Abstract

Multilayer plasmonic optical metasurfaces are demonstrated and analyzed that provide highly wavelength-selective reflectance that is robust to variation in angle of incidence and highly tolerant of misalignment of features between vertically stacked layers. Structures containing two layers of Ag nanostructure arrays separated by a dielectric layer are shown to provide reflectance >75% and transmittance <1% over a bandwidth of 100nm, with minimal variation for angles of incidence varying from 0° to 30°. These characteristics are shown to be robust to variations in vertical alignment between layers comparable to the array period. An analysis of these characteristics in terms of plasmonic behavior of individual Ag nanostructures, interference effects between multiple layers of nanostructure arrays, and phase shifts produced at each array layer is presented.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
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Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano 5, 4641–4647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P.-C. Li, Y. Zhao, A. Alu, and E. T. Yu, “Experimental realization and modeling of a subwavelength frequency-selective plasmonic metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221106–221103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Taubert, R. Ameling, T. Weiss, A. Christ, and H. Giessen, “From near-field to far-field coupling in the third dimension: retarded interaction of particle plasmons,” Nano Lett. 11, 4421–4424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332, 1407–1410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334333–337 (2011).

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. A. Gordon, C. L. Holloway, and A. Dienstfrey, “A physical explanation of angle-independent reflection and transmission properties of metafilms/metasurfaces,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 8, 1127–1130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2501–2503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. H. Lim, W. Mar, P. Matheu, D. Derkacs, and E. T. Yu, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of optical absorption enhancement in silicon photodiodes via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in gold nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104309–104307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, V. C. de Silva, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metamagnetics with rainbow colors,” Opt. Express 15, 3333–3341 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

E. F. Kuester, M. A. Mohamed, M. Piket-May, and C. L. Holloway, “Averaged transition conditions for electromagnetic fields at a metafilm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2641–2651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

Adato, R.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334333–337 (2011).

Alivisatos, A. P.

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332, 1407–1410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alu, A.

P.-C. Li, Y. Zhao, A. Alu, and E. T. Yu, “Experimental realization and modeling of a subwavelength frequency-selective plasmonic metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221106–221103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Alu and N. Engheta, Optical Wave Interaction with Two-Dimensional Arrays of Plasmonic Nanoparticles (Cambridge University, 2011).

Ameling, R.

R. Taubert, R. Ameling, T. Weiss, A. Christ, and H. Giessen, “From near-field to far-field coupling in the third dimension: retarded interaction of particle plasmons,” Nano Lett. 11, 4421–4424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arju, N.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334333–337 (2011).

Chettiar, U. K.

Christ, A.

R. Taubert, R. Ameling, T. Weiss, A. Christ, and H. Giessen, “From near-field to far-field coupling in the third dimension: retarded interaction of particle plasmons,” Nano Lett. 11, 4421–4424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

de Silva, V. C.

Decker, M.

Derkacs, D.

S. H. Lim, W. Mar, P. Matheu, D. Derkacs, and E. T. Yu, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of optical absorption enhancement in silicon photodiodes via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in gold nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104309–104307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dienstfrey, A.

J. A. Gordon, C. L. Holloway, and A. Dienstfrey, “A physical explanation of angle-independent reflection and transmission properties of metafilms/metasurfaces,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 8, 1127–1130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Djuric, A. B.

Dorfmuller, J.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dorpe, P. V.

J. Ye, F. Wen, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, P. V. Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanoclusters: near field properties of the Fano resonance interrogated with SERS,” Nano Lett. 12, 1660–1667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

Dregely, D.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Elazar, J. M.

Engheta, N.

A. Alu and N. Engheta, Optical Wave Interaction with Two-Dimensional Arrays of Plasmonic Nanoparticles (Cambridge University, 2011).

Fang, N. X.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fung, K. H.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334333–337 (2011).

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334333–337 (2011).

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

R. Taubert, R. Ameling, T. Weiss, A. Christ, and H. Giessen, “From near-field to far-field coupling in the third dimension: retarded interaction of particle plasmons,” Nano Lett. 11, 4421–4424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332, 1407–1410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. A.

J. A. Gordon, C. L. Holloway, and A. Dienstfrey, “A physical explanation of angle-independent reflection and transmission properties of metafilms/metasurfaces,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 8, 1127–1130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

J. Ye, F. Wen, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, P. V. Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanoclusters: near field properties of the Fano resonance interrogated with SERS,” Nano Lett. 12, 1660–1667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332, 1407–1410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, C. L.

J. A. Gordon, C. L. Holloway, and A. Dienstfrey, “A physical explanation of angle-independent reflection and transmission properties of metafilms/metasurfaces,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 8, 1127–1130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Kuester, M. A. Mohamed, M. Piket-May, and C. L. Holloway, “Averaged transition conditions for electromagnetic fields at a metafilm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2641–2651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. H.

Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano 5, 4641–4647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334333–337 (2011).

Kern, K.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khanikaev, A. B.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kriegler, C. E.

Kuester, E. F.

