Abstract

Models of different available single-photodetector electro-optic sampling schemes are considered from the unified theoretical position. It is taken into account that under electro-optic terahertz wave detection, not only do the polarization states of the femtosecond optical pulse components change but the modules of their amplitudes are also varied. As a result, information concerning the terahertz wave can be obtained not only using the conventional ellipsometry readout scheme (probe-phase sampling) but also by simple measuring of the induced power of the optical pulses (probe-energy sampling). Spectral sensitivities of both of these electro-optic sampling methods are calculated for the cases of nonlinear-optical crystals with zinc-blende symmetry (like ZnTe) and the crystals with one active component of the second-order optical susceptibility tensor (like PPLN). It is found that the ratio between spectral sensitivities of the pure probe-phase and pure probe-energy schemes is proportional to the ratio between the optical and terahertz wave frequencies in all types of the crystals. It is shown that the signal in the near-zero optical transmission point scheme, which is the best for terahertz imaging, has a mixed character. While the contribution of the probe-phase sensitivity appears to be due to spatially nonuniform residual birefringence of the nonlinear zinc-blende crystal, the probe-energy part of the sensitivity has a uniform distribution and can be increased by the angle misalignment of the optical polarization element.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2011 (5)

S. Schecklman, L. M. Zurk, S. Henry, and G. P. Kniffin, “Terahertz material detection from diffuse surface scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 094902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5, 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Kovalev and G. Kh. Kitaeva, “Two alternative approaches to electro-optical detection of terahertz pulses,” JETP Lett. 94, 91–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Maruyama, N. Itani, S.-Y. Hasegawa, and S. Wakana, “High-speed terahertz spectroscopic imaging using noncollinear electro-optic sampling and a multistep mirror,” Opt. Express 19, 17738–17749 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tani, K. Horita, T. Kinoshita, C. T. Que, E. Estacio, K. Yamamoto, and M. I. Bakunov, “Efficient electro-optic sampling detection of terahertz radiation via Cherenkov phase matching,” Opt. Express 19, 19901–19906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

J. Darmo, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, “Quasi phase-matched terahertz detector,” Electron. Lett. 46, 788–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “Quasi-phase-matched probe-energy electro-optic sampling as a method of narrowband terahertz detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics 4, 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Sizov, “THz radiation sensors,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 10–36 (2010).

2009 (2)

J. Chen, P. Han, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz-field-induced second harmonic generation in beta barium borate crystal and its application in terahertz detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawada, T. Yasuda, A. Nakanishi, H. Takahashi, and S. Aoshima, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz temporal waveform using pulse-front tilting by a direct vision dispersion prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 113703 (2009).

2007 (4)

B. Yellampalle, K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, and A. J. Taylor, “Comment on temporally resolved electro-optic effect,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1341–1342 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, G. Berden, D. A. Jaroszynski, and W. A. Gillespie, “Reply to comment on temporally resolved electro-optic effect,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1343–1344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Hattori and M. Sakamoto, “Deformation corrected real-time terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electro-optical sampling of ultrashort THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 530 nm with BaTiO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

M. Usami, M. Yamashita, K. Fukushima, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz wideband spectroscopic imaging based on two-dimensional electro-optic sampling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2000 (2)

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191–3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Shan, A. S. Weling, E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, G. A. Reider, L. Bartels, and T. F. Heinz, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz electromagnetic pulses by use of electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Lett. 25, 426–428 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, “Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1204–1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Park, M. R. Melloch, and A. M. Weiner, “Comparison of terahertz waveforms measured by electro-optic and photoconductive sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3184–3186 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Han and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent, broadband midinfrared terahertz beam sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3049–3051 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

C. Winnewisser, P. U. Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, “Electro-optic detection of THz radiation in LiTaO3, LiNbO3 and ZnTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069–3071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285–1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. J. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. A. Valdmanis, G. A. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. H. Auston and A. M. Glass, “Optical generation of intense picosecond electrical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 398–399 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Akhmedzhanov, R. A.

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “Quasi-phase-matched probe-energy electro-optic sampling as a method of narrowband terahertz detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “A new method of terahertz detection: probe-energy electro-optic sampling,” in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010).

Aoshima, S.

