Abstract

A method is reported for performing fast optical frequency scans over a bandwidth of 36.9 GHz and at a sweep rate of 40 kHz using a single second-order sideband from an electro-optic phase modulator driven by an arbitrary waveform generator. Single sideband selection is accomplished using the resonator modes of a Fabry–Perot filter cavity having a finesse of 44 and a free-spectral range of 300 MHz. The finesse is sufficiently high to give <2% total transmission of the laser frequency carrier and all other nonresonant sidebands while sufficiently low to ensure on-resonance switching times as short as 100 ns. A frequency offset component of a diode laser is used for active stabilization of the laser to the filter cavity at all times eliminating frequency drift of the filter cavity transmission comb used for single sideband selection and scanning. The method is demonstrated for the detection of CO2 near 1602 nm and for CH4 lines near 1643 nm. Detection of ambient level concentrations of each of these gases is demonstrated in a 25 μs scan over a path length of 50 m at a sensitivity of 3×109cm1Hz1/2. The corresponding measurement uncertainties (k=1 or 1σ) in a (2–3) ms time period and a 1 km path length are <±2μmol/mol (ppm) for CO2 and <±5nmol/mol (ppb) for CH4. The arbitrary waveform control of the pulse sequence, repetition rate, and duty cycle provides for optimization of the light source for a variety of application areas that include path integrated differential absorption and differential absorption light detection and ranging.

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2013 (1)

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

2011 (5)

2009 (2)

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, M. Nakazato, and T. Sakai, “Development of a 1.6 micron differential absorption lidar with a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator and photon-counting detector for the vertical CO2 profile,” Appl. Opt. 48, 748–757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. Frankenberg, T. Warneke, A. Butz, I. Aben, F. Hase, P. Spietz, and L. R. Brown, “Methane spectroscopy in the near infrared and its implications on atmospheric retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8, 10021–10055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

B. A. Paldus and A. A. Kachanov, “An historical overview of cavity-enhanced methods,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 975–999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. W. Miller, and G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “THz laser study of self-pressure and temperature broadening and shifts of water lines for pressures up to 1.4 kPa,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 377–385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

E. J. Dlugokencky, S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, J. B. Miller, and P. P. Tans, “Atmospheric methane levels off: temporary pause or new steady state?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1–4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. F. Plusquellic, S. R. Davis, and F. Jahanmir, “Probing nuclear quadrupole interaction in the rotationally resolved S1←S0 electronic spectrum of 2-chloronaphthalene,” J. Chem. Phys. 115, 225–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Davis, M. Farnik, D. Uy, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Concentration modulation spectroscopy with a pulsed slit supersonic discharge expansion source,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

L. Gianfrani, R. W. Fox, and L. Hollberg, “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of molecular oxygen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2247–2254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, “Highly sensitive cavity-enhanced sub-Doppler spectroscopy of a molecular overtone band with a 1.66 μm tunable diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 920–922 (1999).

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. L. Haller and P. C. D. Hobbs, “Double beam laser absorption spectroscopy: shot noise-limited performance at baseband with a novel electronic noise canceller,” Proc. SPIE 1435, 298–309 (1991).

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

1942 (1)

Aben, I.

C. Frankenberg, T. Warneke, A. Butz, I. Aben, F. Hase, P. Spietz, and L. R. Brown, “Methane spectroscopy in the near infrared and its implications on atmospheric retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8, 10021–10055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Abo, M.

Abshire, J. B.

Adler, F.

Ali, A. N.

M. R. Zaghloul and A. N. Ali, “Algorithm 916: computing the Faddeyeva and Voigt functions,” ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 38, 1–22 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

Ashworth, S. H.

E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

P. Ehlrs, I. Silander, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry instrumentation for Doppler-broadened detection in the 10-12 cm-1 Hz-1/2 region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1305–1315 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bjork, B.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Frankenberg, T. Warneke, A. Butz, I. Aben, F. Hase, P. Spietz, and L. R. Brown, “Methane spectroscopy in the near infrared and its implications on atmospheric retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8, 10021–10055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bruhwiler, L.

E. J. Dlugokencky, S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, J. B. Miller, and P. P. Tans, “Atmospheric methane levels off: temporary pause or new steady state?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1–4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Butz, A.

C. Frankenberg, T. Warneke, A. Butz, I. Aben, F. Hase, P. Spietz, and L. R. Brown, “Methane spectroscopy in the near infrared and its implications on atmospheric retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8, 10021–10055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. R.

