Abstract

The performance scaling of high-power picosecond cryogenically cooled rod-type Yb:YAG multipass amplification is studied numerically, taking into account diffraction, dispersion, self-focusing, self-phase modulation, gain guiding, and thermal lensing effects. It is shown that the beam size narrows as the beam energy rises, rapidly reaching the damage threshold of optics, mainly due to gain guiding and self-focusing effect. Simulation results predict that for a 1 kHz cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG bulk amplifier, it is difficult to obtain energies beyond 40 mJ with 100 ps seed pulse in a single stage, which is consistent with experimental results, while it is possible to produce more than 100 mJ with 300 ps pulses.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

K.-H. Hong, C.-J. Lai, V.-M. Gkortsas, S.-W. Huang, J. Moses, E. Granados, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-order harmonic generation in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-μm source: high-order harmonic spectroscopy under macroscopic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043412 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 448–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “300-W cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1274–1277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Raybaut, F. Balembois, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Numerical and experimental study of gain narrowing in ytterbium-based regenerative amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 415–425 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300  K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brown, R. L. Cone, Y. Sun, and R. W. Equall, “Yb:YAG absorption at ambient and cryogenic temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 604–612 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

D. C. Brown, “Ultrahigh-average-power diode-pumped Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 861–873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

Aggarwal, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 448–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “300-W cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1274–1277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300  K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akozbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ališauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Balembois, F.

P. Raybaut, F. Balembois, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Numerical and experimental study of gain narrowing in ytterbium-based regenerative amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 415–425 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baltuška, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, S.

K.-H. Hong, C.-J. Lai, V.-M. Gkortsas, S.-W. Huang, J. Moses, E. Granados, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-order harmonic generation in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-μm source: high-order harmonic spectroscopy under macroscopic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043412 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown, J. M. Singley, K. Kowalewski, J. Guelzow, and V. Vitali, “High sustained average power cw and ultrafast Yb:YAG near-diffraction-limited cryogenic solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 18, 24770–24792 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brown, R. L. Cone, Y. Sun, and R. W. Equall, “Yb:YAG absorption at ambient and cryogenic temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 604–612 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brown, “Ultrahigh-average-power diode-pumped Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 861–873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Butkus, R.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Calendron, A.-L.

L. E. Zapata, W. Huang, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, H. Lin, E. Granados, K.-H. Hong, and F. X. Kärtner, “High energy and power cryogenic composite-thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” CLEO Europe/IQEC 2013 (2013), paper CA-7.4.

Cankaya, H.

L. E. Zapata, W. Huang, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, H. Lin, E. Granados, K.-H. Hong, and F. X. Kärtner, “High energy and power cryogenic composite-thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” CLEO Europe/IQEC 2013 (2013), paper CA-7.4.

Cerullo, G.

Chann, B.

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 448–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. C.

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.-C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

Cirmi, G.

Cohen, O.

Cone, R. L.

D. C. Brown, R. L. Cone, Y. Sun, and R. W. Equall, “Yb:YAG absorption at ambient and cryogenic temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 604–612 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Druon, F.

P. Raybaut, F. Balembois, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Numerical and experimental study of gain narrowing in ytterbium-based regenerative amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 415–425 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Equall, R. W.

D. C. Brown, R. L. Cone, Y. Sun, and R. W. Equall, “Yb:YAG absorption at ambient and cryogenic temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 604–612 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Falcão-Filho, E. L.

Fan, T. Y.

K.-H. Hong, J. T. Gopinath, D. Rand, A. M. Siddiqui, S.-W. Huang, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, J. D. Hybl, T. Y. Fan, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy, kHz-repetition-rate, ps cryogenic Yb:YAG chirped-pulse amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1752–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 448–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “300-W cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1274–1277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300  K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X.

Fujita, M.

Y. Takeuchi, J. Kawanaka, and M. Fujita, “Nonlinear refractive index of a YAG crystal at low temperature,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2009 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CA_P24.

Gaeta, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gatz, S.

Georges, P.

P. Raybaut, F. Balembois, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Numerical and experimental study of gain narrowing in ytterbium-based regenerative amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 415–425 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gerrity, M.

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gkortsas, V. M.

Gkortsas, V.-M.

K.-H. Hong, C.-J. Lai, V.-M. Gkortsas, S.-W. Huang, J. Moses, E. Granados, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-order harmonic generation in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-μm source: high-order harmonic spectroscopy under macroscopic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043412 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gong, M.

