Abstract

Collinear phase-matched optical rectification is studied in ZnGeP2 pumped with near-infrared light. The pump-intensity dependence is presented for three crystal lengths (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mm) to determine the effects of linear optical absorption, nonlinear optical absorption, and terahertz free-carrier absorption on the generation. Critical parameters such as the coherence length (for velocity matching), dispersion length (for linear pulse broadening), and nonlinear length (for self-phase modulation) are determined for this material. These parameters provide insight into the upper limit of pulse intensity and crystal length required to generate intense terahertz pulses without detriment to the pulse shape. It is found that 1 mm thick ZnGeP2(012), pumped at 1.28 μm with intensity of 15GW/cm2, will produce intense undistorted pulses, whereas longer crystals or larger intensities modify the pulse shape to varying degrees. Moreover, phase-matching dispersion maps are presented for the terahertz generation over a large tuning range (1.1–2.4 μm) in the longer (3 mm) crystal, demonstrating the phase-matching bandwidth and phase mismatch that leads to fringing associated with multipulse interference. All observed results are simulated numerically showing good qualitative agreement.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

2011 (8)

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, and E. A. Mashkovich, “Terahertz generation with tilted-front laser pulses: dynamic theory for low-absorbing crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1724–1734 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5, 31–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, X. Ropagnol, H.-C. Bandulet, F. Vidal, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, H. Tiedje, H. Haugen, M. Reid, and F. Hegmann, “Generation of intense terahertz radiation via optical methods,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 17, 5–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann and F. J. András, “Intense ultrashort terahertz pulses: generation and applications,” J. Phys. D 44, 1–13 (2011).

J.-P. Negel, R. Hegenbarth, A. Steinmann, B. Metzger, F. Hoos, and H. Giessen, “Compact and cost-effective scheme for THz generation via optical rectification in GaP and GaAs using novel fs laser oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 45–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Erschens, D. Turchinovich, and P. U. Jepsen, “Optimized optical rectification and electro-optic sampling in ZnTe Crystals with chirped femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves 32, 1371–1381 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

S. M. Harrel, R. L. Milot, J. M. Schleicher, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Influence of free-carrier absorption on terahertz generation from ZnTe (110),” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 033526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz technology: towards THz integrated photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 503–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Design of high-energy terahertz sources based on optical rectification,” Opt. Express 18, 12311–12327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Optical THz-wave generation with periodically-inverted GaAs,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 11–25 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, and T. M. Pollak, “Large aperture single crystal ZnGeP2 for high-energy applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1891–1896 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, S. Kokenyesi, and V. Takats, “Observation of three-photon absorption and saturation of two-photon absorption in amorphous nanolayered Se/As2S3 thin film structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 026102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035  nm,” Opt. Express 15, 11706–11713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5  μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

G. Chang, C. J. Divin, C.-H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, “Power scalable compact THz system based on an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 14, 7909–7913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Tomita, H. Suzuki, H. Ito, H. Takenouchi, K. Ajito, R. Rungsawang, and Y. Ueno, “Terahertz-wave generation from quasi-phase-matched GaP for 1.55  μm pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, “An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification, charge transfer, and current surge,” Opt. Commun. 256, 400–413 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. C. J. van der Valk, P. C. M. Planken, A. N. Buijserd, and H. J. Bakker, “Influence of pump wavelength and crystal length on the phase matching of optical rectification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1714–1718 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. Roskos, “Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters,” Opt. Express 13, 5353–5362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, and T. Nagashima, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of solids: a review,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 1661–1690 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104, 1759–1780 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56  μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974–3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Faure, J. V. Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, “Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 36, 681–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Skauli, P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, “Improved dispersion relations for GaAs and applications to nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6447–6455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Côté, N. Laman, and H. M. van Driel, “Rectification and shift currents in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 905–907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, “All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904–906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

F. L. Madarasz, J. O. Dimmock, N. Dietz, and K. J. Bachmann, “Sellmeier parameters for ZnGaP2 and GaP,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1564–1565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

W. J. Moore and R. T. Holm, “Infrared dielectric constant of gallium arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6939–6942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

V. V. Voitsekhovskii, A. A. Volkov, G. A. Komandin, and Y. A. Shakir, “Dielectric properties of ZnGeP2 in the far infrared,” Phys. Solid State 37, 1198–1199 (1995).

