 187401 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107–1110 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
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  8. U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1866–1878 (1961).
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    [CrossRef]
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  11. A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 011802(R) (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Lipsich, S. Barreiro, A. M. Akulshin, and A. Lezama, “Absorption spectra of driven degenerate two-level atomic systems,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 053803 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an ideal plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5357–5360 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Shvets and J. S. Wurtele, “Transparency of magnetized plasma at the cyclotron frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 115003 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. L. G. Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70, 37–41 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. G. Litvak and M. D. Tokman, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ensembles of classical oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 095003 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, “Slow light in coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Naweed, G. Farca, S. I. Shopova, and A. T. Rosenberger, “Induced transparency and absorption in coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 043804 (2005).
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  20. M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233903 (2004).
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  22. L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Tunable delay line with interacting whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29, 626–628 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 053901 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double Fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11, 3694–3700 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. Luk’yanchuck, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 243902 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10, 1103–1107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  33. B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Ab initio theory of Fano resonances in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 235427 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  34. B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Influence of electromagnetic interactions on the line shape of plasmonic Fano resonances,” ACS Nano 5, 8999–9008 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  35. F. López-Tejeira, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Fano-like interference of plasmon resonances at a single rod-shaped nanoantenna,” New J. Phys. 14, 023035 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  36. Z. Ruan and S. Fan, “Design of subwavelength superscattering nanospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 043101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  37. Z. Ruan and S. Fan, “Superscattering of light from subwavelength nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 013901 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  38. T. J. Davis, D. E. Gómez, and K. C. Vernon, “Simple model for the hybridization of surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 10, 2618–2625 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  39. N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  40. S. H. Autler and C. H. Townes, “Stark effect in rapidly varying fields,” Phys. Rev. 100, 703–722 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  41. B. Gallinet, T. Siegfried, H. Sigg, P. Nordlander, and O. J. F. Martin, “Plasmonic radiance: probing structure at the Angstrom scale with visible light,” Nano Lett. 13, 497–503 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  42. In order to keep the fitting parameter space small for the experimental fits, the parameters ω0 and δ are determined directly from the curve and kept fixed.
  43. C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal–superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  44. S. M. Anlage, “The physics and applications of superconducting metamaterials,” J. Opt. 13, 024001 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  45. A. Tsiatmas, A. R. Buckingham, V. A. Fedotov, S. Wang, Y. Chen, P. A. J. de Groot, and N. I. Zheludev, “Superconducting plasmonics and extraordinary transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

B. Gallinet, T. Siegfried, H. Sigg, P. Nordlander, and O. J. F. Martin, “Plasmonic radiance: probing structure at the Angstrom scale with visible light,” Nano Lett. 13, 497–503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

F. López-Tejeira, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Fano-like interference of plasmon resonances at a single rod-shaped nanoantenna,” New J. Phys. 14, 023035 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Taubert, M. Hentschel, J. Kästel, and H. Giessen, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced absorption,” Nano Lett. 12, 1367–1371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Verslegers, Z. Yu, Z. Ruan, P. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “From electromagnetically induced transparency to superscattering with a single structure: a coupled-mode theory for doubly resonant structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 083903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, R. Zhao, A. Jain, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in metamaterials: the radiating two-oscillator model and its experimental confirmation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 187401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (9)

Z. Ruan and S. Fan, “Design of subwavelength superscattering nanospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 043101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal–superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Anlage, “The physics and applications of superconducting metamaterials,” J. Opt. 13, 024001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, and G. Shvets, “Broadband slow light metamaterial based on a double-continuum Fano resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 107403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double Fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11, 3694–3700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Ab initio theory of Fano resonances in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 235427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Influence of electromagnetic interactions on the line shape of plasmonic Fano resonances,” ACS Nano 5, 8999–9008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

B. Luk’yanchuck, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10, 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Tsiatmas, A. R. Buckingham, V. A. Fedotov, S. Wang, Y. Chen, P. A. J. de Groot, and N. I. Zheludev, “Superconducting plasmonics and extraordinary transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan and S. Fan, “Superscattering of light from subwavelength nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 013901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Davis, D. E. Gómez, and K. C. Vernon, “Simple model for the hybridization of surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 10, 2618–2625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, “Slow light in coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Naweed, G. Farca, S. I. Shopova, and A. T. Rosenberger, “Induced transparency and absorption in coupled whispering-gallery microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 043804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, “Coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 063804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Tunable delay line with interacting whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29, 626–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

