Abstract

We present a simple theoretical model that explains polarization switching in fiber ring lasers operating with a normal path-averaged dispersion and a typical intermediate level of birefringence. Such polarization dynamics, based on a type of polarization-domain-wall (PDW) structures, agree qualitatively well with our experimental observations. We also stress the complex and chaotic nature of the observed polarization-switching states. This is corroborated by detailed numerical simulations that predict the buildup of consecutive and transient PDW structures at the subnanosecond scale, which are not fully resolved experimentally.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 84–92 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Q. L. Williams, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, and R. Roy, “Fast intracavity polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser: inclusion of stochastic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 2376–2386 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. D. Van Wiggeren, and R. Roy, “High-speed fiber-optic polarization analyzer: measurements of the polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 164, 107–120 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. D. I. Abarbanel, M. B. Kennel, M. Buhl, and C. T. Lewis, “Chaotic dynamics in erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 2360–2374 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of polarization domain wall solitons in weakly birefringent cavity fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 052302 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and R. J. Knize, “Vector dark domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 18, 4428–4433 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Y. Wang, W. C. Xu, W. J. Cao, L. Y. Wang, and J. L. Dong, “Experimental observation of bright-dark pulse emitting in an all-fiber ring cavity laser,” Laser Phys. 22, 282–285(2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Coen and T. Sylvestre, “Comment on dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 047801 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Solutions of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger equations: evidence for deterministic rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 84–92 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Wang, W. C. Xu, W. J. Cao, L. Y. Wang, and J. L. Dong, “Experimental observation of bright-dark pulse emitting in an all-fiber ring cavity laser,” Laser Phys. 22, 282–285(2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Solutions of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger equations: evidence for deterministic rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and R. J. Knize, “Vector dark domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 18, 4428–4433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Coen and T. Sylvestre, “Comment on dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 047801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of polarization domain wall solitons in weakly birefringent cavity fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 052302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

G. D. Van Wiggeren, and R. Roy, “High-speed fiber-optic polarization analyzer: measurements of the polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 164, 107–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. D. I. Abarbanel, M. B. Kennel, M. Buhl, and C. T. Lewis, “Chaotic dynamics in erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 2360–2374 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Gutty, S. Pitois, P. Grelu, G. Millot, M. D. Thomson, and J. M. Dudley, “Generation and characterization of 0.6 THz polarization domain-wall trains in an ultralow-birefringence spun fiber,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1389–1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Q. L. Williams, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, and R. Roy, “Fast intracavity polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser: inclusion of stochastic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 2376–2386 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Haelterman and A. P. Sheppard, “Bifurcations of the dark soliton and polarization domain walls in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 4512–4518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Haelterman and A. P. Sheppard, “Polarization domain walls in diffractive or dispersive Kerr media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 96–98 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Abarbanel, H. D. I.

H. D. I. Abarbanel, M. B. Kennel, M. Buhl, and C. T. Lewis, “Chaotic dynamics in erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 2360–2374 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 84–92 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baronio, F.

F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Solutions of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger equations: evidence for deterministic rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, M.

H. D. I. Abarbanel, M. B. Kennel, M. Buhl, and C. T. Lewis, “Chaotic dynamics in erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 2360–2374 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W. J.

H. Y. Wang, W. C. Xu, W. J. Cao, L. Y. Wang, and J. L. Dong, “Experimental observation of bright-dark pulse emitting in an all-fiber ring cavity laser,” Laser Phys. 22, 282–285(2012).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

S. Coen and T. Sylvestre, “Comment on dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 047801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Conforti, M.

F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Solutions of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger equations: evidence for deterministic rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

Degasperis, A.

F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Solutions of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger equations: evidence for deterministic rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Di Porto, P.

Dong, J. L.

H. Y. Wang, W. C. Xu, W. J. Cao, L. Y. Wang, and J. L. Dong, “Experimental observation of bright-dark pulse emitting in an all-fiber ring cavity laser,” Laser Phys. 22, 282–285(2012).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

Garcia-Ojalvo, J.

