Abstract

A surface plasmon resonant cavity capable of enhancing ultradeep subwavelength photolithography in a large area is proposed. The cavity consists of two metal films: one is etched with periodic grooves for exciting surface plasmon resonance at the metal/dielectric interface; the other below is separated by a photoresist layer. Numerical simulations show that the properties of photolithographic patterns in the cavity can be modulated by the depth of the cavity; the physical image behind the modulation is confirmed by the phase regulation of gap surface plasmons in such a system.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Colburn, M. Meissl, S. Shaya, J. Ekerdt, S. Sreenivasan, and C. Willson, “Step and flash imprint lithography: template surface treatment and defect analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3572–3577 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. D. Piner, J. Zhu, F. Xu, S. Hong, and C. A. Mirkin, ““Dip-pen” nanolithography,” Science 283, 661–663 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. A. Tseng, K. Chen, C. D. Chen, and K. J. Ma, “Electron beam lithography in nanoscale fabrication: recent development,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manufact. 26, 141–149 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Melngailis, A. Mondelli, I. L. Berry, and R. Mohondro, “A review of ion projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 927–1766 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. P. Silverman, “X-ray lithography: status, challenges, and outlook for 0.13 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2117–2124 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves nanolithography at the Heisenberg limit,” Science 280, 1583–1586 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085–1088 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett 84, 4780–4782 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Subwavelength photolithography based on surface-plasmon polariton resonance,” Opt. Express 12, 3055–3065 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Liu, Q. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 957–961 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Xu, L. Fang, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Subwavelength nanolithography based on unidirectional excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Opt. 11, 085003–085008 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Li, S. Pan, Q. Wang, Y. Guo, and S. Wu, “Improved near field lithography with the assistance of a metallic nanostrip array,” J. Opt. 12, 115504–115510 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Guo, X. Li, S. Pan, Q. Wang, S. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Improving lithographic masks with the assistance of indentations,” J. Opt. 21, 057301–057307 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Zeng, L. Pan, L. Liu, L. Fang, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Improved near field lithography by surface plasmon resonance in groove-patterned masks,” J. Opt. 11, 125003–125008 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2, 438–442 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Z. Li, Y. Yang, X. Kong, W. Zhou, and J. Tian, “Fabry–Perot resonance in slit and grooves to enhance the transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” J. Opt. 11, 105002–105006 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, “Giant optical transmission of sub-wavelength apertures: physics and applications,” Nanotechnology 13, 429–432 (2002).
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  22. Y. Cui and S. He, “A theoretical revisit of giant transmission of light through a metallic nano-slit surrounded with periodic grooves,” Opt. Express 17, 13995–14000 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Gordon and A. Brolo, “Increased cut-off wavelength for a subwavelength hole in a real metal,” Opt. Express 13, 1933–1938 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012

Y. Guo, X. Li, S. Pan, Q. Wang, S. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Improving lithographic masks with the assistance of indentations,” J. Opt. 21, 057301–057307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

X. Li, S. Pan, Q. Wang, Y. Guo, and S. Wu, “Improved near field lithography with the assistance of a metallic nanostrip array,” J. Opt. 12, 115504–115510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Z. Li, Y. Yang, X. Kong, W. Zhou, and J. Tian, “Fabry–Perot resonance in slit and grooves to enhance the transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” J. Opt. 11, 105002–105006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cui and S. He, “A theoretical revisit of giant transmission of light through a metallic nano-slit surrounded with periodic grooves,” Opt. Express 17, 13995–14000 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Zeng, L. Pan, L. Liu, L. Fang, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Improved near field lithography by surface plasmon resonance in groove-patterned masks,” J. Opt. 11, 125003–125008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, L. Fang, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Subwavelength nanolithography based on unidirectional excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Opt. 11, 085003–085008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2, 438–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Gordon and A. Brolo, “Increased cut-off wavelength for a subwavelength hole in a real metal,” Opt. Express 13, 1933–1938 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, Q. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 957–961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett 84, 4780–4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Subwavelength photolithography based on surface-plasmon polariton resonance,” Opt. Express 12, 3055–3065 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. A. Tseng, K. Chen, C. D. Chen, and K. J. Ma, “Electron beam lithography in nanoscale fabrication: recent development,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manufact. 26, 141–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, “Giant optical transmission of sub-wavelength apertures: physics and applications,” Nanotechnology 13, 429–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Colburn, M. Meissl, S. Shaya, J. Ekerdt, S. Sreenivasan, and C. Willson, “Step and flash imprint lithography: template surface treatment and defect analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3572–3577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. D. Piner, J. Zhu, F. Xu, S. Hong, and C. A. Mirkin, ““Dip-pen” nanolithography,” Science 283, 661–663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves nanolithography at the Heisenberg limit,” Science 280, 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Melngailis, A. Mondelli, I. L. Berry, and R. Mohondro, “A review of ion projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 927–1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. P. Silverman, “X-ray lithography: status, challenges, and outlook for 0.13 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2117–2124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272, 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

C. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, T.