G. Shvets and J. S. Wurtele, “Transparency of magnetized plasma at the cyclotron frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 115003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. L. G. Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70, 37–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Litvak and M. D. Tokman, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ensembles of classical oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 095003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Lipsich, S. Barreiro, A. M. Akulshin, and A. Lezama, “Absorption spectra of driven degenerate two-level atomic systems,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 053803 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. Lezama, S. Barreiro, and A. M. Akulshin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4732–4735 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 011802(R) (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an ideal plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5357–5360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107–1110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124, 1866–1878 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

S. H. Autler and C. H. Townes, “Stark effect in rapidly varying fields,” Phys. Rev. 100, 703–722 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Adato, R.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Akulshin, A. M.

A. Lipsich, S. Barreiro, A. M. Akulshin, and A. Lezama, “Absorption spectra of driven degenerate two-level atomic systems,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 053803 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Lezama, S. Barreiro, and A. M. Akulshin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4732–4735 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double Fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11, 3694–3700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alzar, C. L. G.

C. L. G. Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70, 37–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anlage, S. M.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal–superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Anlage, “The physics and applications of superconducting metamaterials,” J. Opt. 13, 024001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arju, N.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Artar, A.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double Fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11, 3694–3700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Autler, S. H.

S. H. Autler and C. H. Townes, “Stark effect in rapidly varying fields,” Phys. Rev. 100, 703–722 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barreiro, S.

A. Lipsich, S. Barreiro, A. M. Akulshin, and A. Lezama, “Absorption spectra of driven degenerate two-level atomic systems,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 053803 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Lezama, S. Barreiro, and A. M. Akulshin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4732–4735 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K. J.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, “Coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 063804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buckingham, A. R.

A. Tsiatmas, A. R. Buckingham, V. A. Fedotov, S. Wang, Y. Chen, P. A. J. de Groot, and N. I. Zheludev, “Superconducting plasmonics and extraordinary transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P.

L. Verslegers, Z. Yu, Z. Ruan, P. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “From electromagnetically induced transparency to superscattering with a single structure: a coupled-mode theory for doubly resonant structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 083903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.

D. D. Smith, H. Chang, K. A. Fuller, A. T. Rosenberger, and R. W. Boyd, “Coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 063804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

A. Tsiatmas, A. R. Buckingham, V. A. Fedotov, S. Wang, Y. Chen, P. A. J. de Groot, and N. I. Zheludev, “Superconducting plasmonics and extraordinary transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chong, C. T.

B. Luk’yanchuck, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davis, T. J.

T. J. Davis, D. E. Gómez, and K. C. Vernon, “Simple model for the hybridization of surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 10, 2618–2625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, P. A. J.

A. Tsiatmas, A. R. Buckingham, V. A. Fedotov, S. Wang, Y. Chen, P. A. J. de Groot, and N. I. Zheludev, “Superconducting plasmonics and extraordinary transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eigenthaler, U.

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A. Tsiatmas, A. R. Buckingham, V. A. Fedotov, S. Wang, Y. Chen, P. A. J. de Groot, and N. I. Zheludev, “Superconducting plasmonics and extraordinary transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tumaikin, A. M.

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 011802(R) (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ustinov, A. V.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal–superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Van Dorpe, P.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verellen, N.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, K. C.

T. J. Davis, D. E. Gómez, and K. C. Vernon, “Simple model for the hybridization of surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 10, 2618–2625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verslegers, L.

L. Verslegers, Z. Yu, Z. Ruan, P. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “From electromagnetically induced transparency to superscattering with a single structure: a coupled-mode theory for doubly resonant structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 083903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

A. Tsiatmas, A. R. Buckingham, V. A. Fedotov, S. Wang, Y. Chen, P. A. J. de Groot, and N. I. Zheludev, “Superconducting plasmonics and extraordinary transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10, 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, and G. Shvets, “Broadband slow light metamaterial based on a double-continuum Fano resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 107403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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G. Shvets and J. S. Wurtele, “Transparency of magnetized plasma at the cyclotron frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 115003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yanik, A. A.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double Fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11, 3694–3700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yanik, M. F.

