Abstract

Ge surfaces have been investigated with optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy in the range from 1.78 to 3.44 eV. The spectra reveal surface-specific resonances corresponding to the E1 and E1+Δ1 bulk transitions. The splitting between the surface E1 and E1+Δ1 resonances is found to be larger than the bulk value. It is suggested this is caused by surface-induced band bending through a Rashba effect. By probing metal-oxide-semiconductor structures it is found that contributions from electric-field-induced SHG from the space charge region are negligible for Ge within the probed spectral range. Strong second-harmonic resonances in the 2.6–3.2 eV range are observed and tentatively assigned to Ge–Ge bonds at the interface.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  4. W. Daum, “Optical studies of Si/SiO2 interfaces by second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of silicon interband transitions,” Appl. Phys. A 87, 451–460 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Fomenko, D. Bodlaki, C. Faler, and E. Borguet, “Second-harmonic generation from chemically modified Ge(111) interfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6745–6754 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Ohashi, H. Tanaka, H. Sano, J. Taira, G. Mizutani, and S. Ushioda, “Study of the Ge(111)/GeO2 interface by optical second harmonic spectroscopy,” Surf. Sci. 454–456, 1069–1073 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Bodlaki, E. Freysz, and E. Borguet, “Infrared second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Ge(111) interfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3958–3962 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. V. Dolgova, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, A. A. Fedyanin, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of buried interfaces of column IV semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 653–659 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. G. W. Anderson, M. C. Hanf, P. R. Norton, Z. H. Lu, and M. J. Graham, “The S-passivation of Ge(100)-1×1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1123–1125 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. F. Lyman, O. Sakata, D. L. Marasco, T.-L. Lee, K. D. Breneman, D. T. Keane, and M. J. Bedzyk, “Structure of a passivated Ge surface prepared from aqueous solution,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 462, L594–L598 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Maeda, S. Takagi, T. Ohnishi, and M. Lippmaa, “Sulfur passivation of Ge (001) surfaces and its effects on Schottky barrier contact,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9, 706–710 (2006).
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  21. G. Erley and W. Daum, “Silicon interband transitions observed at Si(100)-SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R1734–R1737 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Suzuki, D. E. Milovzorov, S. Kogo, M. Tsukakoshi, and M. Aono, “Surface second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(111)-7×7 in the 1.0-1.7 ev fundamental photon energy,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 623–627 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Suzuki, “Surface-state transitions of Si(111)−7×7 probed using nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 61, R5117–R5120 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Pedersen, “Second harmonic generation spectroscopy on Si surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247, 2002–2011 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. S. Mendoza, J. Wei, and M. C. Downer, “Blue-shift of E2 critical point resonance in optical second-harmonic spectrum of Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 1166–1172 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and T. Rasing, “Electric field induced second harmonic generation spectroscopy on a metal-oxide-silicon structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981–1983 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Rumpel, B. Manschwetus, G. Lilienkamp, H. Schmidt, and W. Daum, “Polarity of space charge fields in second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(100)SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 081303 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Rafaelsen and K. Pedersen, are preparing a manuscript tentatively to be called “Strain induced E1 and E1+Δ1 resonance shifts in Ge deposited on Si probed by optical second harmonic generation.”
  31. S. LaShell, B. A. McDougall, and E. Jensen, “Spin splitting of an Au(111) surface state band observed with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3419–3422 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Nishioka, B. A. Gurney, E. E. Marinero, and F. Mireles, “Zero field spin splitting in AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells induced by surface proximity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 242108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. F. Binder, P. Broqvist, and A. Pasquarello, “First principles study of substoichiometric germanium oxides,” Microelectron. Eng. 86, 1760–1762 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  34. S. W. Robey, C. C. Bahr, Z. Hussain, J. J. Barton, K. T. Leung, and J. Lou, “Surface structure of (2×2) S/Ge(111) determined by angle-resolved photoemission fine structure,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 5657–5665 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

B. S. Mendoza, J. Wei, and M. C. Downer, “Blue-shift of E2 critical point resonance in optical second-harmonic spectrum of Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 1166–1172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