Gopinath, J. T.

Gordon, A.

Granados, E.

K.-H. Hong, C.-J. Lai, V.-M. Gkortsas, S.-W. Huang, J. Moses, E. Granados, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-order harmonic generation in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-μm source: high-order harmonic spectroscopy under macroscopic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043412 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hong, S.-W. Huang, J. Moses, X. Fu, C.-J. Lai, G. Cirmi, A. Sell, E. Granados, P. Keathley, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy, phase-stable, ultrabroadband kHz OPCPA at 2.1  μm pumped by a picosecond cryogenic Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 19, 15538–15548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zapata, W. Huang, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, H. Lin, E. Granados, K.-H. Hong, and F. X. Kärtner, “High energy and power cryogenic composite-thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” CLEO Europe/IQEC 2013 (2013), paper CA-7.4.

Grisham, M. E.

Guelzow, J.

Hernández-García, C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

Hong, K.-H.

K.-H. Hong, C.-J. Lai, V.-M. Gkortsas, S.-W. Huang, J. Moses, E. Granados, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-order harmonic generation in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-μm source: high-order harmonic spectroscopy under macroscopic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043412 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hong, S.-W. Huang, J. Moses, X. Fu, C.-J. Lai, G. Cirmi, A. Sell, E. Granados, P. Keathley, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy, phase-stable, ultrabroadband kHz OPCPA at 2.1  μm pumped by a picosecond cryogenic Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 19, 15538–15548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hong, J. T. Gopinath, D. Rand, A. M. Siddiqui, S.-W. Huang, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, J. D. Hybl, T. Y. Fan, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy, kHz-repetition-rate, ps cryogenic Yb:YAG chirped-pulse amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1752–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zapata, W. Huang, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, H. Lin, E. Granados, K.-H. Hong, and F. X. Kärtner, “High energy and power cryogenic composite-thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” CLEO Europe/IQEC 2013 (2013), paper CA-7.4.

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

Huang, S.-W.

Huang, W.

L. E. Zapata, W. Huang, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, H. Lin, E. Granados, K.-H. Hong, and F. X. Kärtner, “High energy and power cryogenic composite-thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” CLEO Europe/IQEC 2013 (2013), paper CA-7.4.

Hybl, J. D.

Ishikawa, K. L.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jaron-Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kalosha, V. P.

Kanai, T.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, C. Huang, and J. Zhou, “Space-time focusing of femtosecond pulses in a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 309–311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

K.-H. Hong, C.-J. Lai, V.-M. Gkortsas, S.-W. Huang, J. Moses, E. Granados, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-order harmonic generation in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-μm source: high-order harmonic spectroscopy under macroscopic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043412 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hong, S.-W. Huang, J. Moses, X. Fu, C.-J. Lai, G. Cirmi, A. Sell, E. Granados, P. Keathley, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy, phase-stable, ultrabroadband kHz OPCPA at 2.1  μm pumped by a picosecond cryogenic Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 19, 15538–15548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hong, J. T. Gopinath, D. Rand, A. M. Siddiqui, S.-W. Huang, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, J. D. Hybl, T. Y. Fan, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy, kHz-repetition-rate, ps cryogenic Yb:YAG chirped-pulse amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1752–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, V. M. Gkortsas, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Analytic scaling analysis of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” Opt. Express 17, 11217–11229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Zapata, W. Huang, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, H. Lin, E. Granados, K.-H. Hong, and F. X. Kärtner, “High energy and power cryogenic composite-thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” CLEO Europe/IQEC 2013 (2013), paper CA-7.4.

Kawanaka, J.

Y. Takeuchi, J. Kawanaka, and M. Fujita, “Nonlinear refractive index of a YAG crystal at low temperature,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2009 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CA_P24.

Keathley, P.

Kieffer, J.-C.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

Killi, A.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 6th ed. (Springer, 2006).

Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kowalewski, K.

Krausz, F.

Lai, C.-J.

K.-H. Hong, C.-J. Lai, V.-M. Gkortsas, S.-W. Huang, J. Moses, E. Granados, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-order harmonic generation in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-μm source: high-order harmonic spectroscopy under macroscopic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043412 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hong, S.-W. Huang, J. Moses, X. Fu, C.-J. Lai, G. Cirmi, A. Sell, E. Granados, P. Keathley, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy, phase-stable, ultrabroadband kHz OPCPA at 2.1  μm pumped by a picosecond cryogenic Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 19, 15538–15548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Légaré, F.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, E.