T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Colburn, M. Meissl, S. Shaya, J. Ekerdt, S. Sreenivasan, and C. Willson, “Step and flash imprint lithography: template surface treatment and defect analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3572–3577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, K. K.

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves nanolithography at the Heisenberg limit,” Science 280, 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berry, I. L.

J. Melngailis, A. Mondelli, I. L. Berry, and R. Mohondro, “A review of ion projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 927–1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brolo, A.

Cao, B.

Chen, C. D.

A. A. Tseng, K. Chen, C. D. Chen, and K. J. Ma, “Electron beam lithography in nanoscale fabrication: recent development,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manufact. 26, 141–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

A. A. Tseng, K. Chen, C. D. Chen, and K. J. Ma, “Electron beam lithography in nanoscale fabrication: recent development,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manufact. 26, 141–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B.

T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Colburn, M. Meissl, S. Shaya, J. Ekerdt, S. Sreenivasan, and C. Willson, “Step and flash imprint lithography: template surface treatment and defect analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3572–3577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272, 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chu, A. P.

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves nanolithography at the Heisenberg limit,” Science 280, 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Colburn, M.

T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Colburn, M. Meissl, S. Shaya, J. Ekerdt, S. Sreenivasan, and C. Willson, “Step and flash imprint lithography: template surface treatment and defect analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3572–3577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

Dekker, N. H.

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves nanolithography at the Heisenberg limit,” Science 280, 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, “Giant optical transmission of sub-wavelength apertures: physics and applications,” Nanotechnology 13, 429–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ekerdt, J.

T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Colburn, M. Meissl, S. Shaya, J. Ekerdt, S. Sreenivasan, and C. Willson, “Step and flash imprint lithography: template surface treatment and defect analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3572–3577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fang, L.

T. Xu, L. Fang, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Subwavelength nanolithography based on unidirectional excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Opt. 11, 085003–085008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Zeng, L. Pan, L. Liu, L. Fang, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Improved near field lithography by surface plasmon resonance in groove-patterned masks,” J. Opt. 11, 125003–125008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Q.

T. Xu, L. Fang, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Subwavelength nanolithography based on unidirectional excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Opt. 11, 085003–085008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ge, W.

Gordon, R.

Guo, Y.

Y. Guo, X. Li, S. Pan, Q. Wang, S. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Improving lithographic masks with the assistance of indentations,” J. Opt. 21, 057301–057307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, S. Pan, Q. Wang, Y. Guo, and S. Wu, “Improved near field lithography with the assistance of a metallic nanostrip array,” J. Opt. 12, 115504–115510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gwyn, C.

C. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Hong, S.

R. D. Piner, J. Zhu, F. Xu, S. Hong, and C. A. Mirkin, ““Dip-pen” nanolithography,” Science 283, 661–663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, T.

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett 84, 4780–4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Subwavelength photolithography based on surface-plasmon polariton resonance,” Opt. Express 12, 3055–3065 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. S.

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves nanolithography at the Heisenberg limit,” Science 280, 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P.

P. Johnson and R. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2, 438–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kong, X.

Z. Li, Y. Yang, X. Kong, W. Zhou, and J. Tian, “Fabry–Perot resonance in slit and grooves to enhance the transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” J. Opt. 11, 105002–105006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272, 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lewen, G. D.

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, “Giant optical transmission of sub-wavelength apertures: physics and applications,” Nanotechnology 13, 429–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, “Giant optical transmission of sub-wavelength apertures: physics and applications,” Nanotechnology 13, 429–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Y. Guo, X. Li, S. Pan, Q. Wang, S. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Improving lithographic masks with the assistance of indentations,” J. Opt. 21, 057301–057307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, S. Pan, Q. Wang, Y. Guo, and S. Wu, “Improved near field lithography with the assistance of a metallic nanostrip array,” J. Opt. 12, 115504–115510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, Y. Yang, X. Kong, W. Zhou, and J. Tian, “Fabry–Perot resonance in slit and grooves to enhance the transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” J. Opt. 11, 105002–105006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, “Giant optical transmission of sub-wavelength apertures: physics and applications,” Nanotechnology 13, 429–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

B. Zeng, L. Pan, L. Liu, L. Fang, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Improved near field lithography by surface plasmon resonance in groove-patterned masks,” J. Opt. 11, 125003–125008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

T. Xu, L. Fang, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Subwavelength nanolithography based on unidirectional excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Opt. 11, 085003–085008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, Q. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 957–961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

T. Xu, L. Fang, B. Zeng, Y. Liu, C. Wang, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Subwavelength nanolithography based on unidirectional excitation of surface plasmons,” J. Opt. 11, 085003–085008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Zeng, L. Pan, L. Liu, L. Fang, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Improved near field lithography by surface plasmon resonance in groove-patterned masks,” J. Opt. 11, 125003–125008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Subwavelength photolithography based on surface-plasmon polariton resonance,” Opt. Express 12, 3055–3065 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett 84, 4780–4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, K. J.