K. Pedersen, “Second harmonic generation spectroscopy on Si surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247, 2002–2011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Nishioka, B. A. Gurney, E. E. Marinero, and F. Mireles, “Zero field spin splitting in AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells induced by surface proximity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Binder, P. Broqvist, and A. Pasquarello, “First principles study of substoichiometric germanium oxides,” Microelectron. Eng. 86, 1760–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

W. Daum, “Optical studies of Si/SiO2 interfaces by second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of silicon interband transitions,” Appl. Phys. A 87, 451–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Loscutoff and S. F. Bent, “Reactivity of the Germanium surface: chemical passivation and functionalization,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Maeda, S. Takagi, T. Ohnishi, and M. Lippmaa, “Sulfur passivation of Ge (001) surfaces and its effects on Schottky barrier contact,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9, 706–710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Rumpel, B. Manschwetus, G. Lilienkamp, H. Schmidt, and W. Daum, “Polarity of space charge fields in second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(100)SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 081303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Bergfeld, B. Braunschweig, and W. Daum, “Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of suboxides at oxidized Si(111) interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 097402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Bodlaki, H. Yamamoto, D. H. Waldeck, and E. Borguet, “Ambient stability of chemically passivated germanium interfaces,” Surf. Sci. 543, 63–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Bodlaki, E. Freysz, and E. Borguet, “Infrared second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Ge(111) interfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3958–3962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. V. Dolgova, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, A. A. Fedyanin, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of buried interfaces of column IV semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 653–659 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Fomenko, D. Bodlaki, C. Faler, and E. Borguet, “Second-harmonic generation from chemically modified Ge(111) interfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6745–6754 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Ohashi, H. Sani, and G. Mizutani, “Optical second harmonic spectroscopy of the Ge-oxide/Ge(111) interface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6972–6975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

H. Ohashi, H. Tanaka, H. Sano, J. Taira, G. Mizutani, and S. Ushioda, “Study of the Ge(111)/GeO2 interface by optical second harmonic spectroscopy,” Surf. Sci. 454–456, 1069–1073 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Lyman, O. Sakata, D. L. Marasco, T.-L. Lee, K. D. Breneman, D. T. Keane, and M. J. Bedzyk, “Structure of a passivated Ge surface prepared from aqueous solution,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 462, L594–L598 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, “Surface-state transitions of Si(111)−7×7 probed using nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 61, R5117–R5120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. Suzuki, D. E. Milovzorov, S. Kogo, M. Tsukakoshi, and M. Aono, “Surface second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(111)-7×7 in the 1.0-1.7 ev fundamental photon energy,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Lüpke, “Characterization of semiconductor interfaces by second-harmonic generation,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 35, 75–161 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Erley and W. Daum, “Silicon interband transitions observed at Si(100)-SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R1734–R1737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and T. Rasing, “Electric field induced second harmonic generation spectroscopy on a metal-oxide-silicon structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981–1983 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. LaShell, B. A. McDougall, and E. Jensen, “Spin splitting of an Au(111) surface state band observed with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3419–3422 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

K. Prabhakaran and T. Ogino, “Oxidation of Ge(100) and Ge(111) surfaces: an UPS and XPS study,” Surf. Sci. 325, 263–271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Anderson, M. C. Hanf, P. R. Norton, Z. H. Lu, and M. J. Graham, “The S-passivation of Ge(100)-1×1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1123–1125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. Schultz, I. Suni, C. Allen, and E. Seebauer, “Optical second harmonic study of Sb adsorption on Ge(111),” Surf. Sci. 276, 40–49 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Adachi, “Model dielectric constants of Si and Ge,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 12966–12976 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

S. W. Robey, C. C. Bahr, Z. Hussain, J. J. Barton, K. T. Leung, and J. Lou, “Surface structure of (2×2) S/Ge(111) determined by angle-resolved photoemission fine structure,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 5657–5665 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

L. Viña, S. Logothetidis, and M. Cardona, “Temperature dependence of the dielectric function of germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 1979–1991 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, and Y. R. Shen, “Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478–481 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi, “Model dielectric constants of Si and Ge,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 12966–12976 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

T. V. Dolgova, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, A. A. Fedyanin, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of buried interfaces of column IV semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 653–659 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alavi, M.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Allen, C.