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

L. Verslegers, Z. Yu, Z. Ruan, P. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “From electromagnetically induced transparency to superscattering with a single structure: a coupled-mode theory for doubly resonant structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 083903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 011802(R) (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, R. Zhao, A. Jain, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in metamaterials: the radiating two-oscillator model and its experimental confirmation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 187401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal–superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, R.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, R. Zhao, A. Jain, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in metamaterials: the radiating two-oscillator model and its experimental confirmation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 187401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

B. Luk’yanchuck, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Tsiatmas, A. R. Buckingham, V. A. Fedotov, S. Wang, Y. Chen, P. A. J. de Groot, and N. I. Zheludev, “Superconducting plasmonics and extraordinary transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhuravel, A. P.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal–superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Influence of electromagnetic interactions on the line shape of plasmonic Fano resonances,” ACS Nano 5, 8999–9008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

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Z. Ruan and S. Fan, “Design of subwavelength superscattering nanospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 043101 (2011).
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A. Tsiatmas, A. R. Buckingham, V. A. Fedotov, S. Wang, Y. Chen, P. A. J. de Groot, and N. I. Zheludev, “Superconducting plasmonics and extraordinary transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S. M. Anlage, “The physics and applications of superconducting metamaterials,” J. Opt. 13, 024001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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B. Gallinet, T. Siegfried, H. Sigg, P. Nordlander, and O. J. F. Martin, “Plasmonic radiance: probing structure at the Angstrom scale with visible light,” Nano Lett. 13, 497–503 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Davis, D. E. Gómez, and K. C. Vernon, “Simple model for the hybridization of surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 10, 2618–2625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Taubert, M. Hentschel, J. Kästel, and H. Giessen, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced absorption,” Nano Lett. 12, 1367–1371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10, 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double Fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11, 3694–3700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (3)

B. Luk’yanchuck, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2011).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

F. López-Tejeira, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Fano-like interference of plasmon resonances at a single rod-shaped nanoantenna,” New J. Phys. 14, 023035 (2012).
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Phys. Rev. A (6)

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B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Ab initio theory of Fano resonances in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 235427 (2011).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (17)

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, and G. Shvets, “Broadband slow light metamaterial based on a double-continuum Fano resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 107403 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 053901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253903 (2008).
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R. D. Kekatpure, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 243902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233903 (2004).
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Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
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S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an ideal plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5357–5360 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Shvets and J. S. Wurtele, “Transparency of magnetized plasma at the cyclotron frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 115003 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Verslegers, Z. Yu, Z. Ruan, P. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “From electromagnetically induced transparency to superscattering with a single structure: a coupled-mode theory for doubly resonant structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 083903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, R. Zhao, A. Jain, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in metamaterials: the radiating two-oscillator model and its experimental confirmation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 187401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan and S. Fan, “Superscattering of light from subwavelength nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 013901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal–superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

Other (1)

In order to keep the fitting parameter space small for the experimental fits, the parameters ω0 and δ are determined directly from the curve and kept fixed.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Three-level model scheme for the coupled plasmonic dipole–quadrupole system. Energy level |1 can be excited from the ground level |0 by a bright transition with a large dipole moment and is simultaneously coupled to a dark state |2. In a usual EIT system, the coupling parameter κ is real. If it is possible to apply an additional phase factor eiφ, e.g., by using a retarded coupling mechanism, the type of interference between both pathways can be changed from destructive to constructive, resulting in either EIT or EIA.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Geometry parameters of the structure. The phase difference between the dipole and the quadrupole can be tuned by changing the vertical spacing dz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Calculated transmittance spectrum of the EIT structure, with arrowheads indicating the spectral positions at which electric field calculations (b)–(d) were performed. (b)–(d) Calculated z component of the electric field for the EIT structure with dz=30nm for different spectral positions, (b) 150 THz, (c) 176 THz, and (d) 201 THz. At the transmittance minima, a characteristic (b) antisymmetric and (d) symmetric field distribution is observed. Interference between these two modes of the structure leads to the cancellation of dipole oscillation in the case of (c) and hence, the observation of the EIT peak. The bottom row shows a schematic of the charge distribution for the different situations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Color-coded calculated transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance spectra for increasing vertical spacing dz between the dipole and the quadrupole and maximum coupling strength. (b) Calculated transmittance (solid curve) and reflectance (dashed curve) and (c) absorbance for the EIA structure with increasing offset of S=0120nm and a vertical spacing of dz=260nm. To show the effect unhampered by nonradiative damping, the damping coefficient in the Drude model is set to γD=1THz in this calculation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Color-coded calculated transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance spectra for increasing vertical spacing dz between the dipole and the quadrupole and maximum coupling strength. (b) Calculated transmittance (solid curve) and reflectance (dashed curve) and (c) absorbance for the EIA structure with increasing offset of S=0120nm and a vertical spacing of 140 nm. In this calculation, a realistic gold damping coefficient in the Drude model, γD=20THz, is assumed.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a), (b) Calculated transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance for increasing vertical distance dz with a spectral detuning between the dipole and the quadrupole for a gold damping value of γD=20THz (top row) and 1 THz (bottom row). The spectral as well as scattering strength detuning lead to strongly asymmetric spectra, especially in the case of high damping. However, the EIA effect is still present, which is more pronouncedly observed in the bottom row.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