L. Lepetit, G. Cheriaux, and M. Joffre, “Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2467–2474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. Gordon, G. L. Woods, R. C. Eckardt, R. R. Route, R. S. Feigelson, M. M. Fejer, and R. Byer, “Diffusion-bonded stacked GaAs for quasiphase-matched second-harmonic generation of a carbon dioxide laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1942–1944 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

A. S. Barker, “Dielectric dispersion and phonon line shape in gallium phosphide,” Phys. Rev. 165, 917–922 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Adarsh, K. V.

K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, S. Kokenyesi, and V. Takats, “Observation of three-photon absorption and saturation of two-photon absorption in amorphous nanolayered Se/As2S3 thin film structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 026102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ajito, K.

I. Tomita, H. Suzuki, H. Ito, H. Takenouchi, K. Ajito, R. Rungsawang, and Y. Ueno, “Terahertz-wave generation from quasi-phase-matched GaP for 1.55  μm pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almási, G.

András, F. J.

M. C. Hoffmann and F. J. András, “Intense ultrashort terahertz pulses: generation and applications,” J. Phys. D 44, 1–13 (2011).

Bachmann, K. J.

F. L. Madarasz, J. O. Dimmock, N. Dietz, and K. J. Bachmann, “Sellmeier parameters for ZnGaP2 and GaP,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1564–1565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bajwa, N.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, H. J.

Bakunov, M. I.

Bandulet, H. C.

Bandulet, H.-C.

F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, X. Ropagnol, H.-C. Bandulet, F. Vidal, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, H. Tiedje, H. Haugen, M. Reid, and F. Hegmann, “Generation of intense terahertz radiation via optical methods,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 17, 5–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barker, A. S.

A. S. Barker, “Dielectric dispersion and phonon line shape in gallium phosphide,” Phys. Rev. 165, 917–922 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Becouarn, L.

T. Skauli, P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, “Improved dispersion relations for GaAs and applications to nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6447–6455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, “All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904–906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, D. B.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bessho, T.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56  μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974–3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, F.

F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, X. Ropagnol, H.-C. Bandulet, F. Vidal, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, H. Tiedje, H. Haugen, M. Reid, and F. Hegmann, “Generation of intense terahertz radiation via optical methods,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 17, 5–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5  μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bodrov, S. B.

Bonn, M.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brant, A. T.

Bristow, A. D.

Brown, E. R.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Buijserd, A. N.

Byer, R.

L. Gordon, G. L. Woods, R. C. Eckardt, R. R. Route, R. S. Feigelson, M. M. Fejer, and R. Byer, “Diffusion-bonded stacked GaAs for quasiphase-matched second-harmonic generation of a carbon dioxide laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1942–1944 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. J.

K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, “An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification, charge transfer, and current surge,” Opt. Commun. 256, 400–413 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

Cheriaux, G.

Côté, D.

D. Côté, N. Laman, and H. M. van Driel, “Rectification and shift currents in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 905–907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Culjat, M. O.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

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Roskos, H.

Route, R. R.

L. Gordon, G. L. Woods, R. C. Eckardt, R. R. Route, R. S. Feigelson, M. M. Fejer, and R. Byer, “Diffusion-bonded stacked GaAs for quasiphase-matched second-harmonic generation of a carbon dioxide laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1942–1944 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rowley, J. D.

Rungsawang, R.

I. Tomita, H. Suzuki, H. Ito, H. Takenouchi, K. Ajito, R. Rungsawang, and Y. Ueno, “Terahertz-wave generation from quasi-phase-matched GaP for 1.55  μm pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sandeep, C. S. S.

K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, S. Kokenyesi, and V. Takats, “Observation of three-photon absorption and saturation of two-photon absorption in amorphous nanolayered Se/As2S3 thin film structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 026102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sangunni, K. S.

K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, S. Kokenyesi, and V. Takats, “Observation of three-photon absorption and saturation of two-photon absorption in amorphous nanolayered Se/As2S3 thin film structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 026102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schleicher, J. M.

