Abstract

The optical properties of a novel type of open waveguiding structure for surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) are experimentally investigated. The waveguide consists of a strip-like region of a gold surface confined by a periodic sequence of dielectric ridges forming a Bragg-type reflector. This bandgap structure resembles the plasmonic analogue of an antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) for SPPs, providing direct access to the guided plasmonic field. The main structural parameters are evaluated by numerical modeling using the finite element and finite-difference time-domain methods. We investigate field distributions of the plasmonic modes in the antiresonant Bragg-reflector waveguides with varied numbers of dielectric ridges and demonstrate a large mode-area single-mode performance at a telecom wavelength of 1550 nm. Furthermore, for an excitation wavelength of 974 nm, it is shown that different low-order modes can be selectively excited using multiple laser beams with variable phase relation. Selective excitation of single longitudinal and transversal modes of the waveguide is realized by coherent two-beam excitation. Possible sensing applications of these large-mode open waveguides are discussed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013

C. Lemke, C. Schneider, T. Leissner, D. Bayer, J. W. Radke, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, A. B. Evlyukhin, B. N. Chichkov, C. Reinhardt, M. Bauer, and M. Aeschlimann, “Spatiotemporal characterization of SPP pulse propagation in two-dimensional plasmonic focusing devices,” Nano Lett. 13, 1053–1058 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

V. Ferreras Paz, M. Emons, K. Obata, A. Ovsianikov, S. Peterhaensel, K. Frenner, C. Reinhardt, B. N. Chichkov, U. Morgner, and W. Osten, “Development of functional sub-100 nm structures with 3D two-photon polymerization technique and optical methods for characterization,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Zukauskas, M. Malinauskas, C. Reinhardt, B. N. Chichkov, and R. Gadonas, “Closely packed hexagonal conical microlens array fabricated by direct laser photopolymerization,” Appl. Opt. 51, 4995–5003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

A. Seidel, J. Gosciniak, M. U. Gonzalez, J. Renger, C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, R. Quidant, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Fiber-coupled surface plasmon polariton excitation in imprinted dielectric-loaded waveguides,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 2010, 897829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Seidel, C. Reinhardt, T. Holmgaard, W. Cheng, T. Rosenzveig, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of laser-fabricated DLSPPW at telecom wavelength,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 652–658 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Direct laser-writing of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 347–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

I. P. Radko, V. S. Volkov, J. Beermann, A. B. Evlyukhin, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for waveguiding and field enhancement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 575–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic, A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Orden, Y. Fainman, and V. Lomakin, “Optical waves on nanoparticle chains coupled with surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 34, 422–424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Seidel, C. Ohrt, S. Passinger, C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanoimprinting of dielectric loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides from masters fabricated by 2-photon polymerization technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 810–812 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, E. Evlyukhina, and B. N. Chichkov, “Asymmetric and symmetric local surface-plasmon-polariton excitation on chains of nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2237–2239 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, and B. N. Chichkov, “Mode-selective excitation of laser-written dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, B55–B60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon-polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 484–588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and J. Jung, “Scaling for gap plasmon based waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 2676–2684 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Passinger, A. Seidel, C. Ohrt, C. Reinhardt, A. L. Stepanov, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Novel efficient design of Y-splitter for surface plasmon polariton applications,” Opt. Express 16, 14369–14379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8, 2925–2929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, P. Lalanne, X. Yang, and J. P. Hugonin, “Surface plasmon generation by subwavelength isolated objects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1522–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. A 89, 321–325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, “Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes,” Nano Lett. 7, 1376–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and B. N. Chichkov, “Rapid prototyping of optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 15, 4205–4215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, and A. Boltasseva, “Surface plasmon polariton beam focusing with parabolic nanoparticle chains,” Opt. Express 15, 6576–6582 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, and B. N. Chichkov, “Focusing and directing of surface plasmon polaritons by curved chains of nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 15, 16667–16680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. B. Evlyukhin and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton guiding by chains of nanoparticles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 396–400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1307–1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

