Abstract

Nondegenerate two-photon absorption (ND-TPA) in a zinc blende-type ZnS single crystal has been investigated by using the ultrafast femtosecond pump–probe technique. ND-TPA coefficients for parallel and orthogonal polarization orientations have been determined at discrete probe wavelengths from 480 to 570 nm and a constant pump wavelength of 800 nm. The largest value of (6.40±0.76)cm/GW is found in the parallel case when probed at 480 nm, whereas the smallest value of (0.066±0.007)cm/GW appears in the orthogonal case when probed at 570 nm. Optimized scaling factors of 8126 and 4358cm/GWeV5/2 are proposed for better fitting the experimental dependence of the ND-TPA coefficient on the probe photon energy for the two polarization cases. Considering the intrinsic zinc blende symmetry and crystal orientation, the ND-TPA coefficients for the parallel and orthogonal polarization orientations are related to the imaginary part of two independent third-order susceptibility tensor elements χxxxx and χxyxy, respectively.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Karatay, H. G. Yaglioglu, A. Elmali, M. Parlak, and H. Karaagac, “Thickness-dependent nonlinear absorption behaviors in polycrystalline ZnSe thin films,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1471–1475 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Boggess, A. Smirl, S. Moss, I. Boyd, and E. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488–494 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Y. Y. Wu, and S. Guha, “Self-protecting semiconductor optical limiters,” Opt. Lett. 13, 315–317 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. Cirloganu, L. A. Padilha, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Extremely nondegenerate two-photon absorption in direct-gap semiconductors,” Opt. Express 19, 22951–22960 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. C. Hutchings and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nondegenerate two-photon absorption in zinc blende semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2065–2074 (1992).
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  9. L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075325 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. V. Olson, M. P. Gehlsen, and T. F. Boggess, “Nondegenerate two-photon absorption in GaSb,” Opt. Commun. 304, 54–57 (2013).
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  11. D. A. Fishman, C. Cirloganu, S. Webster, L. A. Padilha, M. Monroe, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive mid-infrared detection in wide-bandgap semiconductors using extreme non-degenerate two-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5, 561–565 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Boitier, J.-B. Dherbecourt, A. Godard, and E. Rosencher, “Infrared quantum counting by nondegenerate two photon conductivity in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Apiratikul and T. E. Murphy, “Background-suppressed ultrafast optical sampling using nondegenerate two-photon absorption in a GaAs photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 212–214 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009–1017 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. A. Bolger, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, R. Desalvo, D. C. Hutchings, and D. J. Hagan, “Nondegenerate 2-photon absorption-spectra of ZnSe, ZnS and ZnO,” Opt. Commun. 97, 203–209 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Two-photon spectroscopy and analysis with a white-light continuum probe,” Opt. Lett. 27, 270–272 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Shui, Z. Li, X. Jin, J. Yang, Z. Nie, G. Shi, X. Wu, K. Yang, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Measurements of dynamics of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity in ZnS with pulses from optical parameter generation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1940–1944 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Corrado, Y. Jiang, F. Oba, M. Kozina, F. Bridges, and J. Z. Zhang, “Synthesis, structural, and optical properties of stable ZnS:Cu, Cl nanocrystals†,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 3830–3839 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Huang, Y. Yang, S. Xue, B. Yang, L. Shiyong, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence of ZnS:Cu nanocrystals in polymeric networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2335–2337 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Leeb, V. Gebhardt, G. Müller, D. Haarer, D. Su, M. Giersig, G. McMahon, and L. Spanhel, “Colloidal synthesis and electroluminescence properties of nanoporous MnIIZnS films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 7839–7845 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1205–1216 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Bass, Handbook of Optics, Volume IV: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2010).
  23. M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, and E. Van Stryland, “Nondegenerate optical Kerr effect in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–255 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244613 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the anisotropy of two-photon absorption coefficients in zinc blende semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256–268 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

B. V. Olson, M. P. Gehlsen, and T. F. Boggess, “Nondegenerate two-photon absorption in GaSb,” Opt. Commun. 304, 54–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