K. Schultz, I. Suni, C. Allen, and E. Seebauer, “Optical second harmonic study of Sb adsorption on Ge(111),” Surf. Sci. 276, 40–49 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. W.

G. W. Anderson, M. C. Hanf, P. R. Norton, Z. H. Lu, and M. J. Graham, “The S-passivation of Ge(100)-1×1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1123–1125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. H.

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aono, M.

T. Suzuki, D. E. Milovzorov, S. Kogo, M. Tsukakoshi, and M. Aono, “Surface second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(111)-7×7 in the 1.0-1.7 ev fundamental photon energy,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, M.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Auth, C.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bahr, C. C.

S. W. Robey, C. C. Bahr, Z. Hussain, J. J. Barton, K. T. Leung, and J. Lou, “Surface structure of (2×2) S/Ge(111) determined by angle-resolved photoemission fine structure,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 5657–5665 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. J.

S. W. Robey, C. C. Bahr, Z. Hussain, J. J. Barton, K. T. Leung, and J. Lou, “Surface structure of (2×2) S/Ge(111) determined by angle-resolved photoemission fine structure,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 5657–5665 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bedzyk, M. J.

P. F. Lyman, O. Sakata, D. L. Marasco, T.-L. Lee, K. D. Breneman, D. T. Keane, and M. J. Bedzyk, “Structure of a passivated Ge surface prepared from aqueous solution,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 462, L594–L598 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bent, S. F.

P. W. Loscutoff and S. F. Bent, “Reactivity of the Germanium surface: chemical passivation and functionalization,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergfeld, S.

S. Bergfeld, B. Braunschweig, and W. Daum, “Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of suboxides at oxidized Si(111) interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 097402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Binder, J. F.

J. F. Binder, P. Broqvist, and A. Pasquarello, “First principles study of substoichiometric germanium oxides,” Microelectron. Eng. 86, 1760–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bodlaki, D.

D. Bodlaki, E. Freysz, and E. Borguet, “Infrared second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Ge(111) interfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3958–3962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Bodlaki, H. Yamamoto, D. H. Waldeck, and E. Borguet, “Ambient stability of chemically passivated germanium interfaces,” Surf. Sci. 543, 63–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Fomenko, D. Bodlaki, C. Faler, and E. Borguet, “Second-harmonic generation from chemically modified Ge(111) interfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6745–6754 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bohr, M.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Borguet, E.

D. Bodlaki, H. Yamamoto, D. H. Waldeck, and E. Borguet, “Ambient stability of chemically passivated germanium interfaces,” Surf. Sci. 543, 63–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Bodlaki, E. Freysz, and E. Borguet, “Infrared second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Ge(111) interfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3958–3962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Fomenko, D. Bodlaki, C. Faler, and E. Borguet, “Second-harmonic generation from chemically modified Ge(111) interfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6745–6754 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Braunschweig, B.

S. Bergfeld, B. Braunschweig, and W. Daum, “Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of suboxides at oxidized Si(111) interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 097402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Breneman, K. D.

P. F. Lyman, O. Sakata, D. L. Marasco, T.-L. Lee, K. D. Breneman, D. T. Keane, and M. J. Bedzyk, “Structure of a passivated Ge surface prepared from aqueous solution,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 462, L594–L598 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Broqvist, P.

J. F. Binder, P. Broqvist, and A. Pasquarello, “First principles study of substoichiometric germanium oxides,” Microelectron. Eng. 86, 1760–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buehler, M.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

L. Viña, S. Logothetidis, and M. Cardona, “Temperature dependence of the dielectric function of germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 1979–1991 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cea, S.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chau, R.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. K.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, and Y. R. Shen, “Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478–481 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Daum, W.

W. Daum, “Optical studies of Si/SiO2 interfaces by second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of silicon interband transitions,” Appl. Phys. A 87, 451–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Rumpel, B. Manschwetus, G. Lilienkamp, H. Schmidt, and W. Daum, “Polarity of space charge fields in second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(100)SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 081303 (2006).
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S. Bergfeld, B. Braunschweig, and W. Daum, “Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of suboxides at oxidized Si(111) interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 097402 (2004).
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G. Erley and W. Daum, “Silicon interband transitions observed at Si(100)-SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R1734–R1737 (1998).
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de Jong, W.