H. A. Jamid and M. N. Akram, “Analysis of antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide gratings by use of the method of lines,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3488–3494 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Vectorial model for multiple scattering by surface nanoparticles via surface polariton-to-polariton interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 165405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Surface plasmon micro- and nano-optics,” J. Microsc. 209, 167–172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762–1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. J. Mawst, “High-power single-mode antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type diode lasers,” Proc. SPIE 2382, 155–164 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Mrksich, G. B. Sigal, and G. M. Whitesides, “Surface plasmon resonance permits in situ measurement of protein adsorption on self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates on gold,” Langmuir 11, 4383–4385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aeschlimann, M.

C. Lemke, C. Schneider, T. Leissner, D. Bayer, J. W. Radke, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, A. B. Evlyukhin, B. N. Chichkov, C. Reinhardt, M. Bauer, and M. Aeschlimann, “Spatiotemporal characterization of SPP pulse propagation in two-dimensional plasmonic focusing devices,” Nano Lett. 13, 1053–1058 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Aigouy, L.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akram, M. N.

Atwater, H. A.

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8, 2925–2929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1524–1526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Surface plasmon micro- and nano-optics,” J. Microsc. 209, 167–172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762–1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, M.

C. Lemke, C. Schneider, T. Leissner, D. Bayer, J. W. Radke, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, A. B. Evlyukhin, B. N. Chichkov, C. Reinhardt, M. Bauer, and M. Aeschlimann, “Spatiotemporal characterization of SPP pulse propagation in two-dimensional plasmonic focusing devices,” Nano Lett. 13, 1053–1058 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, D.

C. Lemke, C. Schneider, T. Leissner, D. Bayer, J. W. Radke, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, A. B. Evlyukhin, B. N. Chichkov, C. Reinhardt, M. Bauer, and M. Aeschlimann, “Spatiotemporal characterization of SPP pulse propagation in two-dimensional plasmonic focusing devices,” Nano Lett. 13, 1053–1058 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Beermann, J.

I. P. Radko, V. S. Volkov, J. Beermann, A. B. Evlyukhin, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for waveguiding and field enhancement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 575–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon-polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 484–588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, “Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes,” Nano Lett. 7, 1376–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

I. P. Radko, V. S. Volkov, J. Beermann, A. B. Evlyukhin, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for waveguiding and field enhancement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 575–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, and A. Boltasseva, “Surface plasmon polariton beam focusing with parabolic nanoparticle chains,” Opt. Express 15, 6576–6582 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bourhis, E.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Seidel, J. Gosciniak, M. U. Gonzalez, J. Renger, C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, R. Quidant, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Fiber-coupled surface plasmon polariton excitation in imprinted dielectric-loaded waveguides,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 2010, 897829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Seidel, C. Reinhardt, T. Holmgaard, W. Cheng, T. Rosenzveig, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of laser-fabricated DLSPPW at telecom wavelength,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 652–658 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, V. S. Volkov, J. Beermann, A. B. Evlyukhin, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for waveguiding and field enhancement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 575–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and J. Jung, “Scaling for gap plasmon based waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 2676–2684 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, and B. N. Chichkov, “Focusing and directing of surface plasmon polaritons by curved chains of nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 15, 16667–16680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, and A. Boltasseva, “Surface plasmon polariton beam focusing with parabolic nanoparticle chains,” Opt. Express 15, 6576–6582 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1307–1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton guiding by chains of nanoparticles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 396–400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Vectorial model for multiple scattering by surface nanoparticles via surface polariton-to-polariton interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 165405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

M. L. Brongersma and P. G. Kik, Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics (Springer, 2007).

Brucoli, G.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau, R.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, “Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes,” Nano Lett. 7, 1376–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.

