Abstract

The temporal output characteristics of an all-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser near threshold are investigated experimentally and numerically. The pulse repetition rate and pulse energy of the 1550 nm pump source are found to be two important parameters that affect the laser performance. Adjusting these two parameters, three different output working states, namely no lasing state, unstable state, and steady state, are observed experimentally. Particularly, in the unstable state relatively stable output pulse trains with repetition rate trisecting (PRR 1/3) and halving (PRR 1/2) with respect to the pump source are found. The experimental results together with corresponding numerical simulation afford a deep insight into the related lasing mechanisms.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (5)

2011 (3)

J. W. Ding, B. Samson, A. Carter, C. C. Wang, and K. Tankala, “A monolithic thulium doped single mode fiber laser with 1.5  ns pulsewidth and 8  kW peak power,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140X (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, S. Bennetts, and J. Haub, “Efficient, polarised, gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Express 19, 14949–14954 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, D. Y. Shen, H. Chen, D. Y. Fan, and Q. S. Lu, “Modeling and optimization of stable gain-switched Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Rev. 18, 360–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2007 (2)

2005 (2)

2000 (1)

B. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, and T. A. King, “10  mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Baudelet, M.

Bennetts, S.

Carter, A.

J. W. Ding, B. Samson, A. Carter, C. C. Wang, and K. Tankala, “A monolithic thulium doped single mode fiber laser with 1.5  ns pulsewidth and 8  kW peak power,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140X (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Frith, T. McComb, B. Samson, W. Torruellas, M. Dennis, A. Carter, V. Khitrov, and K. Tankala, “Frequency doubling of Tm-doped fiber lasers for efficient 950  nm generation,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Chen, H.

F. Wang, D. Y. Shen, H. Chen, D. Y. Fan, and Q. S. Lu, “Modeling and optimization of stable gain-switched Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Rev. 18, 360–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. Y.

R. L. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Y. Chen, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558  μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Dennis, M.

G. Frith, T. McComb, B. Samson, W. Torruellas, M. Dennis, A. Carter, V. Khitrov, and K. Tankala, “Frequency doubling of Tm-doped fiber lasers for efficient 950  nm generation,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Dickinson, B.

B. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, and T. A. King, “10  mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J. W.

J. W. Ding, B. Samson, A. Carter, C. C. Wang, and K. Tankala, “A monolithic thulium doped single mode fiber laser with 1.5  ns pulsewidth and 8  kW peak power,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140X (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eckerle, M.

Eichhorn, M.

Fan, D. Y.

F. Wang, D. Y. Shen, H. Chen, D. Y. Fan, and Q. S. Lu, “Modeling and optimization of stable gain-switched Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Rev. 18, 360–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M.

Frith, G.

G. Frith, T. McComb, B. Samson, W. Torruellas, M. Dennis, A. Carter, V. Khitrov, and K. Tankala, “Frequency doubling of Tm-doped fiber lasers for efficient 950  nm generation,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Haub, J.

Hemming, A.

Hou, J.

Imeshev, G.

Jackson, S. D.

Jiang, M.

Jiang, Z.

Ju, Y. L.

R. L. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Y. Chen, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558  μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Zhang, B. Q. Yao, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “Gain-switched Tm3+-doped double-clad silica fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13, 1085–1089 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khitrov, V.

G. Frith, T. McComb, B. Samson, W. Torruellas, M. Dennis, A. Carter, V. Khitrov, and K. Tankala, “Frequency doubling of Tm-doped fiber lasers for efficient 950  nm generation,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Kieleck, C.

King, T. A.

B. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, and T. A. King, “10  mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Theoretical modeling of Tm-doped silica fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 948–956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu and P. Wang, “High-energy near transform-limited pulses from an ultrafast thulium-doped all-fiber MOPA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1384–1386 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Lu, Q. S.

F. Wang, D. Y. Shen, H. Chen, D. Y. Fan, and Q. S. Lu, “Modeling and optimization of stable gain-switched Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Rev. 18, 360–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lü, H.

Maze, G.

McComb, T.

G. Frith, T. McComb, B. Samson, W. Torruellas, M. Dennis, A. Carter, V. Khitrov, and K. Tankala, “Frequency doubling of Tm-doped fiber lasers for efficient 950  nm generation,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Nilsson, J.

Richardson, D. J.

Richardson, M.

Samson, B.

J. W. Ding, B. Samson, A. Carter, C. C. Wang, and K. Tankala, “A monolithic thulium doped single mode fiber laser with 1.5  ns pulsewidth and 8  kW peak power,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140X (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Frith, T. McComb, B. Samson, W. Torruellas, M. Dennis, A. Carter, V. Khitrov, and K. Tankala, “Frequency doubling of Tm-doped fiber lasers for efficient 950  nm generation,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Shah, L.