Y. Kawada, T. Yasuda, A. Nakanishi, H. Takahashi, and S. Aoshima, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz temporal waveform using pulse-front tilting by a direct vision dispersion prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 113703 (2009).

Auston, D. H.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. J. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston and A. M. Glass, “Optical generation of intense picosecond electrical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 398–399 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bakunov, M. I.

Bartels, L.

Berden, G.

Bonn, M.

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191–3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cavalleri, A.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5, 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. Han, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz-field-induced second harmonic generation in beta barium borate crystal and its application in terahertz detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

L. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics 4, 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

L. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics 4, 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Darmo, J.

J. Darmo, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, “Quasi phase-matched terahertz detector,” Electron. Lett. 46, 788–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dienst, A.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5, 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

Estacio, E.

Fausti, D.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5, 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J.

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, K.

M. Usami, M. Yamashita, K. Fukushima, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz wideband spectroscopic imaging based on two-dimensional electro-optic sampling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gabel, C. W.

J. A. Valdmanis, G. A. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

Gillespie, W. A.

Glass, A. M.

D. H. Auston and A. M. Glass, “Optical generation of intense picosecond electrical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 398–399 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Glownia, J. H.

Grischkowsky, D.

Han, P.

J. Chen, P. Han, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz-field-induced second harmonic generation in beta barium borate crystal and its application in terahertz detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, P. Y.

P. Y. Han and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent, broadband midinfrared terahertz beam sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3049–3051 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, S.-Y.

Hattori, T.

T. Hattori and M. Sakamoto, “Deformation corrected real-time terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

J. Shan, A. S. Weling, E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, G. A. Reider, L. Bartels, and T. F. Heinz, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz electromagnetic pulses by use of electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Lett. 25, 426–428 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. J. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

C. Winnewisser, P. U. Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, “Electro-optic detection of THz radiation in LiTaO3, LiNbO3 and ZnTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069–3071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Henry, S.

S. Schecklman, L. M. Zurk, S. Henry, and G. P. Kniffin, “Terahertz material detection from diffuse surface scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 094902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M. C.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5, 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Horita, K.

Huber, R.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191–3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ilyakov, I. E.

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “Quasi-phase-matched probe-energy electro-optic sampling as a method of narrowband terahertz detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “A new method of terahertz detection: probe-energy electro-optic sampling,” in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010).

Itani, N.

Jamison, S. P.

Jaroszynski, D. A.

Jepsen, P. U.

C. Winnewisser, P. U. Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, “Electro-optic detection of THz radiation in LiTaO3, LiNbO3 and ZnTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069–3071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawada, Y.

Y. Kawada, T. Yasuda, A. Nakanishi, H. Takahashi, and S. Aoshima, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz temporal waveform using pulse-front tilting by a direct vision dispersion prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 113703 (2009).

Kawase, K.

M. Usami, M. Yamashita, K. Fukushima, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz wideband spectroscopic imaging based on two-dimensional electro-optic sampling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-Y.

Kinoshita, T.

Kitaeva, G. Kh.

S. P. Kovalev and G. Kh. Kitaeva, “Two alternative approaches to electro-optical detection of terahertz pulses,” JETP Lett. 94, 91–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “Quasi-phase-matched probe-energy electro-optic sampling as a method of narrowband terahertz detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Ma, S. H. Tang, G. Kh. Kitaeva, and I. I. Naumova, “Terahertz generation in Czochralski-grown periodically poled Mg:Y:LiNbO3 by optical rectification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 81–89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “A new method of terahertz detection: probe-energy electro-optic sampling,” in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010).

Kniffin, G. P.

S. Schecklman, L. M. Zurk, S. Henry, and G. P. Kniffin, “Terahertz material detection from diffuse surface scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 094902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Knoesel, E.

Kovalev, S. P.

S. P. Kovalev and G. Kh. Kitaeva, “Two alternative approaches to electro-optical detection of terahertz pulses,” JETP Lett. 94, 91–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “Quasi-phase-matched probe-energy electro-optic sampling as a method of narrowband terahertz detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “A new method of terahertz detection: probe-energy electro-optic sampling,” in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010).

Leitenstorfer, A.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191–3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electro-optical sampling of ultrashort THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 530 nm with BaTiO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics 4, 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, G. H.