A. Markov, C. Reinhardt, B. Ung, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Photonic bandgap plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2468–2470 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Seidel, C. Reinhardt, T. Holmgaard, W. Cheng, T. Rosenzveig, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of laser-fabricated DLSPPW at telecom wavelength,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 652–658 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Direct laser-writing of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 347–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, and B. N. Chichkov, “Mode-selective excitation of laser-written dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, B55–B60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

C. Lemke, C. Schneider, T. Leissner, D. Bayer, J. W. Radke, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, A. B. Evlyukhin, B. N. Chichkov, C. Reinhardt, M. Bauer, and M. Aeschlimann, “Spatiotemporal characterization of SPP pulse propagation in two-dimensional plasmonic focusing devices,” Nano Lett. 13, 1053–1058 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Zukauskas, M. Malinauskas, C. Reinhardt, B. N. Chichkov, and R. Gadonas, “Closely packed hexagonal conical microlens array fabricated by direct laser photopolymerization,” Appl. Opt. 51, 4995–5003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Ferreras Paz, M. Emons, K. Obata, A. Ovsianikov, S. Peterhaensel, K. Frenner, C. Reinhardt, B. N. Chichkov, U. Morgner, and W. Osten, “Development of functional sub-100 nm structures with 3D two-photon polymerization technique and optical methods for characterization,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Markov, C. Reinhardt, B. Ung, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Photonic bandgap plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2468–2470 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Seidel, C. Reinhardt, T. Holmgaard, W. Cheng, T. Rosenzveig, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of laser-fabricated DLSPPW at telecom wavelength,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 652–658 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Seidel, J. Gosciniak, M. U. Gonzalez, J. Renger, C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, R. Quidant, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Fiber-coupled surface plasmon polariton excitation in imprinted dielectric-loaded waveguides,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 2010, 897829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Direct laser-writing of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 347–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, and B. N. Chichkov, “Mode-selective excitation of laser-written dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, B55–B60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Seidel, C. Ohrt, S. Passinger, C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanoimprinting of dielectric loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides from masters fabricated by 2-photon polymerization technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 810–812 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, E. Evlyukhina, and B. N. Chichkov, “Asymmetric and symmetric local surface-plasmon-polariton excitation on chains of nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2237–2239 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Passinger, A. Seidel, C. Ohrt, C. Reinhardt, A. L. Stepanov, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Novel efficient design of Y-splitter for surface plasmon polariton applications,” Opt. Express 16, 14369–14379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, and B. N. Chichkov, “Focusing and directing of surface plasmon polaritons by curved chains of nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 15, 16667–16680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and B. N. Chichkov, “Rapid prototyping of optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 15, 4205–4215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. A 89, 321–325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1307–1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colas des Francs, G.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8, 2925–2929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1524–1526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Surface plasmon micro- and nano-optics,” J. Microsc. 209, 167–172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762–1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Emons, M.

V. Ferreras Paz, M. Emons, K. Obata, A. Ovsianikov, S. Peterhaensel, K. Frenner, C. Reinhardt, B. N. Chichkov, U. Morgner, and W. Osten, “Development of functional sub-100 nm structures with 3D two-photon polymerization technique and optical methods for characterization,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Erland, J.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Evlyukhin, A. B.

C. Lemke, C. Schneider, T. Leissner, D. Bayer, J. W. Radke, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, A. B. Evlyukhin, B. N. Chichkov, C. Reinhardt, M. Bauer, and M. Aeschlimann, “Spatiotemporal characterization of SPP pulse propagation in two-dimensional plasmonic focusing devices,” Nano Lett. 13, 1053–1058 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Markov, C. Reinhardt, B. Ung, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, B. N. Chichkov, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Photonic bandgap plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2468–2470 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Direct laser-writing of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 347–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, V. S. Volkov, J. Beermann, A. B. Evlyukhin, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for waveguiding and field enhancement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 575–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, and B. N. Chichkov, “Mode-selective excitation of laser-written dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, B55–B60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, E. Evlyukhina, and B. N. Chichkov, “Asymmetric and symmetric local surface-plasmon-polariton excitation on chains of nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2237–2239 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, and B. N. Chichkov, “Focusing and directing of surface plasmon polaritons by curved chains of nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 15, 16667–16680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin, and A. Boltasseva, “Surface plasmon polariton beam focusing with parabolic nanoparticle chains,” Opt. Express 15, 6576–6582 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton guiding by chains of nanoparticles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 396–400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evlyukhina, E.