P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and T. Rasing, “Electric field induced second harmonic generation spectroscopy on a metal-oxide-silicon structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981–1983 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Devillers, M. A. C.

P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and T. Rasing, “Electric field induced second harmonic generation spectroscopy on a metal-oxide-silicon structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981–1983 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dolgova, T. V.

T. V. Dolgova, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, A. A. Fedyanin, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of buried interfaces of column IV semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 653–659 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

B. S. Mendoza, J. Wei, and M. C. Downer, “Blue-shift of E2 critical point resonance in optical second-harmonic spectrum of Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 1166–1172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

El-Mansy, Y.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Erley, G.

G. Erley and W. Daum, “Silicon interband transitions observed at Si(100)-SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R1734–R1737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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V. Fomenko, D. Bodlaki, C. Faler, and E. Borguet, “Second-harmonic generation from chemically modified Ge(111) interfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6745–6754 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fedyanin, A. A.

T. V. Dolgova, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, A. A. Fedyanin, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of buried interfaces of column IV semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 653–659 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fomenko, V.

V. Fomenko, D. Bodlaki, C. Faler, and E. Borguet, “Second-harmonic generation from chemically modified Ge(111) interfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6745–6754 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freysz, E.

D. Bodlaki, E. Freysz, and E. Borguet, “Infrared second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Ge(111) interfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3958–3962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghani, T.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glass, G.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Godefroy, P.

P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and T. Rasing, “Electric field induced second harmonic generation spectroscopy on a metal-oxide-silicon structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981–1983 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Graham, M. J.

G. W. Anderson, M. C. Hanf, P. R. Norton, Z. H. Lu, and M. J. Graham, “The S-passivation of Ge(100)-1×1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1123–1125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gurney, B. A.

M. Nishioka, B. A. Gurney, E. E. Marinero, and F. Mireles, “Zero field spin splitting in AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells induced by surface proximity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hanf, M. C.

G. W. Anderson, M. C. Hanf, P. R. Norton, Z. H. Lu, and M. J. Graham, “The S-passivation of Ge(100)-1×1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1123–1125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, and Y. R. Shen, “Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478–481 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, T.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X. F.

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, Z.

S. W. Robey, C. C. Bahr, Z. Hussain, J. J. Barton, K. T. Leung, and J. Lou, “Surface structure of (2×2) S/Ge(111) determined by angle-resolved photoemission fine structure,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 5657–5665 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jan, C.-H.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, E.

S. LaShell, B. A. McDougall, and E. Jensen, “Spin splitting of an Au(111) surface state band observed with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3419–3422 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keane, D. T.

P. F. Lyman, O. Sakata, D. L. Marasco, T.-L. Lee, K. D. Breneman, D. T. Keane, and M. J. Bedzyk, “Structure of a passivated Ge surface prepared from aqueous solution,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 462, L594–L598 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kenyon, C.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klaus, J.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kogo, S.

T. Suzuki, D. E. Milovzorov, S. Kogo, M. Tsukakoshi, and M. Aono, “Surface second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(111)-7×7 in the 1.0-1.7 ev fundamental photon energy,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, K.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

LaShell, S.

S. LaShell, B. A. McDougall, and E. Jensen, “Spin splitting of an Au(111) surface state band observed with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3419–3422 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.-L.

P. F. Lyman, O. Sakata, D. L. Marasco, T.-L. Lee, K. D. Breneman, D. T. Keane, and M. J. Bedzyk, “Structure of a passivated Ge surface prepared from aqueous solution,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 462, L594–L598 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leung, K. T.

S. W. Robey, C. C. Bahr, Z. Hussain, J. J. Barton, K. T. Leung, and J. Lou, “Surface structure of (2×2) S/Ge(111) determined by angle-resolved photoemission fine structure,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 5657–5665 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lilienkamp, G.

A. Rumpel, B. Manschwetus, G. Lilienkamp, H. Schmidt, and W. Daum, “Polarity of space charge fields in second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(100)SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 081303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lippmaa, M.