MacLeod, A. M.

Martl, M.

J. Darmo, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, “Quasi phase-matched terahertz detector,” Electron. Lett. 46, 788–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, K.

Matthäus, G.

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electro-optical sampling of ultrashort THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 530 nm with BaTiO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Melloch, M. R.

S. Park, M. R. Melloch, and A. M. Weiner, “Comparison of terahertz waveforms measured by electro-optic and photoconductive sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3184–3186 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, L.

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

J. A. Valdmanis, G. A. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. J. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, A.

Y. Kawada, T. Yasuda, A. Nakanishi, H. Takahashi, and S. Aoshima, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz temporal waveform using pulse-front tilting by a direct vision dispersion prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 113703 (2009).

Naumova, I. I.

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “Quasi-phase-matched probe-energy electro-optic sampling as a method of narrowband terahertz detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Ma, S. H. Tang, G. Kh. Kitaeva, and I. I. Naumova, “Terahertz generation in Czochralski-grown periodically poled Mg:Y:LiNbO3 by optical rectification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 81–89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “A new method of terahertz detection: probe-energy electro-optic sampling,” in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010).

Nolte, S.

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electro-optical sampling of ultrashort THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 530 nm with BaTiO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Notni, G.

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electro-optical sampling of ultrashort THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 530 nm with BaTiO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Otani, C.

M. Usami, M. Yamashita, K. Fukushima, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz wideband spectroscopic imaging based on two-dimensional electro-optic sampling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

S. Park, M. R. Melloch, and A. M. Weiner, “Comparison of terahertz waveforms measured by electro-optic and photoconductive sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3184–3186 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J. C.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5, 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pradarutti, B.

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electro-optical sampling of ultrashort THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 530 nm with BaTiO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pyon, S.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5, 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Que, C. T.

Reider, G. A.

Reimann, K.

Riehemann, S.

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electro-optical sampling of ultrashort THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 530 nm with BaTiO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, M.

T. Hattori and M. Sakamoto, “Deformation corrected real-time terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schall, M.

C. Winnewisser, P. U. Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, “Electro-optic detection of THz radiation in LiTaO3, LiNbO3 and ZnTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069–3071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schecklman, S.

S. Schecklman, L. M. Zurk, S. Henry, and G. P. Kniffin, “Terahertz material detection from diffuse surface scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 094902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schyja, V.

C. Winnewisser, P. U. Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, “Electro-optic detection of THz radiation in LiTaO3, LiNbO3 and ZnTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069–3071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

Shishkin, B. V.

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “Quasi-phase-matched probe-energy electro-optic sampling as a method of narrowband terahertz detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “A new method of terahertz detection: probe-energy electro-optic sampling,” in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010).

Sizov, F.

F. Sizov, “THz radiation sensors,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 10–36 (2010).

Smith, R. P.

Sun, F. G.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suvorov, E. V.

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “Quasi-phase-matched probe-energy electro-optic sampling as a method of narrowband terahertz detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “A new method of terahertz detection: probe-energy electro-optic sampling,” in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010).

Takagi, H.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5, 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Y. Kawada, T. Yasuda, A. Nakanishi, H. Takahashi, and S. Aoshima, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz temporal waveform using pulse-front tilting by a direct vision dispersion prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 113703 (2009).

Takayama, T.

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5, 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. H.

Tani, M.

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191–3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Tünnermann, A.

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electro-optical sampling of ultrashort THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 530 nm with BaTiO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

J. Darmo, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, “Quasi phase-matched terahertz detector,” Electron. Lett. 46, 788–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Usami, M.

M. Usami, M. Yamashita, K. Fukushima, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz wideband spectroscopic imaging based on two-dimensional electro-optic sampling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J. A.

J. A. Valdmanis, G. A. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wakana, S.

Wang, S.

S. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, “Tomographic imaging with a terahertz binary lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1821–1823 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

K. Reimann, R. P. Smith, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, “Direct field-resolved detection of terahertz transients with amplitudes of megavolts per centimeter,” Opt. Lett. 28, 471–473 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, M. R. Melloch, and A. M. Weiner, “Comparison of terahertz waveforms measured by electro-optic and photoconductive sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3184–3186 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

Winnewisser, C.