S. M. Harrel, R. L. Milot, J. M. Schleicher, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Influence of free-carrier absorption on terahertz generation from ZnTe (110),” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 033526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

S. M. Harrel, R. L. Milot, J. M. Schleicher, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Influence of free-carrier absorption on terahertz generation from ZnTe (110),” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 033526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104, 1759–1780 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schunemann, P. G.

Sell, A.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5, 31–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Setzler, S. D.

K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, and T. M. Pollak, “Large aperture single crystal ZnGeP2 for high-energy applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1891–1896 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shakir, Y. A.

V. V. Voitsekhovskii, A. A. Volkov, G. A. Komandin, and Y. A. Shakir, “Dielectric properties of ZnGeP2 in the far infrared,” Phys. Solid State 37, 1198–1199 (1995).

Shan, J.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, G.

F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, X. Ropagnol, H.-C. Bandulet, F. Vidal, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, H. Tiedje, H. Haugen, M. Reid, and F. Hegmann, “Generation of intense terahertz radiation via optical methods,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 17, 5–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5  μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Skauli, T.

T. Skauli, P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, “Improved dispersion relations for GaAs and applications to nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6447–6455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steinmann, A.

J.-P. Negel, R. Hegenbarth, A. Steinmann, B. Metzger, F. Hoos, and H. Giessen, “Compact and cost-effective scheme for THz generation via optical rectification in GaP and GaAs using novel fs laser oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 45–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stojadinovic, A.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, T.

M. Nagai, M. Jewariya, Y. Ichikawa, H. Ohtake, T. Sugiura, Y. Uehara, and K. Tanaka, “Broadband and high power terahertz pulse generation beyond excitation bandwidth limitation via χ(2) cascaded processes in LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 17, 11543–11549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56  μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974–3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (CRC Press, 2003).

Suzuki, H.

I. Tomita, H. Suzuki, H. Ito, H. Takenouchi, K. Ajito, R. Rungsawang, and Y. Ueno, “Terahertz-wave generation from quasi-phase-matched GaP for 1.55  μm pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takats, V.

K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, S. Kokenyesi, and V. Takats, “Observation of three-photon absorption and saturation of two-photon absorption in amorphous nanolayered Se/As2S3 thin film structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 026102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takenouchi, H.

I. Tomita, H. Suzuki, H. Ito, H. Takenouchi, K. Ajito, R. Rungsawang, and Y. Ueno, “Terahertz-wave generation from quasi-phase-matched GaP for 1.55  μm pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

M. Nagai, M. Jewariya, Y. Ichikawa, H. Ohtake, T. Sugiura, Y. Uehara, and K. Tanaka, “Broadband and high power terahertz pulse generation beyond excitation bandwidth limitation via χ(2) cascaded processes in LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 17, 11543–11549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56  μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974–3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, and T. Nagashima, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of solids: a review,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 1661–1690 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, Z. D.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tewari, P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M.

Tiedje, H.

F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, X. Ropagnol, H.-C. Bandulet, F. Vidal, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, H. Tiedje, H. Haugen, M. Reid, and F. Hegmann, “Generation of intense terahertz radiation via optical methods,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 17, 5–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tiedje, H. F.

Tilborg, J. V.

J. Faure, J. V. Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, “Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 36, 681–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, I.

I. Tomita, H. Suzuki, H. Ito, H. Takenouchi, K. Ajito, R. Rungsawang, and Y. Ueno, “Terahertz-wave generation from quasi-phase-matched GaP for 1.55  μm pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tourreau, P. J.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, “All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904–906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Turchinovich, D.

D. N. Erschens, D. Turchinovich, and P. U. Jepsen, “Optimized optical rectification and electro-optic sampling in ZnTe Crystals with chirped femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves 32, 1371–1381 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, Y.

Ueno, Y.

I. Tomita, H. Suzuki, H. Ito, H. Takenouchi, K. Ajito, R. Rungsawang, and Y. Ueno, “Terahertz-wave generation from quasi-phase-matched GaP for 1.55  μm pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ulbricht, R.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van der Valk, N. C. J.

van Driel, H. M.