M. Shui, Z. Li, X. Jin, J. Yang, Z. Nie, G. Shi, X. Wu, K. Yang, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Measurements of dynamics of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity in ZnS with pulses from optical parameter generation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1940–1944 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Karatay, H. G. Yaglioglu, A. Elmali, M. Parlak, and H. Karaagac, “Thickness-dependent nonlinear absorption behaviors in polycrystalline ZnSe thin films,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1471–1475 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

S. Krishnamurthy, Z. G. Yu, L. P. Gonzalez, and S. Guha, “Temperature-and wavelength-dependent two-photon and free-carrier absorption in GaAs, InP, GaInAs, and InAsP,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 033102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Cirloganu, L. A. Padilha, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Extremely nondegenerate two-photon absorption in direct-gap semiconductors,” Opt. Express 19, 22951–22960 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Fishman, C. Cirloganu, S. Webster, L. A. Padilha, M. Monroe, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive mid-infrared detection in wide-bandgap semiconductors using extreme non-degenerate two-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5, 561–565 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

P. Apiratikul and T. E. Murphy, “Background-suppressed ultrafast optical sampling using nondegenerate two-photon absorption in a GaAs photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 212–214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

F. Boitier, J.-B. Dherbecourt, A. Godard, and E. Rosencher, “Infrared quantum counting by nondegenerate two photon conductivity in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Corrado, Y. Jiang, F. Oba, M. Kozina, F. Bridges, and J. Z. Zhang, “Synthesis, structural, and optical properties of stable ZnS:Cu, Cl nanocrystals†,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 3830–3839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Two-photon spectroscopy and analysis with a white-light continuum probe,” Opt. Lett. 27, 270–272 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1205–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Leeb, V. Gebhardt, G. Müller, D. Haarer, D. Su, M. Giersig, G. McMahon, and L. Spanhel, “Colloidal synthesis and electroluminescence properties of nanoporous MnIIZnS films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 7839–7845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Huang, Y. Yang, S. Xue, B. Yang, L. Shiyong, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence of ZnS:Cu nanocrystals in polymeric networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2335–2337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009–1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the anisotropy of two-photon absorption coefficients in zinc blende semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, and E. Van Stryland, “Nondegenerate optical Kerr effect in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–255 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. A. Bolger, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, R. Desalvo, D. C. Hutchings, and D. J. Hagan, “Nondegenerate 2-photon absorption-spectra of ZnSe, ZnS and ZnO,” Opt. Commun. 97, 203–209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. Klingshirn, “Non-linear optical properties of semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 5, 457–469 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1985 (2)

T. Boggess, A. Smirl, S. Moss, I. Boyd, and E. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488–494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244613 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D. R.

M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the anisotropy of two-photon absorption coefficients in zinc blende semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Apiratikul, P.

P. Apiratikul and T. E. Murphy, “Background-suppressed ultrafast optical sampling using nondegenerate two-photon absorption in a GaAs photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 212–214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa, L. C.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

M. Bass, Handbook of Optics, Volume IV: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2010).

Boggess, T.

T. Boggess, A. Smirl, S. Moss, I. Boyd, and E. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488–494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

B. V. Olson, M. P. Gehlsen, and T. F. Boggess, “Nondegenerate two-photon absorption in GaSb,” Opt. Commun. 304, 54–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244613 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Boitier, F.

F. Boitier, J.-B. Dherbecourt, A. Godard, and E. Rosencher, “Infrared quantum counting by nondegenerate two photon conductivity in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, J. A.

J. A. Bolger, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, R. Desalvo, D. C. Hutchings, and D. J. Hagan, “Nondegenerate 2-photon absorption-spectra of ZnSe, ZnS and ZnO,” Opt. Commun. 97, 203–209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, I.

T. Boggess, A. Smirl, S. Moss, I. Boyd, and E. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488–494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bridges, F.

C. Corrado, Y. Jiang, F. Oba, M. Kozina, F. Bridges, and J. Z. Zhang, “Synthesis, structural, and optical properties of stable ZnS:Cu, Cl nanocrystals†,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 3830–3839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buso, D.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cesar, C. L.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cirloganu, C.