C. Winnewisser, P. U. Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, “Electro-optic detection of THz radiation in LiTaO3, LiNbO3 and ZnTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069–3071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

Wu, C. J.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. J. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285–1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

Yamashita, M.

M. Usami, M. Yamashita, K. Fukushima, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz wideband spectroscopic imaging based on two-dimensional electro-optic sampling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, T.

Y. Kawada, T. Yasuda, A. Nakanishi, H. Takahashi, and S. Aoshima, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz temporal waveform using pulse-front tilting by a direct vision dispersion prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 113703 (2009).

Yellampalle, B.

Zhang, X. C.

J. Chen, P. Han, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz-field-induced second harmonic generation in beta barium borate crystal and its application in terahertz detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Han and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent, broadband midinfrared terahertz beam sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3049–3051 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

L. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics 4, 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, “Tomographic imaging with a terahertz binary lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1821–1823 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285–1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zurk, L. M.

S. Schecklman, L. M. Zurk, S. Henry, and G. P. Kniffin, “Terahertz material detection from diffuse surface scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 094902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (16)

J. Chen, P. Han, and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz-field-induced second harmonic generation in beta barium borate crystal and its application in terahertz detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston and A. M. Glass, “Optical generation of intense picosecond electrical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 398–399 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Valdmanis, G. A. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, T. F. Heinz, and C. J. Wu, “Coherent detection of freely propagating terahertz radiation by electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 150–152 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Winnewisser, P. U. Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, “Electro-optic detection of THz radiation in LiTaO3, LiNbO3 and ZnTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069–3071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285–1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, M. R. Melloch, and A. M. Weiner, “Comparison of terahertz waveforms measured by electro-optic and photoconductive sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3184–3186 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Han and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent, broadband midinfrared terahertz beam sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3049–3051 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191–3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Usami, M. Yamashita, K. Fukushima, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz wideband spectroscopic imaging based on two-dimensional electro-optic sampling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Hattori and M. Sakamoto, “Deformation corrected real-time terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, “Tomographic imaging with a terahertz binary lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1821–1823 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “Quasi-phase-matched probe-energy electro-optic sampling as a method of narrowband terahertz detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Darmo, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, “Quasi phase-matched terahertz detector,” Electron. Lett. 46, 788–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

B. Pradarutti, G. Matthäus, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Electro-optical sampling of ultrashort THz pulses by fs-laser pulses at 530 nm with BaTiO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Schecklman, L. M. Zurk, S. Henry, and G. P. Kniffin, “Terahertz material detection from diffuse surface scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 094902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

JETP Lett. (1)

S. P. Kovalev and G. Kh. Kitaeva, “Two alternative approaches to electro-optical detection of terahertz pulses,” JETP Lett. 94, 91–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Fausti, J. C. Petersen, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Bi-directional ultrafast electric-field gating of interlayer charge transport in a cuprate superconductor,” Nat. Photonics 5, 485–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics 4, 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

F. Sizov, “THz radiation sensors,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 18, 10–36 (2010).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

Y. Kawada, T. Yasuda, A. Nakanishi, H. Takahashi, and S. Aoshima, “Single-shot measurement of terahertz temporal waveform using pulse-front tilting by a direct vision dispersion prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 113703 (2009).

Other (1)

G. Kh. Kitaeva, S. P. Kovalev, I. I. Naumova, R. A. Akhmedzhanov, I. E. Ilyakov, B. V. Shishkin, and E. V. Suvorov, “A new method of terahertz detection: probe-energy electro-optic sampling,” in Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2010).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Different schemes of EO sampling.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) C-function amplitudes, calculated for different durations of the pump pulse: 10, 50, 100, and 500 fs pump pulse duration. (b) C-function amplitudes multiplied by the terahertz frequency. (c) T-function amplitudes, calculated for periodically poled LiNbO3 crystals with different periods of the domain structure: 65, 70 and 75 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Orientation of the axes x, y, z of a 110 zinc-blende crystal with respect to polarization and propagation directions of optical and THz waves.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) T-functions, calculated for PPLN crystals with different period of domain structure and for ZnTe crystals with different thickness. (b) Spectral sensitivity amplitude for PPLN and ZnTe crystals for probe-energy EO detection with pump laser pulse duration 100 fs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral (a) and angular (b) dependences of the sensitivity functions of probe-phase (solid curves) and probe-energy (dashed curves) EO sampling in a 1 mm ZnTe crystal pumped by 100 fs laser pulses with 800 nm central wavelength (laser and THz polarizations are collinear).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Amplitude spectrum of terahertz radiation measured by probe-phase (the black curve) and probe-energy (the gray curve) EO sampling in 0.8 mm ZnTe crystal. (b) Ratio between the probe-energy and probe-phase sampling spectra (the black curve) and its linear fit (the gray curve).