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cossel, K. C.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
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Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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S. Davis, M. Farnik, D. Uy, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Concentration modulation spectroscopy with a pulsed slit supersonic discharge expansion source,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 23–30 (2001).
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Davis, S. R.

D. F. Plusquellic, S. R. Davis, and F. Jahanmir, “Probing nuclear quadrupole interaction in the rotationally resolved S1←S0 electronic spectrum of 2-chloronaphthalene,” J. Chem. Phys. 115, 225–235 (2001).
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Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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E. J. Dlugokencky, S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, J. B. Miller, and P. P. Tans, “Atmospheric methane levels off: temporary pause or new steady state?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1–4 (2003).
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G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
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E. Gerecht, K. O. Douglass, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Chirped-pulse terahertz spectroscopy for broadband trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 19, 8973–8984 (2011).
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K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, D. A. Long, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Fast switching arbitrary frequency light source for broadband spectroscopic applications,” U.S. patent13/827,476 (March14, 2013).

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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S. Davis, M. Farnik, D. Uy, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Concentration modulation spectroscopy with a pulsed slit supersonic discharge expansion source,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 23–30 (2001).
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E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Fleisher, A. J.

Foltynowicz, A.

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Fox, R. W.

Frankenberg, C.

C. Frankenberg, T. Warneke, A. Butz, I. Aben, F. Hase, P. Spietz, and L. R. Brown, “Methane spectroscopy in the near infrared and its implications on atmospheric retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8, 10021–10055 (2008).
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V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “THz laser study of self-pressure and temperature broadening and shifts of water lines for pressures up to 1.4 kPa,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 377–385 (2004).
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Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Gianfrani, L.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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T. E. L. Smith, M. J. Wooster, M. Tattaris, and D. W. T. Griffith, “Absolute accuracy and sensitivity analysis of OP-FTIR retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO over concentrations representative of “clean air” and “polluted plumes”,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 97–116 (2011).
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Hall, J. L.

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Ultrasensitive detections in atomic and molecular physics: demonstration in molecular overtone spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6–15 (1998).
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R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Haller, K. L.

K. L. Haller and P. C. D. Hobbs, “Double beam laser absorption spectroscopy: shot noise-limited performance at baseband with a novel electronic noise canceller,” Proc. SPIE 1435, 298–309 (1991).

Halonen, L.

Hase, F.

C. Frankenberg, T. Warneke, A. Butz, I. Aben, F. Hase, P. Spietz, and L. R. Brown, “Methane spectroscopy in the near infrared and its implications on atmospheric retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8, 10021–10055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, D. R.

Hirono, Y.

Hobbs, P. C. D.

K. L. Haller and P. C. D. Hobbs, “Double beam laser absorption spectroscopy: shot noise-limited performance at baseband with a novel electronic noise canceller,” Proc. SPIE 1435, 298–309 (1991).

Hodges, J. T.

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. W. Miller, and G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, D. A. Long, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Fast switching arbitrary frequency light source for broadband spectroscopic applications,” U.S. patent13/827,476 (March14, 2013).

D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2×10-12 cm-1 Hz-1/2 with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B (posted August 3, 2013, in press).

Hollberg, L.

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Houweling, S.

E. J. Dlugokencky, S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, J. B. Miller, and P. P. Tans, “Atmospheric methane levels off: temporary pause or new steady state?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1–4 (2003).
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Imaki, M.

Ishibashi, C.

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, “Highly sensitive cavity-enhanced sub-Doppler spectroscopy of a molecular overtone band with a 1.66 μm tunable diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 920–922 (1999).

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jahanmir, F.

D. F. Plusquellic, S. R. Davis, and F. Jahanmir, “Probing nuclear quadrupole interaction in the rotationally resolved S1←S0 electronic spectrum of 2-chloronaphthalene,” J. Chem. Phys. 115, 225–235 (2001).
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Kachanov, A. A.

B. A. Paldus and A. A. Kachanov, “An historical overview of cavity-enhanced methods,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 975–999 (2005).
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Kameyama, S.

Kawa, R.

Kawakami, S.

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

Kompfner, R.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lang, P. M.

E. J. Dlugokencky, S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, J. B. Miller, and P. P. Tans, “Atmospheric methane levels off: temporary pause or new steady state?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1–4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lantta, T.