Fainman, Y.

Ferreras Paz, V.

V. Ferreras Paz, M. Emons, K. Obata, A. Ovsianikov, S. Peterhaensel, K. Frenner, C. Reinhardt, B. N. Chichkov, U. Morgner, and W. Osten, “Development of functional sub-100 nm structures with 3D two-photon polymerization technique and optical methods for characterization,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A.

C. Lemke, C. Schneider, T. Leissner, D. Bayer, J. W. Radke, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, A. B. Evlyukhin, B. N. Chichkov, C. Reinhardt, M. Bauer, and M. Aeschlimann, “Spatiotemporal characterization of SPP pulse propagation in two-dimensional plasmonic focusing devices,” Nano Lett. 13, 1053–1058 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Frenner, K.

V. Ferreras Paz, M. Emons, K. Obata, A. Ovsianikov, S. Peterhaensel, K. Frenner, C. Reinhardt, B. N. Chichkov, U. Morgner, and W. Osten, “Development of functional sub-100 nm structures with 3D two-photon polymerization technique and optical methods for characterization,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gadonas, R.

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gierak, J.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, M. U.

A. Seidel, J. Gosciniak, M. U. Gonzalez, J. Renger, C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, R. Quidant, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Fiber-coupled surface plasmon polariton excitation in imprinted dielectric-loaded waveguides,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 2010, 897829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

González, M. U.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gonzàlez, M. U.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gosciniak, J.

A. Seidel, J. Gosciniak, M. U. Gonzalez, J. Renger, C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, R. Quidant, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Fiber-coupled surface plasmon polariton excitation in imprinted dielectric-loaded waveguides,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 2010, 897829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

Holmgaard, T.

A. Seidel, C. Reinhardt, T. Holmgaard, W. Cheng, T. Rosenzveig, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of laser-fabricated DLSPPW at telecom wavelength,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 652–658 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, P. Lalanne, X. Yang, and J. P. Hugonin, “Surface plasmon generation by subwavelength isolated objects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1522–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jamid, H. A.

Jung, J.

Kik, P. G.

M. L. Brongersma and P. G. Kik, Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics (Springer, 2007).

Kiyan, R.

A. Seidel, J. Gosciniak, M. U. Gonzalez, J. Renger, C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, R. Quidant, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Fiber-coupled surface plasmon polariton excitation in imprinted dielectric-loaded waveguides,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 2010, 897829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Direct laser-writing of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 347–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Seidel, C. Ohrt, S. Passinger, C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanoimprinting of dielectric loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides from masters fabricated by 2-photon polymerization technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 810–812 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Passinger, A. Seidel, C. Ohrt, C. Reinhardt, A. L. Stepanov, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Novel efficient design of Y-splitter for surface plasmon polariton applications,” Opt. Express 16, 14369–14379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and B. N. Chichkov, “Rapid prototyping of optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 15, 4205–4215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. A 89, 321–325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, and B. N. Chichkov, “Focusing and directing of surface plasmon polaritons by curved chains of nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 15, 16667–16680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and B. N. Chichkov, “Rapid prototyping of optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 15, 4205–4215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1524–1526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Surface plasmon micro- and nano-optics,” J. Microsc. 209, 167–172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762–1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic, A. Polman, and L. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8, 2925–2929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lahoud, N.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, “Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes,” Nano Lett. 7, 1376–1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, P. Lalanne, X. Yang, and J. P. Hugonin, “Surface plasmon generation by subwavelength isolated objects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1522–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leissner, T.