D. A. Fishman, C. Cirloganu, S. Webster, L. A. Padilha, M. Monroe, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive mid-infrared detection in wide-bandgap semiconductors using extreme non-degenerate two-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5, 561–565 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cirloganu, C. M.

Corrado, C.

C. Corrado, Y. Jiang, F. Oba, M. Kozina, F. Bridges, and J. Z. Zhang, “Synthesis, structural, and optical properties of stable ZnS:Cu, Cl nanocrystals†,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 3830–3839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, C. H. B.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Desalvo, R.

J. A. Bolger, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, R. Desalvo, D. C. Hutchings, and D. J. Hagan, “Nondegenerate 2-photon absorption-spectra of ZnSe, ZnS and ZnO,” Opt. Commun. 97, 203–209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dherbecourt, J.-B.

F. Boitier, J.-B. Dherbecourt, A. Godard, and E. Rosencher, “Infrared quantum counting by nondegenerate two photon conductivity in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dvorak, M. D.

M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the anisotropy of two-photon absorption coefficients in zinc blende semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Elmali, A.

A. Karatay, H. G. Yaglioglu, A. Elmali, M. Parlak, and H. Karaagac, “Thickness-dependent nonlinear absorption behaviors in polycrystalline ZnSe thin films,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1471–1475 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, D. A.

C. M. Cirloganu, L. A. Padilha, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Extremely nondegenerate two-photon absorption in direct-gap semiconductors,” Opt. Express 19, 22951–22960 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Fishman, C. Cirloganu, S. Webster, L. A. Padilha, M. Monroe, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive mid-infrared detection in wide-bandgap semiconductors using extreme non-degenerate two-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5, 561–565 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gebhardt, V.

J. Leeb, V. Gebhardt, G. Müller, D. Haarer, D. Su, M. Giersig, G. McMahon, and L. Spanhel, “Colloidal synthesis and electroluminescence properties of nanoporous MnIIZnS films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 7839–7845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gehlsen, M. P.

B. V. Olson, M. P. Gehlsen, and T. F. Boggess, “Nondegenerate two-photon absorption in GaSb,” Opt. Commun. 304, 54–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Giersig, M.

J. Leeb, V. Gebhardt, G. Müller, D. Haarer, D. Su, M. Giersig, G. McMahon, and L. Spanhel, “Colloidal synthesis and electroluminescence properties of nanoporous MnIIZnS films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 7839–7845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Godard, A.

F. Boitier, J.-B. Dherbecourt, A. Godard, and E. Rosencher, “Infrared quantum counting by nondegenerate two photon conductivity in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, L. P.

S. Krishnamurthy, Z. G. Yu, L. P. Gonzalez, and S. Guha, “Temperature-and wavelength-dependent two-photon and free-carrier absorption in GaAs, InP, GaInAs, and InAsP,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 033102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

S. Krishnamurthy, Z. G. Yu, L. P. Gonzalez, and S. Guha, “Temperature-and wavelength-dependent two-photon and free-carrier absorption in GaAs, InP, GaInAs, and InAsP,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 033102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Y. Y. Wu, and S. Guha, “Self-protecting semiconductor optical limiters,” Opt. Lett. 13, 315–317 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244613 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Haarer, D.

J. Leeb, V. Gebhardt, G. Müller, D. Haarer, D. Su, M. Giersig, G. McMahon, and L. Spanhel, “Colloidal synthesis and electroluminescence properties of nanoporous MnIIZnS films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 7839–7845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

C. M. Cirloganu, L. A. Padilha, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Extremely nondegenerate two-photon absorption in direct-gap semiconductors,” Opt. Express 19, 22951–22960 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Fishman, C. Cirloganu, S. Webster, L. A. Padilha, M. Monroe, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive mid-infrared detection in wide-bandgap semiconductors using extreme non-degenerate two-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5, 561–565 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Two-photon spectroscopy and analysis with a white-light continuum probe,” Opt. Lett. 27, 270–272 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1205–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009–1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bolger, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, R. Desalvo, D. C. Hutchings, and D. J. Hagan, “Nondegenerate 2-photon absorption-spectra of ZnSe, ZnS and ZnO,” Opt. Commun. 97, 203–209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Y. Y. Wu, and S. Guha, “Self-protecting semiconductor optical limiters,” Opt. Lett. 13, 315–317 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hales, J. M.