Layer, H. P.

J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. W. Miller, and G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

Lisak, D.

D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Long, D. A.

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, D. A. Long, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Fast switching arbitrary frequency light source for broadband spectroscopic applications,” U.S. patent13/827,476 (March14, 2013).

D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2×10-12 cm-1 Hz-1/2 with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B (posted August 3, 2013, in press).

Ma, L. S.

Ma, W.

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mao, J.

Martinez, R. Z.

Masarie, K. A.

E. J. Dlugokencky, S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, J. B. Miller, and P. P. Tans, “Atmospheric methane levels off: temporary pause or new steady state?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1–4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, S. E.

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, D. A. Long, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Fast switching arbitrary frequency light source for broadband spectroscopic applications,” U.S. patent13/827,476 (March14, 2013).

Metsala, M.

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Miller, W. W.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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S. Davis, M. Farnik, D. Uy, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Concentration modulation spectroscopy with a pulsed slit supersonic discharge expansion source,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 23–30 (2001).
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E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Plusquellic, D. F.

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
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E. Gerecht, K. O. Douglass, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Chirped-pulse terahertz spectroscopy for broadband trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 19, 8973–8984 (2011).
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V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “THz laser study of self-pressure and temperature broadening and shifts of water lines for pressures up to 1.4 kPa,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 377–385 (2004).
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D. F. Plusquellic, S. R. Davis, and F. Jahanmir, “Probing nuclear quadrupole interaction in the rotationally resolved S1←S0 electronic spectrum of 2-chloronaphthalene,” J. Chem. Phys. 115, 225–235 (2001).
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D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2×10-12 cm-1 Hz-1/2 with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B (posted August 3, 2013, in press).

K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, D. A. Long, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Fast switching arbitrary frequency light source for broadband spectroscopic applications,” U.S. patent13/827,476 (March14, 2013).

Podobedov, V. B.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, and G. T. Fraser, “THz laser study of self-pressure and temperature broadening and shifts of water lines for pressures up to 1.4 kPa,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 377–385 (2004).
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Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Ramanathan, A.

Riedle, E.

E. Riedle, S. H. Ashworth, J. T. Farrell, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Stabilization and precise calibration of a continuous-wave difference frequency spectrometer by use of a simple transfer cavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 42–48 (1994).
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Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Riris, H.

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Scace, G. E.

J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. W. Miller, and G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849–863 (2004).
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Simeckova, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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T. E. L. Smith, M. J. Wooster, M. Tattaris, and D. W. T. Griffith, “Absolute accuracy and sensitivity analysis of OP-FTIR retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO over concentrations representative of “clean air” and “polluted plumes”,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 97–116 (2011).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Tans, P. P.

E. J. Dlugokencky, S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, J. B. Miller, and P. P. Tans, “Atmospheric methane levels off: temporary pause or new steady state?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1–4 (2003).
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Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Tattaris, M.

T. E. L. Smith, M. J. Wooster, M. Tattaris, and D. W. T. Griffith, “Absolute accuracy and sensitivity analysis of OP-FTIR retrievals of CO2, CH4 and CO over concentrations representative of “clean air” and “polluted plumes”,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 97–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Truong, G.-W.

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
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D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2×10-12 cm-1 Hz-1/2 with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B (posted August 3, 2013, in press).

Ueno, S.

Uy, D.

S. Davis, M. Farnik, D. Uy, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Concentration modulation spectroscopy with a pulsed slit supersonic discharge expansion source,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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van Zee, R. D.

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D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2×10-12 cm-1 Hz-1/2 with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B (posted August 3, 2013, in press).

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

ACM Trans. Math. Softw. (1)