C. Lemke, C. Schneider, T. Leissner, D. Bayer, J. W. Radke, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, A. B. Evlyukhin, B. N. Chichkov, C. Reinhardt, M. Bauer, and M. Aeschlimann, “Spatiotemporal characterization of SPP pulse propagation in two-dimensional plasmonic focusing devices,” Nano Lett. 13, 1053–1058 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1524–1526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Surface plasmon micro- and nano-optics,” J. Microsc. 209, 167–172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762–1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, C.

C. Lemke, C. Schneider, T. Leissner, D. Bayer, J. W. Radke, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, A. B. Evlyukhin, B. N. Chichkov, C. Reinhardt, M. Bauer, and M. Aeschlimann, “Spatiotemporal characterization of SPP pulse propagation in two-dimensional plasmonic focusing devices,” Nano Lett. 13, 1053–1058 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

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A. Seidel, J. Gosciniak, M. U. Gonzalez, J. Renger, C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, R. Quidant, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Fiber-coupled surface plasmon polariton excitation in imprinted dielectric-loaded waveguides,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 2010, 897829 (2010).
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C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, and B. N. Chichkov, “Mode-selective excitation of laser-written dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, B55–B60 (2009).
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A. Seidel, C. Ohrt, S. Passinger, C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanoimprinting of dielectric loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides from masters fabricated by 2-photon polymerization technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 810–812 (2009).
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A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, R. Kiyan, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, and B. N. Chichkov, “Focusing and directing of surface plasmon polaritons by curved chains of nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 15, 16667–16680 (2007).
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A. Seidel, J. Gosciniak, M. U. Gonzalez, J. Renger, C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, R. Quidant, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Fiber-coupled surface plasmon polariton excitation in imprinted dielectric-loaded waveguides,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 2010, 897829 (2010).
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C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Direct laser-writing of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 347–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, and B. N. Chichkov, “Mode-selective excitation of laser-written dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, B55–B60 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Seidel, C. Ohrt, S. Passinger, C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Nanoimprinting of dielectric loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides from masters fabricated by 2-photon polymerization technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 810–812 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Passinger, A. Seidel, C. Ohrt, C. Reinhardt, A. L. Stepanov, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Novel efficient design of Y-splitter for surface plasmon polariton applications,” Opt. Express 16, 14369–14379 (2008).
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M. Mrksich, G. B. Sigal, and G. M. Whitesides, “Surface plasmon resonance permits in situ measurement of protein adsorption on self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates on gold,” Langmuir 11, 4383–4385 (1995).
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S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408, 131–314 (2005).
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I. P. Radko, V. S. Volkov, J. Beermann, A. B. Evlyukhin, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for waveguiding and field enhancement,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 575–590 (2009).
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E. Verhagen, J. A. Dionne, L. Kuipers, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Near-field visualization of strongly confined surface plasmon polaritons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 8, 2925–2929 (2008).
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J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 245419 (2008).
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S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
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M. Mrksich, G. B. Sigal, and G. M. Whitesides, “Surface plasmon resonance permits in situ measurement of protein adsorption on self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates on gold,” Langmuir 11, 4383–4385 (1995).
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H. Liu, P. Lalanne, X. Yang, and J. P. Hugonin, “Surface plasmon generation by subwavelength isolated objects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1522–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408, 131–314 (2005).
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Adv. Opt. Photon.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, A. B. Evlyukhin, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Direct laser-writing of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides for the visible and near infrared,” Appl. Phys. A 100, 347–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, “Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys. A 89, 321–325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762–1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

H. Liu, P. Lalanne, X. Yang, and J. P. Hugonin, “Surface plasmon generation by subwavelength isolated objects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1522–1529 (2008).
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IEEE Photon. J.