T. Maeda, S. Takagi, T. Ohnishi, and M. Lippmaa, “Sulfur passivation of Ge (001) surfaces and its effects on Schottky barrier contact,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9, 706–710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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L. Viña, S. Logothetidis, and M. Cardona, “Temperature dependence of the dielectric function of germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 1979–1991 (1984).
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P. W. Loscutoff and S. F. Bent, “Reactivity of the Germanium surface: chemical passivation and functionalization,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J.

S. W. Robey, C. C. Bahr, Z. Hussain, J. J. Barton, K. T. Leung, and J. Lou, “Surface structure of (2×2) S/Ge(111) determined by angle-resolved photoemission fine structure,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 5657–5665 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lowell, J. K.

J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. H.

G. W. Anderson, M. C. Hanf, P. R. Norton, Z. H. Lu, and M. J. Graham, “The S-passivation of Ge(100)-1×1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1123–1125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lüpke, G.

G. Lüpke, “Characterization of semiconductor interfaces by second-harmonic generation,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 35, 75–161 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lyman, P. F.

P. F. Lyman, O. Sakata, D. L. Marasco, T.-L. Lee, K. D. Breneman, D. T. Keane, and M. J. Bedzyk, “Structure of a passivated Ge surface prepared from aqueous solution,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 462, L594–L598 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, T.

T. Maeda, S. Takagi, T. Ohnishi, and M. Lippmaa, “Sulfur passivation of Ge (001) surfaces and its effects on Schottky barrier contact,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9, 706–710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manschwetus, B.

A. Rumpel, B. Manschwetus, G. Lilienkamp, H. Schmidt, and W. Daum, “Polarity of space charge fields in second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(100)SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 081303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marasco, D. L.

P. F. Lyman, O. Sakata, D. L. Marasco, T.-L. Lee, K. D. Breneman, D. T. Keane, and M. J. Bedzyk, “Structure of a passivated Ge surface prepared from aqueous solution,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 462, L594–L598 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marinero, E. E.

M. Nishioka, B. A. Gurney, E. E. Marinero, and F. Mireles, “Zero field spin splitting in AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells induced by surface proximity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

T. V. Dolgova, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, A. A. Fedyanin, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of buried interfaces of column IV semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 653–659 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McDougall, B. A.

S. LaShell, B. A. McDougall, and E. Jensen, “Spin splitting of an Au(111) surface state band observed with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3419–3422 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, B.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza, B. S.

B. S. Mendoza, J. Wei, and M. C. Downer, “Blue-shift of E2 critical point resonance in optical second-harmonic spectrum of Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 1166–1172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Milovzorov, D. E.

T. Suzuki, D. E. Milovzorov, S. Kogo, M. Tsukakoshi, and M. Aono, “Surface second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(111)-7×7 in the 1.0-1.7 ev fundamental photon energy,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mireles, F.

M. Nishioka, B. A. Gurney, E. E. Marinero, and F. Mireles, “Zero field spin splitting in AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells induced by surface proximity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mistry, K.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, G.

H. Ohashi, H. Sani, and G. Mizutani, “Optical second harmonic spectroscopy of the Ge-oxide/Ge(111) interface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6972–6975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohashi, H. Tanaka, H. Sano, J. Taira, G. Mizutani, and S. Ushioda, “Study of the Ge(111)/GeO2 interface by optical second harmonic spectroscopy,” Surf. Sci. 454–456, 1069–1073 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Murthy, A.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagisetty, R.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, P.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, M.

M. Nishioka, B. A. Gurney, E. E. Marinero, and F. Mireles, “Zero field spin splitting in AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells induced by surface proximity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Norton, P. R.

G. W. Anderson, M. C. Hanf, P. R. Norton, Z. H. Lu, and M. J. Graham, “The S-passivation of Ge(100)-1×1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1123–1125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Obradovic, B.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ogino, T.

K. Prabhakaran and T. Ogino, “Oxidation of Ge(100) and Ge(111) surfaces: an UPS and XPS study,” Surf. Sci. 325, 263–271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, H.