Lien, Y.

Lin, H.

L. E. Zapata, W. Huang, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, H. Lin, E. Granados, K.-H. Hong, and F. X. Kärtner, “High energy and power cryogenic composite-thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” CLEO Europe/IQEC 2013 (2013), paper CA-7.4.

Liu, Q.

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Magni, V.

Metzger, T.

Midorikawa, K.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moses, J.

K.-H. Hong, C.-J. Lai, V.-M. Gkortsas, S.-W. Huang, J. Moses, E. Granados, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-order harmonic generation in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-μm source: high-order harmonic spectroscopy under macroscopic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043412 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hong, S.-W. Huang, J. Moses, X. Fu, C.-J. Lai, G. Cirmi, A. Sell, E. Granados, P. Keathley, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy, phase-stable, ultrabroadband kHz OPCPA at 2.1  μm pumped by a picosecond cryogenic Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 19, 15538–15548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mücke, O. D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Muller, M.

Murnane, M. M.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, C. Huang, and J. Zhou, “Space-time focusing of femtosecond pulses in a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 309–311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nabekawa, Y.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ochoa, J. R.

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 448–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “300-W cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1274–1277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300  K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oemrawsingh, S. S. R.

Patchkovskii, S.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, A.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Plaja, L.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Popmintchev, D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pugzlys, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rand, D.

Rao, T.

A. K. Sharma, T. Tsang, and T. Rao, “Theoretical and experimental study of passive spatiotemporal shaping of picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. 12, 033501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raybaut, P.

P. Raybaut, F. Balembois, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Numerical and experimental study of gain narrowing in ytterbium-based regenerative amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 415–425 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 448–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “300-W cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1274–1277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300  K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

Schmidt, B. E.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schrauth, S. E.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, A.

Seaberg, M.

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sell, A.

Serrat, C.

Sharma, A. K.

A. K. Sharma, T. Tsang, and T. Rao, “Theoretical and experimental study of passive spatiotemporal shaping of picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. 12, 033501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shim, B.

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[CrossRef]

Shiner, A. D.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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D. C. Brown, R. L. Cone, Y. Sun, and R. W. Equall, “Yb:YAG absorption at ambient and cryogenic temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 604–612 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 448–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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A. K. Sharma, T. Tsang, and T. Rao, “Theoretical and experimental study of passive spatiotemporal shaping of picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. 12, 033501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Wang, D.

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A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
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Zapata, L. E.

L. E. Zapata, W. Huang, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, H. Lin, E. Granados, K.-H. Hong, and F. X. Kärtner, “High energy and power cryogenic composite-thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” CLEO Europe/IQEC 2013 (2013), paper CA-7.4.

Zhang, B.

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 448–459 (2007).
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A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brown, R. L. Cone, Y. Sun, and R. W. Equall, “Yb:YAG absorption at ambient and cryogenic temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 604–612 (2005).
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R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300  K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
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A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

K.-H. Hong, C.-J. Lai, V.-M. Gkortsas, S.-W. Huang, J. Moses, E. Granados, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-order harmonic generation in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-μm source: high-order harmonic spectroscopy under macroscopic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043412 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window x ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. (1)

A. K. Sharma, T. Tsang, and T. Rao, “Theoretical and experimental study of passive spatiotemporal shaping of picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. 12, 033501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 6th ed. (Springer, 2006).

Y. Takeuchi, J. Kawanaka, and M. Fujita, “Nonlinear refractive index of a YAG crystal at low temperature,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2009 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CA_P24.

For example, see the damage threshold of CVI laser’s TLM1 mirrors, and a relevant reference document at “ https://www.cvimellesgriot.com/products/Documents/HELaserDamage.pdf ”.

L. E. Zapata, W. Huang, H. Cankaya, A.-L. Calendron, H. Lin, E. Granados, K.-H. Hong, and F. X. Kärtner, “High energy and power cryogenic composite-thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” CLEO Europe/IQEC 2013 (2013), paper CA-7.4.