R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1205–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Two-photon spectroscopy and analysis with a white-light continuum probe,” Opt. Lett. 27, 270–272 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, Y. Yang, S. Xue, B. Yang, L. Shiyong, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence of ZnS:Cu nanocrystals in polymeric networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2335–2337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

J. A. Bolger, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, R. Desalvo, D. C. Hutchings, and D. J. Hagan, “Nondegenerate 2-photon absorption-spectra of ZnSe, ZnS and ZnO,” Opt. Commun. 97, 203–209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nondegenerate two-photon absorption in zinc blende semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2065–2074 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

C. Corrado, Y. Jiang, F. Oba, M. Kozina, F. Bridges, and J. Z. Zhang, “Synthesis, structural, and optical properties of stable ZnS:Cu, Cl nanocrystals†,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 3830–3839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jin, X.

M. Shui, Z. Li, X. Jin, J. Yang, Z. Nie, G. Shi, X. Wu, K. Yang, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Measurements of dynamics of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity in ZnS with pulses from optical parameter generation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1940–1944 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

J. A. Bolger, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, R. Desalvo, D. C. Hutchings, and D. J. Hagan, “Nondegenerate 2-photon absorption-spectra of ZnSe, ZnS and ZnO,” Opt. Commun. 97, 203–209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Karaagac, H.

A. Karatay, H. G. Yaglioglu, A. Elmali, M. Parlak, and H. Karaagac, “Thickness-dependent nonlinear absorption behaviors in polycrystalline ZnSe thin films,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1471–1475 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Karatay, A.

A. Karatay, H. G. Yaglioglu, A. Elmali, M. Parlak, and H. Karaagac, “Thickness-dependent nonlinear absorption behaviors in polycrystalline ZnSe thin films,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1471–1475 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Klingshirn, C.

C. Klingshirn, “Non-linear optical properties of semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 5, 457–469 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kobyakov, A.

R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Two-photon spectroscopy and analysis with a white-light continuum probe,” Opt. Lett. 27, 270–272 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1205–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kozina, M.

C. Corrado, Y. Jiang, F. Oba, M. Kozina, F. Bridges, and J. Z. Zhang, “Synthesis, structural, and optical properties of stable ZnS:Cu, Cl nanocrystals†,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 3830–3839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, S.

S. Krishnamurthy, Z. G. Yu, L. P. Gonzalez, and S. Guha, “Temperature-and wavelength-dependent two-photon and free-carrier absorption in GaAs, InP, GaInAs, and InAsP,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 033102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leeb, J.

J. Leeb, V. Gebhardt, G. Müller, D. Haarer, D. Su, M. Giersig, G. McMahon, and L. Spanhel, “Colloidal synthesis and electroluminescence properties of nanoporous MnIIZnS films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 7839–7845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

M. Shui, Z. Li, X. Jin, J. Yang, Z. Nie, G. Shi, X. Wu, K. Yang, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Measurements of dynamics of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity in ZnS with pulses from optical parameter generation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1940–1944 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martucci, A.

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, G.

J. Leeb, V. Gebhardt, G. Müller, D. Haarer, D. Su, M. Giersig, G. McMahon, and L. Spanhel, “Colloidal synthesis and electroluminescence properties of nanoporous MnIIZnS films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 7839–7845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, M.

D. A. Fishman, C. Cirloganu, S. Webster, L. A. Padilha, M. Monroe, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive mid-infrared detection in wide-bandgap semiconductors using extreme non-degenerate two-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5, 561–565 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moss, S.

T. Boggess, A. Smirl, S. Moss, I. Boyd, and E. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488–494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Müller, G.

J. Leeb, V. Gebhardt, G. Müller, D. Haarer, D. Su, M. Giersig, G. McMahon, and L. Spanhel, “Colloidal synthesis and electroluminescence properties of nanoporous MnIIZnS films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 7839–7845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, T. E.