H. Ohashi, H. Sani, and G. Mizutani, “Optical second harmonic spectroscopy of the Ge-oxide/Ge(111) interface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6972–6975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohashi, H. Tanaka, H. Sano, J. Taira, G. Mizutani, and S. Ushioda, “Study of the Ge(111)/GeO2 interface by optical second harmonic spectroscopy,” Surf. Sci. 454–456, 1069–1073 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohnishi, T.

T. Maeda, S. Takagi, T. Ohnishi, and M. Lippmaa, “Sulfur passivation of Ge (001) surfaces and its effects on Schottky barrier contact,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9, 706–710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pasquarello, A.

J. F. Binder, P. Broqvist, and A. Pasquarello, “First principles study of substoichiometric germanium oxides,” Microelectron. Eng. 86, 1760–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, K.

K. Pedersen, “Second harmonic generation spectroscopy on Si surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247, 2002–2011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Rafaelsen and K. Pedersen, are preparing a manuscript tentatively to be called “Strain induced E1 and E1+Δ1 resonance shifts in Ge deposited on Si probed by optical second harmonic generation.”

Prabhakaran, K.

K. Prabhakaran and T. Ogino, “Oxidation of Ge(100) and Ge(111) surfaces: an UPS and XPS study,” Surf. Sci. 325, 263–271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rafaelsen, J.

J. Rafaelsen and K. Pedersen, are preparing a manuscript tentatively to be called “Strain induced E1 and E1+Δ1 resonance shifts in Ge deposited on Si probed by optical second harmonic generation.”

Rasing, T.

P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and T. Rasing, “Electric field induced second harmonic generation spectroscopy on a metal-oxide-silicon structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981–1983 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richard, D.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, and Y. R. Shen, “Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478–481 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Robey, S. W.

S. W. Robey, C. C. Bahr, Z. Hussain, J. J. Barton, K. T. Leung, and J. Lou, “Surface structure of (2×2) S/Ge(111) determined by angle-resolved photoemission fine structure,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 5657–5665 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rumpel, A.

A. Rumpel, B. Manschwetus, G. Lilienkamp, H. Schmidt, and W. Daum, “Polarity of space charge fields in second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(100)SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 081303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakata, O.

P. F. Lyman, O. Sakata, D. L. Marasco, T.-L. Lee, K. D. Breneman, D. T. Keane, and M. J. Bedzyk, “Structure of a passivated Ge surface prepared from aqueous solution,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 462, L594–L598 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sani, H.

H. Ohashi, H. Sani, and G. Mizutani, “Optical second harmonic spectroscopy of the Ge-oxide/Ge(111) interface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6972–6975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sano, H.

H. Ohashi, H. Tanaka, H. Sano, J. Taira, G. Mizutani, and S. Ushioda, “Study of the Ge(111)/GeO2 interface by optical second harmonic spectroscopy,” Surf. Sci. 454–456, 1069–1073 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

A. Rumpel, B. Manschwetus, G. Lilienkamp, H. Schmidt, and W. Daum, “Polarity of space charge fields in second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(100)SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 081303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuhmacher, D.

T. V. Dolgova, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, A. A. Fedyanin, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of buried interfaces of column IV semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 653–659 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, K.

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[CrossRef]

Seebauer, E.

K. Schultz, I. Suni, C. Allen, and E. Seebauer, “Optical second harmonic study of Sb adsorption on Ge(111),” Surf. Sci. 276, 40–49 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shaheed, R.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, and Y. R. Shen, “Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478–481 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shifren, L.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sivakumar, S.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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K. Schultz, I. Suni, C. Allen, and E. Seebauer, “Optical second harmonic study of Sb adsorption on Ge(111),” Surf. Sci. 276, 40–49 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, “Surface-state transitions of Si(111)−7×7 probed using nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 61, R5117–R5120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, D. E. Milovzorov, S. Kogo, M. Tsukakoshi, and M. Aono, “Surface second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(111)-7×7 in the 1.0-1.7 ev fundamental photon energy,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taira, J.

H. Ohashi, H. Tanaka, H. Sano, J. Taira, G. Mizutani, and S. Ushioda, “Study of the Ge(111)/GeO2 interface by optical second harmonic spectroscopy,” Surf. Sci. 454–456, 1069–1073 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, S.