D. Côté, N. Laman, and H. M. van Driel, “Rectification and shift currents in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 905–907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, X. Ropagnol, H.-C. Bandulet, F. Vidal, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, H. Tiedje, H. Haugen, M. Reid, and F. Hegmann, “Generation of intense terahertz radiation via optical methods,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 17, 5–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Optical THz-wave generation with periodically-inverted GaAs,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 11–25 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Skauli, P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, “Improved dispersion relations for GaAs and applications to nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6447–6455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Voitsekhovskii, V. V.

V. V. Voitsekhovskii, A. A. Volkov, G. A. Komandin, and Y. A. Shakir, “Dielectric properties of ZnGeP2 in the far infrared,” Phys. Solid State 37, 1198–1199 (1995).

Volkov, A. A.

V. V. Voitsekhovskii, A. A. Volkov, G. A. Komandin, and Y. A. Shakir, “Dielectric properties of ZnGeP2 in the far infrared,” Phys. Solid State 37, 1198–1199 (1995).

Wahlstrand, J. K.

Williamson, S. L.

Wolf, M.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5, 31–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Woods, G. L.

L. Gordon, G. L. Woods, R. C. Eckardt, R. R. Route, R. S. Feigelson, M. M. Fejer, and R. Byer, “Diffusion-bonded stacked GaAs for quasiphase-matched second-harmonic generation of a carbon dioxide laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1942–1944 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, K.

K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, “An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification, charge transfer, and current surge,” Opt. Commun. 256, 400–413 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K.-L.

Yoshida, M.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56  μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974–3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zawilski, K. T.

J. D. Rowley, J. K. Wahlstrand, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, N. C. Giles, and A. D. Bristow, “Terahertz generation by optical rectification in uniaxial birefringent crystals,” Opt. Express 20, 16968–16973 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, and T. M. Pollak, “Large aperture single crystal ZnGeP2 for high-energy applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1891–1896 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J.-P. Negel, R. Hegenbarth, A. Steinmann, B. Metzger, F. Hoos, and H. Giessen, “Compact and cost-effective scheme for THz generation via optical rectification in GaP and GaAs using novel fs laser oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 103, 45–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56  μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974–3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Tomita, H. Suzuki, H. Ito, H. Takenouchi, K. Ajito, R. Rungsawang, and Y. Ueno, “Terahertz-wave generation from quasi-phase-matched GaP for 1.55  μm pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, “All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904–906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Côté, N. Laman, and H. M. van Driel, “Rectification and shift currents in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 905–907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104, 1759–1780 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Gordon, G. L. Woods, R. C. Eckardt, R. R. Route, R. S. Feigelson, M. M. Fejer, and R. Byer, “Diffusion-bonded stacked GaAs for quasiphase-matched second-harmonic generation of a carbon dioxide laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1942–1944 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (1)

F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, L. Razzari, X. Ropagnol, H.-C. Bandulet, F. Vidal, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, H. Tiedje, H. Haugen, M. Reid, and F. Hegmann, “Generation of intense terahertz radiation via optical methods,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 17, 5–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 201–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

M. Hangyo, M. Tani, and T. Nagashima, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of solids: a review,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 1661–1690 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

S. M. Harrel, R. L. Milot, J. M. Schleicher, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Influence of free-carrier absorption on terahertz generation from ZnTe (110),” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 033526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Skauli, P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, “Improved dispersion relations for GaAs and applications to nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6447–6455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Madarasz, J. O. Dimmock, N. Dietz, and K. J. Bachmann, “Sellmeier parameters for ZnGaP2 and GaP,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1564–1565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Moore and R. T. Holm, “Infrared dielectric constant of gallium arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6939–6942 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Adarsh, K. S. Sangunni, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, S. Kokenyesi, and V. Takats, “Observation of three-photon absorption and saturation of two-photon absorption in amorphous nanolayered Se/As2S3 thin film structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 026102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, S. D. Setzler, and T. M. Pollak, “Large aperture single crystal ZnGeP2 for high-energy applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 1891–1896 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves (1)

D. N. Erschens, D. Turchinovich, and P. U. Jepsen, “Optimized optical rectification and electro-optic sampling in ZnTe Crystals with chirped femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahz. Waves 32, 1371–1381 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. D (1)

M. C. Hoffmann and F. J. András, “Intense ultrashort terahertz pulses: generation and applications,” J. Phys. D 44, 1–13 (2011).