P. Apiratikul and T. E. Murphy, “Background-suppressed ultrafast optical sampling using nondegenerate two-photon absorption in a GaAs photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 212–214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Negres, R. A.

R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Two-photon spectroscopy and analysis with a white-light continuum probe,” Opt. Lett. 27, 270–272 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1205–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nie, Z.

M. Shui, Z. Li, X. Jin, J. Yang, Z. Nie, G. Shi, X. Wu, K. Yang, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Measurements of dynamics of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity in ZnS with pulses from optical parameter generation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1940–1944 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nozaki, K.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oba, F.

C. Corrado, Y. Jiang, F. Oba, M. Kozina, F. Bridges, and J. Z. Zhang, “Synthesis, structural, and optical properties of stable ZnS:Cu, Cl nanocrystals†,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 3830–3839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Olson, B. V.

B. V. Olson, M. P. Gehlsen, and T. F. Boggess, “Nondegenerate two-photon absorption in GaSb,” Opt. Commun. 304, 54–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Padilha, L. A.

D. A. Fishman, C. Cirloganu, S. Webster, L. A. Padilha, M. Monroe, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive mid-infrared detection in wide-bandgap semiconductors using extreme non-degenerate two-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5, 561–565 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Cirloganu, L. A. Padilha, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Extremely nondegenerate two-photon absorption in direct-gap semiconductors,” Opt. Express 19, 22951–22960 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parlak, M.

A. Karatay, H. G. Yaglioglu, A. Elmali, M. Parlak, and H. Karaagac, “Thickness-dependent nonlinear absorption behaviors in polycrystalline ZnSe thin films,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1471–1475 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

F. Boitier, J.-B. Dherbecourt, A. Godard, and E. Rosencher, “Infrared quantum counting by nondegenerate two photon conductivity in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Sato, T.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, W. A.

M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the anisotropy of two-photon absorption coefficients in zinc blende semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, and E. Van Stryland, “Nondegenerate optical Kerr effect in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–255 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009–1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

J. Huang, Y. Yang, S. Xue, B. Yang, L. Shiyong, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence of ZnS:Cu nanocrystals in polymeric networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2335–2337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, G.

M. Shui, Z. Li, X. Jin, J. Yang, Z. Nie, G. Shi, X. Wu, K. Yang, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Measurements of dynamics of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity in ZnS with pulses from optical parameter generation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1940–1944 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shiyong, L.

J. Huang, Y. Yang, S. Xue, B. Yang, L. Shiyong, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence of ZnS:Cu nanocrystals in polymeric networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2335–2337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shui, M.

M. Shui, Z. Li, X. Jin, J. Yang, Z. Nie, G. Shi, X. Wu, K. Yang, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Measurements of dynamics of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity in ZnS with pulses from optical parameter generation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1940–1944 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Smirl, A.

T. Boggess, A. Smirl, S. Moss, I. Boyd, and E. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488–494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Smirl, A. L.

M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the anisotropy of two-photon absorption coefficients in zinc blende semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244613 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244613 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

Spanhel, L.

J. Leeb, V. Gebhardt, G. Müller, D. Haarer, D. Su, M. Giersig, G. McMahon, and L. Spanhel, “Colloidal synthesis and electroluminescence properties of nanoporous MnIIZnS films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 7839–7845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Su, D.

J. Leeb, V. Gebhardt, G. Müller, D. Haarer, D. Su, M. Giersig, G. McMahon, and L. Spanhel, “Colloidal synthesis and electroluminescence properties of nanoporous MnIIZnS films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 7839–7845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E.