T. Maeda, S. Takagi, T. Ohnishi, and M. Lippmaa, “Sulfur passivation of Ge (001) surfaces and its effects on Schottky barrier contact,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9, 706–710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

H. Ohashi, H. Tanaka, H. Sano, J. Taira, G. Mizutani, and S. Ushioda, “Study of the Ge(111)/GeO2 interface by optical second harmonic spectroscopy,” Surf. Sci. 454–456, 1069–1073 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, S.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsukakoshi, M.

T. Suzuki, D. E. Milovzorov, S. Kogo, M. Tsukakoshi, and M. Aono, “Surface second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(111)-7×7 in the 1.0-1.7 ev fundamental photon energy,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tufts, B.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tyagi, S.

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ushioda, S.

H. Ohashi, H. Tanaka, H. Sano, J. Taira, G. Mizutani, and S. Ushioda, “Study of the Ge(111)/GeO2 interface by optical second harmonic spectroscopy,” Surf. Sci. 454–456, 1069–1073 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

van Hasselt, C. W.

P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and T. Rasing, “Electric field induced second harmonic generation spectroscopy on a metal-oxide-silicon structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981–1983 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Viña, L.

L. Viña, S. Logothetidis, and M. Cardona, “Temperature dependence of the dielectric function of germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 1979–1991 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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D. Bodlaki, H. Yamamoto, D. H. Waldeck, and E. Borguet, “Ambient stability of chemically passivated germanium interfaces,” Surf. Sci. 543, 63–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wei, J.

B. S. Mendoza, J. Wei, and M. C. Downer, “Blue-shift of E2 critical point resonance in optical second-harmonic spectrum of Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 1166–1172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

D. Bodlaki, H. Yamamoto, D. H. Waldeck, and E. Borguet, “Ambient stability of chemically passivated germanium interfaces,” Surf. Sci. 543, 63–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

W. Daum, “Optical studies of Si/SiO2 interfaces by second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of silicon interband transitions,” Appl. Phys. A 87, 451–460 (2007).
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Appl. Phys. B (2)

T. V. Dolgova, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, A. A. Fedyanin, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of buried interfaces of column IV semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 653–659 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, D. E. Milovzorov, S. Kogo, M. Tsukakoshi, and M. Aono, “Surface second-harmonic generation spectra of Si(111)-7×7 in the 1.0-1.7 ev fundamental photon energy,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Godefroy, W. de Jong, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and T. Rasing, “Electric field induced second harmonic generation spectroscopy on a metal-oxide-silicon structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1981–1983 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishioka, B. A. Gurney, E. E. Marinero, and F. Mireles, “Zero field spin splitting in AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells induced by surface proximity effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 242108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Anderson, M. C. Hanf, P. R. Norton, Z. H. Lu, and M. J. Graham, “The S-passivation of Ge(100)-1×1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1123–1125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

S. Thompson, M. Armstrong, C. Auth, M. Alavi, M. Buehler, R. Chau, S. Cea, T. Ghani, G. Glass, T. Hoffman, C.-H. Jan, C. Kenyon, J. Klaus, K. Kuhn, Z. Ma, B. McIntyre, K. Mistry, A. Murthy, B. Obradovic, R. Nagisetty, P. Nguyen, S. Sivakumar, R. Shaheed, L. Shifren, B. Tufts, S. Tyagi, M. Bohr, and Y. El-Mansy, “A 90-nm logic technology featuring strained-silicon,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51, 1790–1797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

V. Fomenko, D. Bodlaki, C. Faler, and E. Borguet, “Second-harmonic generation from chemically modified Ge(111) interfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6745–6754 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Bodlaki, E. Freysz, and E. Borguet, “Infrared second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Ge(111) interfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3958–3962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Ohashi, H. Sani, and G. Mizutani, “Optical second harmonic spectroscopy of the Ge-oxide/Ge(111) interface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6972–6975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. (1)

T. Maeda, S. Takagi, T. Ohnishi, and M. Lippmaa, “Sulfur passivation of Ge (001) surfaces and its effects on Schottky barrier contact,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9, 706–710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