A. Seidel, C. Reinhardt, T. Holmgaard, W. Cheng, T. Rosenzveig, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of laser-fabricated DLSPPW at telecom wavelength,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 652–658 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Opt. Comput.

A. Seidel, J. Gosciniak, M. U. Gonzalez, J. Renger, C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, R. Quidant, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Fiber-coupled surface plasmon polariton excitation in imprinted dielectric-loaded waveguides,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 2010, 897829 (2010).
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V. Ferreras Paz, M. Emons, K. Obata, A. Ovsianikov, S. Peterhaensel, K. Frenner, C. Reinhardt, B. N. Chichkov, U. Morgner, and W. Osten, “Development of functional sub-100 nm structures with 3D two-photon polymerization technique and optical methods for characterization,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042004 (2012).
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J. Microsc.

J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Surface plasmon micro- and nano-optics,” J. Microsc. 209, 167–172 (2003).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Langmuir

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Laser Photon. Rev.

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A. B. Evlyukhin and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton guiding by chains of nanoparticles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 396–400 (2006).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the waveguide layout. SPPs are locally excited by light scattering on a dielectric ridge perpendicular to the waveguide axis. The SPPs are confined by Bragg reflection to the region between the parallel pairs of guiding ridges.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mode field distribution of the 7 μm wide plasmonic ARROW at a wavelength of 1550 nm with a real part of the mode index of n1550=1.001 and an imaginary part of κ1550=0.007. The FEM simulation shows single-mode operation with a mode field diameter of about 5 μm. This mode could be efficiently coupled to a fiber mode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mode structure of the 7 μm wide plasmonic ARROW at a wavelength of 974 nm. The structure supports two modes: (a) fundamental mode with n9740=1.007 and κ9740=0.0007; (b) first higher-order mode with n9741=1.002 and κ9741=0.0006.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical microscope images of the waveguide structures together with corresponding LRM images of the fundamental SPP mode for an excitation wavelength of 1550 nm. (a) SPPBG structure with one ridge per side of the waveguide. (b) Two ridges per side. (c) Three ridges per side. The width of the confining ridges is 650 nm with a height of 500 nm. The ridges are separated by 1.5 μm on each side and confine a guiding region of 7 μm width.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) SPP propagation lengths at 1550 nm measured by LRM for waveguide with one, two, and three ridges per side. (b) Propagation length of the SPP electric-field intensity obtained from FDTD simulation. Both results are compared with an exponential curve with a decay length of 41 μm showing good agreement with experimental and numerical results. The insets show the LRM image and FDTD simulation, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) From top to bottom: optical microscope image, corresponding leakage radiation image, and FDTD simulation of the SPP electric-field intensity, showing a redistribution of energy from the center to the outer waveguide region and back. The excitation wavelength is 974 nm. (b) Image of the leakage radiation in the Fourier (back focal) plane. Arrows indicate the signatures of first and a weak contribution of the second SPP mode. The nonconfined SPPs propagating to the right are not shown in the LRM images.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Leakage radiation: experiment and FDTD simulation (left position) and Fourier plane images (right position) of the fundamental SPP mode in the waveguide selectively excited by two in-phase laser beams. (b) Leakage radiation: experiment and FDTD simulation (left position), and Fourier plane images (right position) of the second SPP mode in the waveguide selectively excited by two out-of-phase laser beams. Excitation wavelength is 974 nm. The arrows indicate the position of the Fourier images of the first (fundamental) and second SPP modes.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Interference pattern of two counterpropagating waveguide modes excited at a wavelength of 775 nm. The SP-ARROW contains an additional layer of polymer with the refractive index of 1.5 and height of 32 nm. The interference pattern can be used for sensing changes in the refractive index of the medium above the metal film surface. (a) The image plane with the waveguide modes and the unconfined SPPs propagation away from the waveguide. (b) The corresponding Fourier image indicating the effective waveguide mode index of 1.04, whereas the effective index of the unconfined SPP is 1.08.

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