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Optical THz-wave generation with periodically-inverted GaAs,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 11–25 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5, 31–34 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz technology: towards THz integrated photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 503–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, “An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification, charge transfer, and current surge,” Opt. Commun. 256, 400–413 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

J. D. Rowley, J. K. Wahlstrand, K. T. Zawilski, P. G. Schunemann, N. C. Giles, and A. D. Bristow, “Terahertz generation by optical rectification in uniaxial birefringent crystals,” Opt. Express 20, 16968–16973 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. Roskos, “Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters,” Opt. Express 13, 5353–5362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Chang, C. J. Divin, C.-H. Liu, S. L. Williamson, A. Galvanauskas, and T. B. Norris, “Power scalable compact THz system based on an ultrafast Yb-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 14, 7909–7913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035  nm,” Opt. Express 15, 11706–11713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5  μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 13212–13220 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, M. Jewariya, Y. Ichikawa, H. Ohtake, T. Sugiura, Y. Uehara, and K. Tanaka, “Broadband and high power terahertz pulse generation beyond excitation bandwidth limitation via χ(2) cascaded processes in LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 17, 11543–11549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, G. Almási, and J. Hebling, “Design of high-energy terahertz sources based on optical rectification,” Opt. Express 18, 12311–12327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quant. Electron. (1)

J. Faure, J. V. Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, “Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 36, 681–697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. S. Barker, “Dielectric dispersion and phonon line shape in gallium phosphide,” Phys. Rev. 165, 917–922 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Solid State (1)

V. V. Voitsekhovskii, A. A. Volkov, G. A. Komandin, and Y. A. Shakir, “Dielectric properties of ZnGeP2 in the far infrared,” Phys. Solid State 37, 1198–1199 (1995).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (CRC Press, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Coherence-length dispersion maps for (a) GaAs (110), (b) GaP (110), (c) ZnGeP2 (110), and (d) ZnGeP2 (012). The scale saturates at a coherence length of 0.15 mm. For 0.3, 1, and 10 mm, thicknesses are enclosed within two dotted lines and labeled accordingly.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized terahertz transient from 0.33, 0.92, and 3.03 mm thick ZGP(012) at (a) low and (b) high pump intensity. (c) Spectra for a selection of pump intensities and crystal thickness.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a)–(c) Pump-intensity terahertz electric field amplitude for the E1, E2, and E3 features for three crystal thicknesses with numerical simulations. (d) Pump pulse depletion data and best fit. (e) Time delay between E1 and E3 features for the thicker ZGP crystals.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Terahertz emission for (012) and (110) cut ZGP crystals as a function of pump wavelength. (a) The extracted Epp. (b) The full temporal response for (110), including of the calculated relative group delay time (dashed line). (c) Fourier transform of the temporal data for (110). (d) Fourier transform of the temporal data for (012). (e) Simulated (110) response. (f) Simulated (012) response.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Modeling Parameters for Intensity-Dependent THz Field Amplitude Features Extracted from the Transients for Various ZGP(012) Crystal Thicknesses

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Lc=c2νTHz|nTHzng|,
I(z,t)z=αoptI(z,t)γI3(z,t),
T=ITransI0=(1R)2eαoptLπqoln[1+qo2e2t2+qoet2]dt,
qo=[2γ(1R)2Io2[1exp(2αoptL)]/2αopt]1/2,
ETHz(z,t)zCdeffI(z,t)ETHz(z,t)×[αTHz2+αFCA(t)(αoptI(z,t)+γ3I3(z,t))],
LD=τo2/(d2kdω2)ωo,
LNL=cωon2Io,
ETHz(z,ω)=R(2)Eo2[e(iωngz/c)+1/2(1+nR)eiωnTHzz/c+1/2(1nR)e(iωnTHzz/c)],

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