Q. L. Williams, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, and R. Roy, “Fast intracavity polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser: inclusion of stochastic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 2376–2386 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grelu, P.

Gutty, F.

Haelterman, M.

M. Haelterman and A. P. Sheppard, “Polarization domain walls in diffractive or dispersive Kerr media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 96–98 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Haelterman and A. P. Sheppard, “Bifurcations of the dark soliton and polarization domain walls in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 4512–4518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kennel, M. B.

H. D. I. Abarbanel, M. B. Kennel, M. Buhl, and C. T. Lewis, “Chaotic dynamics in erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 2360–2374 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knize, R. J.

Lewis, C. T.

H. D. I. Abarbanel, M. B. Kennel, M. Buhl, and C. T. Lewis, “Chaotic dynamics in erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 2360–2374 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Millot, G.

Piazzolla, S.

Pitois, S.

Roy, R.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, and R. Roy, “High-speed fiber-optic polarization analyzer: measurements of the polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 164, 107–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Williams, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, and R. Roy, “Fast intracavity polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser: inclusion of stochastic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 2376–2386 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, A. P.

M. Haelterman and A. P. Sheppard, “Bifurcations of the dark soliton and polarization domain walls in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 4512–4518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Haelterman and A. P. Sheppard, “Polarization domain walls in diffractive or dispersive Kerr media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 96–98 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spano, P.

Sylvestre, T.

S. Coen and T. Sylvestre, “Comment on dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 047801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and R. J. Knize, “Vector dark domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 18, 4428–4433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of polarization domain wall solitons in weakly birefringent cavity fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 052302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. D.

Van Wiggeren, G. D.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, and R. Roy, “High-speed fiber-optic polarization analyzer: measurements of the polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 164, 107–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, S.

F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Solutions of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger equations: evidence for deterministic rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. Y.

H. Y. Wang, W. C. Xu, W. J. Cao, L. Y. Wang, and J. L. Dong, “Experimental observation of bright-dark pulse emitting in an all-fiber ring cavity laser,” Laser Phys. 22, 282–285(2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. Y.

H. Y. Wang, W. C. Xu, W. J. Cao, L. Y. Wang, and J. L. Dong, “Experimental observation of bright-dark pulse emitting in an all-fiber ring cavity laser,” Laser Phys. 22, 282–285(2012).
[CrossRef]

Williams, Q. L.

Q. L. Williams, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, and R. Roy, “Fast intracavity polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser: inclusion of stochastic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 2376–2386 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of polarization domain wall solitons in weakly birefringent cavity fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 052302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W. C.

H. Y. Wang, W. C. Xu, W. J. Cao, L. Y. Wang, and J. L. Dong, “Experimental observation of bright-dark pulse emitting in an all-fiber ring cavity laser,” Laser Phys. 22, 282–285(2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and R. J. Knize, “Vector dark domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 18, 4428–4433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of polarization domain wall solitons in weakly birefringent cavity fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 052302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and R. J. Knize, “Vector dark domain wall solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Express 18, 4428–4433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of polarization domain wall solitons in weakly birefringent cavity fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 052302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

H. Y. Wang, W. C. Xu, W. J. Cao, L. Y. Wang, and J. L. Dong, “Experimental observation of bright-dark pulse emitting in an all-fiber ring cavity laser,” Laser Phys. 22, 282–285(2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 84–92 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. D. Van Wiggeren, and R. Roy, “High-speed fiber-optic polarization analyzer: measurements of the polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 164, 107–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

H. D. I. Abarbanel, M. B. Kennel, M. Buhl, and C. T. Lewis, “Chaotic dynamics in erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 2360–2374 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Williams, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, and R. Roy, “Fast intracavity polarization dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser: inclusion of stochastic effects,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 2376–2386 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Coen and T. Sylvestre, “Comment on dark pulse emission of a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 047801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of polarization domain wall solitons in weakly birefringent cavity fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 052302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. Haelterman and A. P. Sheppard, “Bifurcations of the dark soliton and polarization domain walls in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 4512–4518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Solutions of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger equations: evidence for deterministic rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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