Abstract

By using the dual-loss modulated technology, i.e., adopting the electro-optic (EO) modulator and transmission semiconductor saturable absorber (transmission SSA) simultaneously, a diode-pumped doubly Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) Nd:Lu3Al5O12 (Nd:LuAG) laser at 1.06 μm has been realized for the first time. In comparison to the singly passively QML Nd:LuAG laser with transmission SSA, the doubly QML laser can generate more stable pulses with shorter pulse widths and higher peak powers. It can also be observed that the pulse duration of the Q-switched envelope decreases with increasing pump power. When the pump power exceeds 6.52 W for the first time, there is only one mode-locked pulse underneath a Q-switched envelope for this doubly QML Nd:LuAG laser. As a result, the subnanosecond pulse laser with 1 kHz repetition rate of EO and high stability can be generated. The shortest pulse duration generated is about 718 ps and the highest peak power reaches as high as 502 kW. The experimental results show that Nd:LuAG is an excellent alternative crystal for diode-pumped QML pulsed laser generation.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

R. C. Botha, H. J. Strauss, C. Bollig, W. Koen, O. Collett, N. V. Kuleshov, M. J. Esser, W. L. Combrinck, and H. M. von Bergmann, “High average power 1314 nm Nd:YLF laser, passively Q-switched with V:YAG,” Opt. Lett. 38, 980–982 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, T. Yanagida, A. Yamaji, Y. Yokota, and A. Yoshikawa, “Growth and scintillation properties of Nd-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by Czochralski and micro-pulling-down methods,” J. Cryst. Growth 362, 178–181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, L. H. Zheng, and J. Xu, “Diode-pumped Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:Lu3Al5O12 lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055806 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

X. D. Xu, J. Q. Di, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Z. Li, D. H. Zhou, and J. Xu, “High efficient diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:LuAG laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 406–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Lin and C.-S. Hsieh, “Triple-wavelength Nd-laser system by cascaded electro-optic periodically poled lithium niobate Bragg modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 29659–29664 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, Z. Wang, and H. Yu, “High-power single- and dual-wavelength Nd:GdVO4 lasers with potential application for the treatment of telangiectasia,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 112701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

D. J. Farrell and M. J. Damzen, “High power scaling of a passively mode locked laser oscillator in a bounce geometry,” Opt. Express 15, 4781–4786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Wang, J. Y. Peng, H. M. Tan, L. S. Qian, L. Zhai, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, T. Lin, and X. Y. Ma, “Study for characteristics of passively Q-switched Nd∶YVO4 laser with central semiconductor SWANG saturable absorption mirror,” Acta Photon. Sin. 36, 401–404 (2007).

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. Bass, “Electro-optic Q-switching of the Nd:YVO4 laser without an intracavity polarizer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 938–939 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Agnesi, A.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Balembois, F.

Bass, M.

M. Bass, “Electro-optic Q-switching of the Nd:YVO4 laser without an intracavity polarizer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 938–939 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bollig, C.

Botha, R. C.

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carrà, L.

Chen, H.-R.

Chen, L.

L. Chen, Z. Wang, and H. Yu, “High-power single- and dual-wavelength Nd:GdVO4 lasers with potential application for the treatment of telangiectasia,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 112701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Collett, O.

Combrinck, W. L.

Dallocchio, P.

Damzen, M. J.

Dausinger, F.

F. Dausinger, H. Hügel, and V. Konov, “Micro-machining with ultra-short laser pulses, from basic understanding to technical application,” International Conference on Advanced Laser Technologies 2002, ALT-02, Adelboden, SwitzerlandSeptember15–20, 2002 (SPIE, 2002).

Délen, X.

Di, J. Q.

X. D. Xu, J. Q. Di, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Z. Li, D. H. Zhou, and J. Xu, “High efficient diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:LuAG laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 406–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Di, J. Q. Xu, and X. D. Meng, “Diode-pumped continuous wave and Q-switched operation of Nd:LuAG crystal,” Laser Phys. 21, 844–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Esser, M. J.

Farrell, D. J.

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Forget, S.

Fujimoto, Y.

M. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, T. Yanagida, A. Yamaji, Y. Yokota, and A. Yoshikawa, “Growth and scintillation properties of Nd-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by Czochralski and micro-pulling-down methods,” J. Cryst. Growth 362, 178–181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Georges, P.

He, J.

Honninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.-S.

Hsieh, W.-F.

Hsu, H.-H.

Hügel, H.