J. F. Binder, P. Broqvist, and A. Pasquarello, “First principles study of substoichiometric germanium oxides,” Microelectron. Eng. 86, 1760–1762 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. B (8)

S. W. Robey, C. C. Bahr, Z. Hussain, J. J. Barton, K. T. Leung, and J. Lou, “Surface structure of (2×2) S/Ge(111) determined by angle-resolved photoemission fine structure,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 5657–5665 (1987).
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J. I. Dadap, X. F. Hu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53, R7607–R7609 (1996).
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[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, “Surface-state transitions of Si(111)−7×7 probed using nonlinear optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 61, R5117–R5120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Adachi, “Model dielectric constants of Si and Ge,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 12966–12976 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Erley and W. Daum, “Silicon interband transitions observed at Si(100)-SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R1734–R1737 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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S. Bergfeld, B. Braunschweig, and W. Daum, “Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of suboxides at oxidized Si(111) interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 097402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, and Y. R. Shen, “Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478–481 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. LaShell, B. A. McDougall, and E. Jensen, “Spin splitting of an Au(111) surface state band observed with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3419–3422 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (2)

K. Pedersen, “Second harmonic generation spectroscopy on Si surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247, 2002–2011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Mendoza, J. Wei, and M. C. Downer, “Blue-shift of E2 critical point resonance in optical second-harmonic spectrum of Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 1166–1172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (4)

H. Ohashi, H. Tanaka, H. Sano, J. Taira, G. Mizutani, and S. Ushioda, “Study of the Ge(111)/GeO2 interface by optical second harmonic spectroscopy,” Surf. Sci. 454–456, 1069–1073 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Bodlaki, H. Yamamoto, D. H. Waldeck, and E. Borguet, “Ambient stability of chemically passivated germanium interfaces,” Surf. Sci. 543, 63–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Schultz, I. Suni, C. Allen, and E. Seebauer, “Optical second harmonic study of Sb adsorption on Ge(111),” Surf. Sci. 276, 40–49 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Prabhakaran and T. Ogino, “Oxidation of Ge(100) and Ge(111) surfaces: an UPS and XPS study,” Surf. Sci. 325, 263–271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. Lett. (1)

P. F. Lyman, O. Sakata, D. L. Marasco, T.-L. Lee, K. D. Breneman, D. T. Keane, and M. J. Bedzyk, “Structure of a passivated Ge surface prepared from aqueous solution,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 462, L594–L598 (2000).
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Surf. Sci. Rep. (1)

G. Lüpke, “Characterization of semiconductor interfaces by second-harmonic generation,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 35, 75–161 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Rafaelsen and K. Pedersen, are preparing a manuscript tentatively to be called “Strain induced E1 and E1+Δ1 resonance shifts in Ge deposited on Si probed by optical second harmonic generation.”

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SH spectra from the various sample treatments. All spectra are from (111) samples except (f), which is from a (100) sample. The solid lines show the fitted curves while dashed (pp) and dotted (ps) lines show the individual contributions to the fit. Take into consideration the scaling factor in the legends of several of the spectra.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SH measurements on a Ge (100) MOS structure at varying potentials. The signals were recorded in pp configuration as ps did not show signal levels discernible over background noise. Little to no change with potential was observed for both Ge (100) with 180 nm thermal oxide and Ge (111) with 50 nm thermal oxide. The inset shows the IV curve of one of the MOS structures.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SH-RAS measurements at 2.84 eV for the native oxide on Ge(111), Ge(111) sulfur-terminated sample, and thermal oxide on Ge(100) (filled circles pp, open circles ps) with fitted curves (full line pp, dotted line ps). No significant differences were observed between native and thermal oxides on the (111) surface. The very low ps signal for the Ge(100) sample is close to the detection limit of the system.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Suggested configurations for the oxidized and sulfur modified surfaces. Ge atoms are gray, O red, and S yellow.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters for the Curves Fitted to the pp and ps SH Signals from the Various Sample Treatments, as Shown in Fig. 1a

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(2ω)|nAn(ω,θ)fneiφn2ωωn+iγn|2,
E(2ω)(pp)Ep2app+cppcos(nϕ),
E(2ω)(ps)Ep2bpssin(nϕ),

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