E. F. Kuester, M. A. Mohamed, M. Piket-May, and C. L. Holloway, “Averaged transition conditions for electromagnetic fields at a metafilm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2641–2651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lassiter, J. B.

J. Ye, F. Wen, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, P. V. Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanoclusters: near field properties of the Fano resonance interrogated with SERS,” Nano Lett. 12, 1660–1667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Li, P.-C.

P.-C. Li, Y. Zhao, A. Alu, and E. T. Yu, “Experimental realization and modeling of a subwavelength frequency-selective plasmonic metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221106–221103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. H.

S. H. Lim, W. Mar, P. Matheu, D. Derkacs, and E. T. Yu, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of optical absorption enhancement in silicon photodiodes via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in gold nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104309–104307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332, 1407–1410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filter (CRC, 2010).

Majewski, M. L.

Mar, W.

S. H. Lim, W. Mar, P. Matheu, D. Derkacs, and E. T. Yu, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of optical absorption enhancement in silicon photodiodes via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in gold nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104309–104307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matheu, P.

S. H. Lim, W. Mar, P. Matheu, D. Derkacs, and E. T. Yu, “Photocurrent spectroscopy of optical absorption enhancement in silicon photodiodes via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in gold nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104309–104307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, T. S.

Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano 5, 4641–4647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mohamed, M. A.

E. F. Kuester, M. A. Mohamed, M. Piket-May, and C. L. Holloway, “Averaged transition conditions for electromagnetic fields at a metafilm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2641–2651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

J. Ye, F. Wen, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, P. V. Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanoclusters: near field properties of the Fano resonance interrogated with SERS,” Nano Lett. 12, 1660–1667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1991).

Piket-May, M.

E. F. Kuester, M. A. Mohamed, M. Piket-May, and C. L. Holloway, “Averaged transition conditions for electromagnetic fields at a metafilm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2641–2651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rakic, A. D.

Ruther, M.

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7, 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shvets, G.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sobhani, H.

J. Ye, F. Wen, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, P. V. Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanoclusters: near field properties of the Fano resonance interrogated with SERS,” Nano Lett. 12, 1660–1667 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taubert, R.

R. Taubert, R. Ameling, T. Weiss, A. Christ, and H. Giessen, “From near-field to far-field coupling in the third dimension: retarded interaction of particle plasmons,” Nano Lett. 11, 4421–4424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334333–337 (2011).

Toor, F.

Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano 5, 4641–4647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455, 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, J.

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C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

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ACS Nano

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Y. Cui, K. H. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett. 12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmuller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334333–337 (2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the multilayer metasurface structure on a glass substrate under (a) TE and (b) TM polarized illumination. L1, W1 and L2, W2 indicate the periodicity of the array and size of the individual metallic nanostructures for the bottom and top metasurface layers, respectively. The translational alignment parameters Sx and Sy are indicated in (b). The insets show the scanning electron micrographs of an aligned (Sx=Sy=0), and shifted (Sx=Sy=100nm). The scale bars are 100 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)–(d) Measured transmission spectra for L1=200nm, W1=100nm, and L2=300nm, W2=170nm single-layer metasurfaces under TE- and TM-polarized illumination, respectively. (e)–(h) Measured (solid curves) and simulated (dashed curves) transmission spectra for an aligned multilayer metasurface structure, L1=200nm, W1=100nm, L2=300nm, W2=170nm, D=350nm, and Sx=Sy=0 under TE- and TM-polarized light, respectively. In parts (e)–(h), transmittance spectra at different incident angles have been offset vertically by 30% each for clarity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated transmittance spectra, as a function of wavelength and dielectric layer thickness D for a multilayer metasurface structure with L1=200nm, W1=100nm, L2=300nm, W2=170nm, and Sx=Sy=0 for (a) θi=0°, (b) θi=30°, and (c) θi=60° under TE-polarized light. The solid curves and dashed lines represent Fabry–Perot resonance wavelengths as given by Eq. (3) with and without, respectively, inclusion of the metasurface phase shift given by Eq. (2).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Simulated transmittance spectra for θi=0° and θi=60° under TE polarization. Dashed, solid, and dotted lines correspond to dielectric layer thicknesses D=300, 350, and 380 nm, respectively. (b),(c) Measured transmittance spectra for multilayer metasurface structures with L1=200nm, W1=100nm, L2=300nm, W2=170nm, Sx=Sy=0, and D=300, 350, and 380 nm, following the same plot scheme as in (a), under TE or TM polarization, respectively. In parts (b) and (c), transmittance spectra at different incident angles have been offset vertically by 50% each for clarity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured and simulated transmission spectra for a multilayer metasurface structure with L1=200nm, W1=100nm, L2=300nm, W2=170nm, D=380nm, and Sx=Sy=100nm or Sx=Sy=0nm for different θi under (a) TE or (b) TM polarization. Transmittance spectra at different incident angles have been offset vertically by 50% each for clarity.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ=2ndmD,
ϕ(λ)tan1[2πcγ(1λ1λr)],
λ=2nd2sin2θimϕ(λ)/πD,

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