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R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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C. Frankenberg, T. Warneke, A. Butz, I. Aben, F. Hase, P. Spietz, and L. R. Brown, “Methane spectroscopy in the near infrared and its implications on atmospheric retrievals,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 8, 10021–10055 (2008).
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D. A. Long, A. Cygan, R. D. van Zee, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, D. Lisak, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 536, 1–8 (2012).
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G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 532–534 (2013).
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D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2×10-12 cm-1 Hz-1/2 with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B (posted August 3, 2013, in press).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the fast switching laser spectrometer. The amplified diode laser output is split into two paths for active stabilization of the filter cavity for single sideband transmission. The 30% path (lock path) is used for active stabilization of the diode laser to the filter cavity using an EOM (Δνmod±15MHz) for generation of a PDH feedback signal and an AOM (250MHz±30MHz) for offset shifting the carrier relative to the scan leg. The 70% path (scan path) includes a broadband EOM (MW EOM) driven by a 12 GHz bandwidth AWG to add tunable sidebands, only one of which is resonant with a filter cavity mode. The transmitted sideband is free-space coupled into a long-pass White cell with typical path lengths from 40 to 100 m. Two InGaAs photodiodes (125 MHz bandwidth) and an 8-bit digital oscilloscope are used to simultaneously measure the absorption signal and reference power at each step of the AWG (see text for additional details).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Signals transmitted by the filter cavity as the laser is scanned from high to low frequency (or cavity from low to high frequency). The top trace is the lock path signal that is reflected from the filter cavity, with each reflection dip having small shoulders associated with 15 MHz modulation used for stabilization purposes. The lower trace is scan path transmission without EOM sidebands. It is shifted from the lock path signal by the AOM frequency of 250 MHz. The middle trace is the scan path with EOM sidebands driven at one of the MW frequencies generated by the AWG. The sideband pulses are rapidly scanned and transmitted through the filter cavity at frequencies indicated with vertical lines for the plus and minus sideband series.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured transmission of the filter cavity (top panel) of the scan path (without sidebands) and the temporal response of the filter cavity when the EOM is driven with 400 ns long microwave pulses from the AWG. The pulse length is four times longer than that used for the fast scans below in order to illustrate the full exponential decay.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured absorption signals of a gas mixture of 5000μmol/mol CO2 (13 times ambient level) in dry air in a White cell path length of 44.6(6) m and at atmospheric pressure. The top panel illustrates the raw time domain signals measured on the reference detector (top trace) and signal detector (lower trace) with each sideband pulse on for 100 ns and then off for 100 ns for 123 pulses. Each scan makes use of the second-order sidebands with a frequency step size of 300 MHz and covers 36.9 GHz in 25 μs. The top two traces in the lower panel show the integrated signals from the reference and signal channels. The power in the reference channel is leveled according to the procedure described in the text, and variations are less than 2% (except near the ends of the scan). The small break in the center of the scan is from the removal of three points where heterodyne signals are observed from the small leakage of the diode laser carrier. The absorbance spectrum is shown in the lower panel after subtraction of three etalon fringe components and base line (see text for details). The residuals from a Voigt profile fit are shown as the lowest trace. A small feature (<1% of the main line) included in the fit at 23.3 GHz is from fourth-order leakage as verified by the relative linewidth value of 1/2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Allan deviations in log/log form of the best-fit intensities obtained from the least-squares fits to a series of 25 μs scans over the CO2 line at 1602.5 nm [29] for (a) ambient CO2 in room air and (b) 3900μmol/mol CO2/dry air gas mixture. The corresponding line intensities for each single scan of (b) are shown in (c). The uncertainties in (a) decrease by 10-fold relative to (b) in accord with the 10-fold increase in concentration. Both data sets are in good agreement with the n1/2 signal-to-noise ratio improvement (line with slope of 1/2) with scan number n up to 1000. This sample number corresponds to the time for a sequential acquisition before scope-to-computer data transfer. Small deviations from ideal scaling are seen to occur for averaging times that extend over the 40,000 scans or 20 segments acquired. The data record corresponds to 1 s of acquisition time, although it is currently limited to 15 s because of the data throughput speed. The measurement uncertainty of the CO2 concentration over this period is ±2μmol/mol (ppm).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Allan deviations in log/log form of the best-fit intensities obtained from the least-squares fits to a series of 25 μs scans over the CH4 line at 1642.9 nm [29,32] for (a) ambient CH4 in room air and (b) for a 20μmol/mol CH4/N2 gas mixture. The corresponding integrated line intensities for each scan of (b) are shown in (c). The uncertainties in (a) decrease by 10-fold relative to (b) in accord with the 10-fold increase in concentration. The measurement uncertainty of the CH4 concentration over this period is ±10nmol/mol (ppb).

Equations (4)

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δ·ΔνMS=[OR/(2OROL+OH)]ΔνMS,
νEO+(i)=[(δ/OR+i)/OR]ΔνFS,
νEO(i)=[(1δ/OR+i)/OR]ΔνFS,
AMW(i)=[(Pdamp+Paverage)/(Pdamp+Pi)]1/2,

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