A. A. Tseng, K. Chen, C. D. Chen, and K. J. Ma, “Electron beam lithography in nanoscale fabrication: recent development,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manufact. 26, 141–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meissl, M.

T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Colburn, M. Meissl, S. Shaya, J. Ekerdt, S. Sreenivasan, and C. Willson, “Step and flash imprint lithography: template surface treatment and defect analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3572–3577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Melngailis, J.

J. Melngailis, A. Mondelli, I. L. Berry, and R. Mohondro, “A review of ion projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 927–1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mirkin, C. A.

R. D. Piner, J. Zhu, F. Xu, S. Hong, and C. A. Mirkin, ““Dip-pen” nanolithography,” Science 283, 661–663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mohondro, R.

J. Melngailis, A. Mondelli, I. L. Berry, and R. Mohondro, “A review of ion projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 927–1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mondelli, A.

J. Melngailis, A. Mondelli, I. L. Berry, and R. Mohondro, “A review of ion projection lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 927–1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, “Giant optical transmission of sub-wavelength apertures: physics and applications,” Nanotechnology 13, 429–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ono, A.

S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2, 438–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, L.

B. Zeng, L. Pan, L. Liu, L. Fang, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Improved near field lithography by surface plasmon resonance in groove-patterned masks,” J. Opt. 11, 125003–125008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S.

Y. Guo, X. Li, S. Pan, Q. Wang, S. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Improving lithographic masks with the assistance of indentations,” J. Opt. 21, 057301–057307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, S. Pan, Q. Wang, Y. Guo, and S. Wu, “Improved near field lithography with the assistance of a metallic nanostrip array,” J. Opt. 12, 115504–115510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, K. M.

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, “Giant optical transmission of sub-wavelength apertures: physics and applications,” Nanotechnology 13, 429–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piner, R. D.

R. D. Piner, J. Zhu, F. Xu, S. Hong, and C. A. Mirkin, ““Dip-pen” nanolithography,” Science 283, 661–663 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M.

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves nanolithography at the Heisenberg limit,” Science 280, 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272, 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shaya, S.

T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Colburn, M. Meissl, S. Shaya, J. Ekerdt, S. Sreenivasan, and C. Willson, “Step and flash imprint lithography: template surface treatment and defect analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3572–3577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Silverman, J. P.

J. P. Silverman, “X-ray lithography: status, challenges, and outlook for 0.13 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2117–2124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sreenivasan, S.

T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Colburn, M. Meissl, S. Shaya, J. Ekerdt, S. Sreenivasan, and C. Willson, “Step and flash imprint lithography: template surface treatment and defect analysis,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3572–3577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R.

C. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D.

C. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, and D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, and R. A. Linke, “Giant optical transmission of sub-wavelength apertures: physics and applications,” Nanotechnology 13, 429–432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thywissen, J. H.

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves nanolithography at the Heisenberg limit,” Science 280, 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.

Z. Li, Y. Yang, X. Kong, W. Zhou, and J. Tian, “Fabry–Perot resonance in slit and grooves to enhance the transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” J. Opt. 11, 105002–105006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, A. A.

A. A. Tseng, K. Chen, C. D. Chen, and K. J. Ma, “Electron beam lithography in nanoscale fabrication: recent development,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manufact. 26, 141–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Verma, P.

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Z. Li, Y. Yang, X. Kong, W. Zhou, and J. Tian, “Fabry–Perot resonance in slit and grooves to enhance the transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” J. Opt. 11, 105002–105006 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

Y. Guo, X. Li, S. Pan, Q. Wang, S. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Improving lithographic masks with the assistance of indentations,” J. Opt. 21, 057301–057307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Zeng, L. Pan, L. Liu, L. Fang, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Improved near field lithography by surface plasmon resonance in groove-patterned masks,” J. Opt. 11, 125003–125008 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, N. H. Dekker, K. K. Berggren, A. P. Chu, R. Younkin, and M. Prentiss, “Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves nanolithography at the Heisenberg limit,” Science 280, 1583–1586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of an SP cavity for enhancing ultradeep subwavelength photolithography.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Distributions of |E|2 along the line D with the periodic grooves at the input silver film etched (see the solid curve that is scaled by the left axis) or not (see the dotted curve that is scaled by the right axis).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Field distributions of |E|2 in xz plane for (a) without grooves and (b) with grooves.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Image of |E|2 distributed along the line D for d ranging from 20 to 100 nm and (b) distributions of |E|2 along the line D for d=36, 40, 44, and 50 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Field distributions of |E|2 in xz plane for d=36, 40, 44, and 50 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Both transmission efficiency at Port A and the effective refractive index versus d.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

εm(ω)=ε0ωp2/[ω(ω+iVc)],
{kx,in+ng=ωcεqεmεq+εm=ksp,n=1,2,3g=2π/p,
tanh(β2k02εpd/2)=εpβ2k02εm/(εmβ2k02εp),
{2koneffLc+arg(ρ1ρ2)=2mπneff=λo/λeff,m=1,2,3,,
Δneff=2πΔarg(ρ1ρ2)2koLc2π2koLc.

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