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, and E. Van Stryland, “Nondegenerate optical Kerr effect in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–255 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Boggess, A. Smirl, S. Moss, I. Boyd, and E. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488–494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

C. M. Cirloganu, L. A. Padilha, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Extremely nondegenerate two-photon absorption in direct-gap semiconductors,” Opt. Express 19, 22951–22960 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Fishman, C. Cirloganu, S. Webster, L. A. Padilha, M. Monroe, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive mid-infrared detection in wide-bandgap semiconductors using extreme non-degenerate two-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5, 561–565 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1205–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Two-photon spectroscopy and analysis with a white-light continuum probe,” Opt. Lett. 27, 270–272 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009–1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nondegenerate two-photon absorption in zinc blende semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2065–2074 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Y. Y. Wu, and S. Guha, “Self-protecting semiconductor optical limiters,” Opt. Lett. 13, 315–317 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244613 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vanherzeele, H.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244613 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, and E. Van Stryland, “Nondegenerate optical Kerr effect in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–255 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009–1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

M. Shui, Z. Li, X. Jin, J. Yang, Z. Nie, G. Shi, X. Wu, K. Yang, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Measurements of dynamics of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity in ZnS with pulses from optical parameter generation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1940–1944 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Webster, S.

D. A. Fishman, C. Cirloganu, S. Webster, L. A. Padilha, M. Monroe, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive mid-infrared detection in wide-bandgap semiconductors using extreme non-degenerate two-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5, 561–565 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Cirloganu, L. A. Padilha, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Extremely nondegenerate two-photon absorption in direct-gap semiconductors,” Opt. Express 19, 22951–22960 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the anisotropy of two-photon absorption coefficients in zinc blende semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bolger, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, R. Desalvo, D. C. Hutchings, and D. J. Hagan, “Nondegenerate 2-photon absorption-spectra of ZnSe, ZnS and ZnO,” Opt. Commun. 97, 203–209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Woodall, M. A.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244613 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

M. Shui, Z. Li, X. Jin, J. Yang, Z. Nie, G. Shi, X. Wu, K. Yang, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Measurements of dynamics of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity in ZnS with pulses from optical parameter generation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1940–1944 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. Y.

Xue, S.

J. Huang, Y. Yang, S. Xue, B. Yang, L. Shiyong, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence of ZnS:Cu nanocrystals in polymeric networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2335–2337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yaglioglu, H. G.

A. Karatay, H. G. Yaglioglu, A. Elmali, M. Parlak, and H. Karaagac, “Thickness-dependent nonlinear absorption behaviors in polycrystalline ZnSe thin films,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1471–1475 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

J. Huang, Y. Yang, S. Xue, B. Yang, L. Shiyong, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence of ZnS:Cu nanocrystals in polymeric networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2335–2337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

M. Shui, Z. Li, X. Jin, J. Yang, Z. Nie, G. Shi, X. Wu, K. Yang, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Measurements of dynamics of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity in ZnS with pulses from optical parameter generation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1940–1944 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.

M. Shui, Z. Li, X. Jin, J. Yang, Z. Nie, G. Shi, X. Wu, K. Yang, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Measurements of dynamics of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity in ZnS with pulses from optical parameter generation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1940–1944 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

J. Huang, Y. Yang, S. Xue, B. Yang, L. Shiyong, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence of ZnS:Cu nanocrystals in polymeric networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2335–2337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z. G.

S. Krishnamurthy, Z. G. Yu, L. P. Gonzalez, and S. Guha, “Temperature-and wavelength-dependent two-photon and free-carrier absorption in GaAs, InP, GaInAs, and InAsP,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 033102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Z.

C. Corrado, Y. Jiang, F. Oba, M. Kozina, F. Bridges, and J. Z. Zhang, “Synthesis, structural, and optical properties of stable ZnS:Cu, Cl nanocrystals†,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 3830–3839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

M. Shui, Z. Li, X. Jin, J. Yang, Z. Nie, G. Shi, X. Wu, K. Yang, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Measurements of dynamics of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity in ZnS with pulses from optical parameter generation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1940–1944 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Boitier, J.-B. Dherbecourt, A. Godard, and E. Rosencher, “Infrared quantum counting by nondegenerate two photon conductivity in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, Y. Yang, S. Xue, B. Yang, L. Shiyong, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence of ZnS:Cu nanocrystals in polymeric networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2335–2337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