F. Dausinger, H. Hügel, and V. Konov, “Micro-machining with ultra-short laser pulses, from basic understanding to technical application,” International Conference on Advanced Laser Technologies 2002, ALT-02, Adelboden, SwitzerlandSeptember15–20, 2002 (SPIE, 2002).

Jabczynski, J. K.

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koen, W.

Konov, V.

F. Dausinger, H. Hügel, and V. Konov, “Micro-machining with ultra-short laser pulses, from basic understanding to technical application,” International Conference on Advanced Laser Technologies 2002, ALT-02, Adelboden, SwitzerlandSeptember15–20, 2002 (SPIE, 2002).

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

Kwiatkowski, J.

Lévêque-Fort, S.

Li, D.

Li, D. Z.

X. D. Xu, J. Q. Di, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Z. Li, D. H. Zhou, and J. Xu, “High efficient diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:LuAG laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 406–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Li, M.

Li, T.

Lin, J.

Lin, K.-H.

Lin, S.-T.

Lin, T.

Y. G. Wang, J. Y. Peng, H. M. Tan, L. S. Qian, L. Zhai, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, T. Lin, and X. Y. Ma, “Study for characteristics of passively Q-switched Nd∶YVO4 laser with central semiconductor SWANG saturable absorption mirror,” Acta Photon. Sin. 36, 401–404 (2007).

Lodo, S.

Ma, X. Y.

Y. G. Wang, J. Y. Peng, H. M. Tan, L. S. Qian, L. Zhai, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, T. Lin, and X. Y. Ma, “Study for characteristics of passively Q-switched Nd∶YVO4 laser with central semiconductor SWANG saturable absorption mirror,” Acta Photon. Sin. 36, 401–404 (2007).

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meng, J. Q.

X. D. Xu, X. D. Wang, and J. Q. Meng, “Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 678–681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X. D.

J. Q. Di, J. Q. Xu, and X. D. Meng, “Diode-pumped continuous wave and Q-switched operation of Nd:LuAG crystal,” Laser Phys. 21, 844–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Musset, O.

Papadopoulos, D. N.

Peng, J. Y.

Y. G. Wang, J. Y. Peng, H. M. Tan, L. S. Qian, L. Zhai, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, T. Lin, and X. Y. Ma, “Study for characteristics of passively Q-switched Nd∶YVO4 laser with central semiconductor SWANG saturable absorption mirror,” Acta Photon. Sin. 36, 401–404 (2007).

Piccinno, G.

Pirzio, F.

Qian, L. S.

Y. G. Wang, J. Y. Peng, H. M. Tan, L. S. Qian, L. Zhai, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, T. Lin, and X. Y. Ma, “Study for characteristics of passively Q-switched Nd∶YVO4 laser with central semiconductor SWANG saturable absorption mirror,” Acta Photon. Sin. 36, 401–404 (2007).

Reali, G.

Skeldon, M. D.

Strauss, H. J.

Sugiyama, M.

M. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, T. Yanagida, A. Yamaji, Y. Yokota, and A. Yoshikawa, “Growth and scintillation properties of Nd-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by Czochralski and micro-pulling-down methods,” J. Cryst. Growth 362, 178–181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. M.

Y. G. Wang, J. Y. Peng, H. M. Tan, L. S. Qian, L. Zhai, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, T. Lin, and X. Y. Ma, “Study for characteristics of passively Q-switched Nd∶YVO4 laser with central semiconductor SWANG saturable absorption mirror,” Acta Photon. Sin. 36, 401–404 (2007).

Tan, W. D.

X. D. Xu, J. Q. Di, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Z. Li, D. H. Zhou, and J. Xu, “High efficient diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:LuAG laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 406–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

X. D. Xu, J. Q. Di, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Z. Li, D. H. Zhou, and J. Xu, “High efficient diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:LuAG laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 406–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, S. W.

von Bergmann, H. M.

Wang, Q. Y.

Y. G. Wang, J. Y. Peng, H. M. Tan, L. S. Qian, L. Zhai, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, T. Lin, and X. Y. Ma, “Study for characteristics of passively Q-switched Nd∶YVO4 laser with central semiconductor SWANG saturable absorption mirror,” Acta Photon. Sin. 36, 401–404 (2007).

Wang, S. C.

Wang, X. D.

X. D. Xu, X. D. Wang, and J. Q. Meng, “Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 678–681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. G.

Y. G. Wang, J. Y. Peng, H. M. Tan, L. S. Qian, L. Zhai, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, T. Lin, and X. Y. Ma, “Study for characteristics of passively Q-switched Nd∶YVO4 laser with central semiconductor SWANG saturable absorption mirror,” Acta Photon. Sin. 36, 401–404 (2007).