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Figures (21)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout of Yb:YAG multipass amplifier. Paths (1) and (2) show two-pass and four-pass amplification outputs, respectively. λ / 4 , quarter-wave plate; FR, Faraday rotator; TFP, thin-film polarizer; C 1 C 2 , lenses; LD, fiber-coupled laser diode; DM, dichroic mirror.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Emission cross section and (b) saturation fluence of Yb:YAG at 77 K.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Match between the seed beam and gain profile in the frequency domain.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Three-dimensional temperature distribution in the Yb:YAG crystal.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

OPD profile along the crystal length: (a) versus width at thickness center and (b) versus thickness at width center.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simplified propagation model for the double-pass amplifier.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Beam size along the beam path shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Beam after the first and second passage: (a) amplified beam profile and (b) gain profile.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Pulse profile: (a) time domain and (b) frequency domain.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Amplified beam profile at 21.2 mJ with different beam shaping effects included.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) Amplified beam size and (b) amplified beam energy versus seed and pump mode size.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Amplified beam size w a and allowed minimum beam size w min : (a)  w p = 1.6 mm and (b)  w p = 1.8 mm ; w p = 2.0 mm .

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Amplified beam radius versus pump power.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Normalized intensity profile versus mirror curvature.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Beam size along the beam length when using a convex mirror.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Amplified beam intensity profile with different crystal length.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Four-pass amplifier model with 4 f system.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Simulated result for four-pass amplification versus different passage numbers: (a) intensity profile and (b) gain profile.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Output intensity with and without the 4 f system.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Pulse profile: (a) time domain and (b) frequency domain.

Fig. 21.
Fig. 21.

Amplified beam intensity profile under different pump power.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters Used in the Simulation of Rod-type Yb:YAG Amplifier Cryogenically Cooled at 77 K

Tables Icon

Table 2. Influence of Various Effects on the Parameters of the Amplified Beam

Tables Icon

Table 3. Amplified Beam Parameters with Varying Curvature of the Mirror

Tables Icon

Table 4. Influence of Various Effects on the Parameters of the Amplified Beam

Equations (16)

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E ( x , y , z , t ) = A ( x , y , z , t ) exp ( j β 0 z j ω 0 t ) + c.c ,
A ( r , z , t ) z = { j 2 k 0 n 0 2 + j D 2 2 2 t 2 j δ | A | 2 + j k 0 [ Δ n T ( r , z ) + Δ n G ( r , z ) ] } A ( r , z , t ) ,
Δ n G ( x , y , z ) = G 0 ( x , y , z , ω ) 2 k 0 j Δ ω / ψ 1 + ( Δ ω / ψ ) 2 ,
G 0 ( x , y , z , ω ) = exp [ E pump ( x , y , z , ω ) / E sat ( ω ) ] ,
E sat ( ω ) = h p ω 0 2 π σ e ( ω ) ,
Δ n G ( x , y , z ) = j G 0 ( x , y , z , ω ) 2 k 0 .
I ( x , y , z + Δ z , ω ) = I sat ( ω ) ln { 1 + G 0 ( x , y , z , ω ) { exp [ I ( x , y , z , ω ) / I sat ( ω ) ] 1 } } .
G r ( x , y , z , ω ) = G 0 ( x , y , z , ω ) exp { [ I ( x , y , z + Δ z , ω ) I ( x , y , z , ω ) ] / I sat ( ω ) } .
Δ n T ( x , y , z ) = Δ n T - temp ( x , y , z ) + Δ n T - stress ( x , y , z ) + Δ n T - end ( x , y , z ) ,
Δ n T ( x , y , z ) = Δ n T - temp ( x , y , z ) = d n d T [ T ( x , y , z ) T 0 ] ,
k h · 2 T ( x , y , z ) + Q ( x , y , z ) = 0 ,
Q ( x , y , z ) = 2 η h P in α T π w p 0 2 ( z ) exp [ 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) w p 0 2 ( z ) ] exp ( α T z ) ,
T x = 0 at x = ± w 2 , T y = h w k h ( T LN T ) at y = + t 2 , T y = 0 at y = t 2 , T z = 0 at z = ± L 2 ,
k h ( T ) = a 1 [ ln ( a 2 T ) ] a 3 a 4 T ,
α T = 1 2 η d σ a ξ , = 1 2 × 1.38 × 10 20 cm 3 × 1.7 × 10 20 cm 2 × 2 , = 2.35 cm 1 ,
w min = E k 2 π ρ ,

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