SEM micrograph of the fabricated structure with maximum offset S. The inset displays one unit cell. Adapted with permission from Ref. [2]. Copyright: American Chemical Society (2012).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Measured (left) and calculated (right) transmittance spectra (solid curve) and reflectance spectra (dashed curve) for different offsets S. (b) Corresponding measured (left) and calculated (right) absorbance. In the simulations, a gold damping value of γD=20THz has been assumed. For increased offset S and therefore, increased coupling strength between the dipole and the quadrupole, a narrow absorbance dip originating from the excitation of the quadrupole appears. The minimum offset absorbance curve is shown in light gray in every graph for comparison. Simulated spectra are shown for offsets of 0, 40, 80, and 120 nm. Adapted with permission from Ref. [2]. Copyright: American Chemical Society (2012).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Mechanical schematic of the coupled oscillator model for two oscillators with damping constants γi=Di/m and γ2γ1, coupled by κ˜=κ˜/m. Only the left oscillator is excited by the external force. For the implementation of EIA,κ˜ has to be complex.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Numerical evaluation of the analytical coupled oscillator formula, Eq. (7), with a complex coupling coefficient κexp(iφ) for different combinations of κ and φ. All quantities are dimensionless. The other parameters are ω0=δ=0, f=1, γ1=1, and γ2=0.2.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a), (b) Fit curves (dashed) of the coupled oscillator model with a complex coupling coefficient, Eq. (7), to the (a) experimental and (b) calculated absorbance spectra (solid graycurves). (c), (d) Retrieved fit parameters κ, φ, γ1, and γ2. Adapted with permission from Ref. [2]. Copyright: American Chemical Society (2012).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(a) Schematic of the planes in which field calculations are shown. (b) Calculated z component of the electric field above the dipole (top row) and the quadrupole (bottom row) for dz=100nm. Maximum field strength at the dipole and the quadrupole is observed at different times. z denotes the vertical position of the cross section. The dipole field is maximum for ωqt=1.24π (left column), whereas the quadrupole field is maximum for ωqt=1.74π (right column). (c) Calculated time evolution of the electric field strength at the dipole and the quadrupole tip [indicated by blue and red circle, respectively, in (b)]. Adapted with permission from Ref. [2]. Copyright: American Chemical Society (2012).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Fit Parameters Obtained from Experiment and Simulation Using Eq. (7)a

Equations (7)

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x¨1(t)=γ1x˙1(t)+ω12x1(t)κ˜x2(t)=fext(t)
x¨2(t)=γ2x˙2(t)+ω22x2(t)κ˜x1(t)=0,
ωj2ω2iωγj2ω0(ωωj+iγj2)=2ω0Ωj,
(2ω0Ω1κ˜κ˜2ω0Ω2)(a1a2)=(f0).
(a1a2)=1κ˜24ω02Ω1Ω2(2ω0Ω2fκ˜f).
A(ω)=I2ω0Ω2fκ˜24ω02Ω1Ω2.
A(ω)=IfΩ2κ˜2Ω1Ω2.

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