Wang, Z.

L. Chen, Z. Wang, and H. Yu, “High-power single- and dual-wavelength Nd:GdVO4 lasers with potential application for the treatment of telangiectasia,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 112701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M.-D.

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Zhao, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, L. H. Zheng, and J. Xu, “Diode-pumped Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:Lu3Al5O12 lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055806 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Xu, J. Q. Di, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Z. Li, D. H. Zhou, and J. Xu, “High efficient diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:LuAG laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 406–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Q.

J. Q. Di, J. Q. Xu, and X. D. Meng, “Diode-pumped continuous wave and Q-switched operation of Nd:LuAG crystal,” Laser Phys. 21, 844–846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. D.

X. D. Xu, J. Q. Di, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Z. Li, D. H. Zhou, and J. Xu, “High efficient diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:LuAG laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 406–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Xu, X. D. Wang, and J. Q. Meng, “Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LuAG single crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 678–681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamaji, A.

M. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, T. Yanagida, A. Yamaji, Y. Yokota, and A. Yoshikawa, “Growth and scintillation properties of Nd-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by Czochralski and micro-pulling-down methods,” J. Cryst. Growth 362, 178–181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yanagida, T.

M. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, T. Yanagida, A. Yamaji, Y. Yokota, and A. Yoshikawa, “Growth and scintillation properties of Nd-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by Czochralski and micro-pulling-down methods,” J. Cryst. Growth 362, 178–181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.

Yang, K. J.

J. Zhao, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, L. H. Zheng, and J. Xu, “Diode-pumped Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:Lu3Al5O12 lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055806 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, Y.

M. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, T. Yanagida, A. Yamaji, Y. Yokota, and A. Yoshikawa, “Growth and scintillation properties of Nd-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by Czochralski and micro-pulling-down methods,” J. Cryst. Growth 362, 178–181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, A.

M. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, T. Yanagida, A. Yamaji, Y. Yokota, and A. Yoshikawa, “Growth and scintillation properties of Nd-doped Lu3Al5O12 single crystals by Czochralski and micro-pulling-down methods,” J. Cryst. Growth 362, 178–181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

L. Chen, Z. Wang, and H. Yu, “High-power single- and dual-wavelength Nd:GdVO4 lasers with potential application for the treatment of telangiectasia,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 112701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zendzian, W.

Zhai, L.

Y. G. Wang, J. Y. Peng, H. M. Tan, L. S. Qian, L. Zhai, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, T. Lin, and X. Y. Ma, “Study for characteristics of passively Q-switched Nd∶YVO4 laser with central semiconductor SWANG saturable absorption mirror,” Acta Photon. Sin. 36, 401–404 (2007).

Zhang, B.

Zhang, J.

X. D. Xu, J. Q. Di, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, D. Z. Li, D. H. Zhou, and J. Xu, “High efficient diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:LuAG laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 406–409 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. G.

Y. G. Wang, J. Y. Peng, H. M. Tan, L. S. Qian, L. Zhai, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, T. Lin, and X. Y. Ma, “Study for characteristics of passively Q-switched Nd∶YVO4 laser with central semiconductor SWANG saturable absorption mirror,” Acta Photon. Sin. 36, 401–404 (2007).

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, L. H. Zheng, and J. Xu, “Diode-pumped Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:Lu3Al5O12 lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055806 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S.

Zhao, S. Z.

J. Zhao, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, L. H. Zheng, and J. Xu, “Diode-pumped Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:Lu3Al5O12 lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055806 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, S. Z. Zhao, K. J. Yang, L. H. Zheng, and J. Xu, “Diode-pumped Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:Lu3Al5O12 lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055806 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics for double Q-switched and mode-locked a-cut Nd:LuAG laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pulse repetition rate of the single passively QML laser versus the incident pump power at T=6.5%.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Average output power of the single passive QML laser and double QML laser versus the incident pump power, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Pulse energy of the Q-switched envelope for single passive and double QML laser at T=6.5%.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Pulse width of the Q-switched envelope versus the incident pump power; the embedded part is the expanded picture of the function after the pump power of 6 W.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Oscilloscope traces of the mode-locking pulse at different pump powers of (a) 4.65 W, (b) 5.31 W, (c) 5.94 W, and (d) 8.76 W.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Extended oscilloscope traces of the single mode-locking pulse at the pump powers of (a) 6.52 W, and (b) 10.5 W.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Oscilloscope traces of a single mode-locking pulse train under the incident power of 10.5 W.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Peak power of the doubly QML laser versus the pump power at T=6.5%.

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