Equations (24)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ai(x,ω)x=2πiωcεχijk(2)(x)dΩ(Aj(Ω)eik(Ω)xAk(x,ωΩ)eik(ωΩ)x+Aj*(Ω)eik(Ω)xAk(x,ω+Ω)eik(ω+Ω)x)eik(ω)x.
Ai(x,t)x=2πicεχijk(2)(x)dΩ(Aj(Ω)eiΔk(Ω)xdωeiωtωAk(x,ωΩ)+Aj*(Ω)eiΔk(Ω)xdωeiωtωAk(x,ω+Ω)).
Δk(Ω)k(Ω)+k(ωΩ)k(ω)=k(Ω)kω|ω¯Ω.
Ai(x,t)x=αik(x,t)Ak(x,t)+σik(x,t)dAk(x,t)dt.
αik(x,t)=4πcεχijk(2)(x)dΩΩIm(Aj(Ω)eiΔk(Ω)xeiΩt),σik(x,t)=4πcεχijk(2)(x)dΩRe(Aj(Ω)eiΔk(Ω)xeiΩt),
ΔAi(t)=4πLcεdΩIm(ΩTijk(Ω)Aj(Ω)eiΩt)Ak(L/2,t).Δφi(t)Ai(L/2,t)=4πω¯LcεdΩRe(Tijk(Ω)Aj(Ω)eiΩt)Ak(L/2,t).
Tijk(Ω)1LL/2L/2χijk(2)(x)eiΔk(Ω)xdx
Sen(τdel)=S0+2LεImdΩT(Ω)A(Ω)ΩC(Ω)eiΩτdel.
Sen(Ω)=2LεΩC(Ω)T(Ω).
A⃗(L/2,t)=(cosθsinθsinθcosθ)(cosθ(α+iσ)sinθsinθsinθ(α+iσ)sin(θ+θ))A(L/2,t).
α=4πLcεdΩΩIm(A(Ω)T(Ω)eiΩt),σ=4πLcεdΩRe(A(Ω)T(Ω)eiΩt).
Sen(τdel)=S0+2LεImdΩT(Ω)A(Ω)ΩC(Ω)eiΩτdel×sinθ(cosθsinθ+sin(θ+θ)).
Sen(Ω)=2LεΩT(Ω)C(Ω)fen(θ,θ),
A⃗λ/4(t)=12(1ii1)A⃗(L/2,t).
A⃗λ/4(t)=(1ϕsin2θ+iϕcos2θϕcos2θi(1+ϕsin2θ))A(L/2,t)=(AD1AD2).
Sph(τdel)=c4πdt(|AD1|2|AD2|2)=4ω¯LεRedΩT(Ω)A(Ω)C(Ω)eiΩτdel(sin(2θ+θ)+cos2θsinθ).
Sph(Ω)=4ω¯LεT(Ω)C(Ω)fph(θ,θ).
Sph(Ω)=c8πC(0)+2ω¯LεRedΩT(Ω)A(Ω)C(Ω)fph(θ,θ)eiΩτdel.
Sen/Sph=0.57·Ωω¯.
A⃗cr(t)=(0ψψ1)(1iΓ02iΓ021)A⃗(L/2,t).
S=S0+fph(θ,θ)dtdx[Γ0ω¯σ(x)+2ψα(x)].
S(τdel)=S0+RedΩS(Ω)A(Ω)eiΩτdel,
S(Ω)=LεR(Ω)eiζ(Ω)C(Ω)T(Ω)fph(θ,θ).
η=ΔSS0Γ02ω¯2+4ψ2Ω2Ssc+c4π(Γ02/4+ψ2)C(0),

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