R. A. Negres, J. M. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1205–1216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, and E. Van Stryland, “Nondegenerate optical Kerr effect in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–255 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the anisotropy of two-photon absorption coefficients in zinc blende semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Boggess, A. Smirl, S. Moss, I. Boyd, and E. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 488–494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Apiratikul and T. E. Murphy, “Background-suppressed ultrafast optical sampling using nondegenerate two-photon absorption in a GaAs photodiode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 212–214 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Krishnamurthy, Z. G. Yu, L. P. Gonzalez, and S. Guha, “Temperature-and wavelength-dependent two-photon and free-carrier absorption in GaAs, InP, GaInAs, and InAsP,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 033102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

C. Corrado, Y. Jiang, F. Oba, M. Kozina, F. Bridges, and J. Z. Zhang, “Synthesis, structural, and optical properties of stable ZnS:Cu, Cl nanocrystals†,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 3830–3839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. Leeb, V. Gebhardt, G. Müller, D. Haarer, D. Su, M. Giersig, G. McMahon, and L. Spanhel, “Colloidal synthesis and electroluminescence properties of nanoporous MnIIZnS films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 7839–7845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. A. Fishman, C. Cirloganu, S. Webster, L. A. Padilha, M. Monroe, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive mid-infrared detection in wide-bandgap semiconductors using extreme non-degenerate two-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5, 561–565 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4, 477–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

A. Karatay, H. G. Yaglioglu, A. Elmali, M. Parlak, and H. Karaagac, “Thickness-dependent nonlinear absorption behaviors in polycrystalline ZnSe thin films,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1471–1475 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Shui, Z. Li, X. Jin, J. Yang, Z. Nie, G. Shi, X. Wu, K. Yang, X. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Measurements of dynamics of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity in ZnS with pulses from optical parameter generation,” Opt. Commun. 285, 1940–1944 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Olson, M. P. Gehlsen, and T. F. Boggess, “Nondegenerate two-photon absorption in GaSb,” Opt. Commun. 304, 54–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bolger, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, R. Desalvo, D. C. Hutchings, and D. J. Hagan, “Nondegenerate 2-photon absorption-spectra of ZnSe, ZnS and ZnO,” Opt. Commun. 97, 203–209 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244613 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, C. H. B. Cruz, D. Buso, and A. Martucci, “Frequency degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra of semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Klingshirn, “Non-linear optical properties of semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 5, 457–469 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Bass, Handbook of Optics, Volume IV: Optical Properties of Materials, Nonlinear Optics, Quantum Optics, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2010).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) TEM image of the ZnS sample. (b) HR-TEM image of the selected area in (a). The inset shows the corresponding FFT pattern. (c) XRD spectrum of the sample. (d) Scheme of the crystal and polarization orientation. k^ denotes the wave vector of the laser beams. e^ and p^ are the unit vectors of the polarization of the pump and probe beams, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Ultrafast femtosecond pump–probe experimental setup. HWP, half-wave plate; D1, D2, photodiode detectors. (b) Linear transmittance spectrum of the ZnS sample.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized time-resolved probe transmittance Q at discrete probe wavelengths for the parallel (a) and orthogonal (b) polarization orientations between the pump and probe beams. The solid curves are obtained by fitting the experimental data (circles and triangles) with Eq. (1) and the parameters given in Table 1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimentally measured ND-TPA coefficients (symbols) versus probe photon energy. The curves are the fitted results for the parallel and orthogonal polarizations according to Eq. (2).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Linear Refractive Indices, GVM Parameters, Fitting Parameters, ND-TPA Coefficients, and Corresponding Imaginary Part of χ(3)a

Equations (5)

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Q(τd,W,ρ,Γ)=1Wπ1/2exp{(τ+τdρW)2Γπ1/2ρ[erf(τ)erf(τρ)]}dτ,
β(Ep;Ee)=KE01/2npneEg3F2(EpEg;EeEg),
β=2πnpneλpcε0Im{χeff(p;e*,p,e)}=2πnpneλpcε0Im{χxxyy|e^·p^|2+χxyyx|e^*·p^|2+χxyxy+σχxxxxi|pi|2|ei|2},
β=2πnpneλpcε0Imχxxxx
β=2πnpneλpcε0Imχxyxy

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