Shen, D. Y.

F. Wang, D. Y. Shen, H. Chen, D. Y. Fan, and Q. S. Lu, “Modeling and optimization of stable gain-switched Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Rev. 18, 360–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simakov, N.

Song, R.

Swiderski, J.

Tang, Y.

Tankala, K.

J. W. Ding, B. Samson, A. Carter, C. C. Wang, and K. Tankala, “A monolithic thulium doped single mode fiber laser with 1.5  ns pulsewidth and 8  kW peak power,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140X (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Frith, T. McComb, B. Samson, W. Torruellas, M. Dennis, A. Carter, V. Khitrov, and K. Tankala, “Frequency doubling of Tm-doped fiber lasers for efficient 950  nm generation,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Tayebati, P.

Torruellas, W.

G. Frith, T. McComb, B. Samson, W. Torruellas, M. Dennis, A. Carter, V. Khitrov, and K. Tankala, “Frequency doubling of Tm-doped fiber lasers for efficient 950  nm generation,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Wang, C. C.

J. W. Ding, B. Samson, A. Carter, C. C. Wang, and K. Tankala, “A monolithic thulium doped single mode fiber laser with 1.5  ns pulsewidth and 8  kW peak power,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140X (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

F. Wang, D. Y. Shen, H. Chen, D. Y. Fan, and Q. S. Lu, “Modeling and optimization of stable gain-switched Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Rev. 18, 360–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

J. Liu and P. Wang, “High-energy near transform-limited pulses from an ultrafast thulium-doped all-fiber MOPA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1384–1386 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wang, Y. Z.

R. L. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Y. Chen, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558  μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Zhang, B. Q. Yao, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “Gain-switched Tm3+-doped double-clad silica fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13, 1085–1089 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willis, C. C. C.

Wu, J.

J. Wu, “Thulium doped microsphere laser and fiber laser,” Ph.D. dissertation (The University of Arizona, 2005).

Xu, J.

Xu, L.

Yang, W.

Yang, Y.

Yao, B. Q.

Yuang, C.

R. L. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Y. Chen, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558  μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, Y. J.

Zhao, J.

R. L. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Y. Chen, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558  μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

Zhou, R. L.

R. L. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Y. Chen, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558  μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. L. Zhou, J. Zhao, C. Yuang, Z. Y. Chen, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “All-fiber gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser pumped by 1.558  μm laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 064201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Liu and P. Wang, “High-energy near transform-limited pulses from an ultrafast thulium-doped all-fiber MOPA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1384–1386 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Dickinson, S. D. Jackson, and T. A. King, “10  mJ total output from a gain-switched Tm-doped fibre laser,” Opt. Commun. 182, 199–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Rev. (1)

F. Wang, D. Y. Shen, H. Chen, D. Y. Fan, and Q. S. Lu, “Modeling and optimization of stable gain-switched Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Rev. 18, 360–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. W. Ding, B. Samson, A. Carter, C. C. Wang, and K. Tankala, “A monolithic thulium doped single mode fiber laser with 1.5  ns pulsewidth and 8  kW peak power,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140X (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. Frith, T. McComb, B. Samson, W. Torruellas, M. Dennis, A. Carter, V. Khitrov, and K. Tankala, “Frequency doubling of Tm-doped fiber lasers for efficient 950  nm generation,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

J. Wu, “Thulium doped microsphere laser and fiber laser,” Ph.D. dissertation (The University of Arizona, 2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the all-fiber gain-switched TDFL and (b) output spectrum of the TDFL with pump pulse energy of 15 μJ.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Temporal output characteristics of the gain-switched TDFL. (a) and (b) are the results of unstable and steady states in the experiment, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relatively stable output pulse train with repetition rate dropped in the experiment. (a) and (b) are the PRR 1/3 and PRR 1/2 in the experiment, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Different working states of the gain-switched TDFL. Line 1 depicts the unstable lasing threshold; Line 2 represents the stable lasing threshold.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulation results of the gain-switched TDFL with pump repetition rate of 50 kHz and pulse width of 50 ns. (a) Unstable state, (b) PRR 1/3, (c) PRR 1/2, and (d) steady state.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters Used in the Numerical Simulation

Equations (2)

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dN2dt=N2τ2+P(t)Ahυpσap[Ntot(σepσap+1)N2]σescn[(σasσes+1)N2σasσesNtot]ϕ,
dϕdt=ϕτc+σescn[(σasσes+1)N2σasσesNtot]lLϕ,

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