Abstract

Theoretical analysis of a method for transmitting a complex image field through a single multimode optical fiber is presented. Using a known reference image, we show that it would be possible to evaluate the instantaneous modal dispersion of the fiber and use the knowledge of accumulated modal phases to recover the object field. For measuring the complex object and reference fields emanating from the fiber, we propose using a simple arrangement of two cameras for recording the intensity and Fourier images, followed by a modified Gerchberg–Saxton algorithm for full complex field reconstruction. While some experimental challenges could still be expected in any future implementation of this approach, we believe it would eventually allow the first image transmission through a long, multimode optical fiber.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45, 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443, 765–765 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222, 127–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 57–79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S573–S577 (2001).

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1990 (1)

1985 (1)

B. Fischer and S. Sternklar, “Image transmission and interferometry with multimode fibers using self-pumped phase conjugation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 113–114 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1976 (1)

A. Yariv, “Three-dimensional pictorial transmission in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 88–89 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Agour, M.

Bamber, C.

Bergmann, R. B.

Bishop, A. I.

Bouma, B. E.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443, 765–765 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1152–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. M.

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45, 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bruck, J. A.

J. A. Bruck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2004).

Cizmar, T.

Depeursinge, C.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222, 127–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

Dickensheets, D. L.

Dunning, G. J.

Eastwood, S. A.

Falldorf, C.

Fischer, B.

B. Fischer and S. Sternklar, “Image transmission and interferometry with multimode fibers using self-pumped phase conjugation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 113–114 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Froehly, L.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222, 127–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, M.

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Hasan, T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443, 765–765 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karasawa, S.

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45, 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

Kitayama, K.-I.

Kopylow, C. V.

Lang, F.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222, 127–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222, 127–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 57–79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lind, R. C.

Lucesoli, A.

Lundeen, J. S.

Martin, S. N.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222, 127–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, M. J.

Motz, J. T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443, 765–765 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paganin, D. M.

Patel, A.

Petersen, T. C.

Platt, B. C.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S573–S577 (2001).

Reinhall, P. G.

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45, 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rizvi, I.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443, 765–765 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rozzi, T.

Saxton, W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Seibel, E. J.

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45, 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shack, R.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S573–S577 (2001).

Sternklar, S.

B. Fischer and S. Sternklar, “Image transmission and interferometry with multimode fibers using self-pumped phase conjugation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 113–114 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, C.

Sutherland, B.

Tearney, G. J.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443, 765–765 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, “Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1152–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Webb, R. H.

White, W. M.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443, 765–765 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Three-dimensional pictorial transmission in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 88–89 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yelin, D.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443, 765–765 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B. Fischer and S. Sternklar, “Image transmission and interferometry with multimode fibers using self-pumped phase conjugation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 113–114 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Three-dimensional pictorial transmission in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 88–89 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S573–S577 (2001).

Nat. Commun. (1)

T. Cizmar and K. Dholakia, “Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443, 765–765 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222, 127–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45, 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

B. Lee, “Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 57–79 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optik (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Other (1)

J. A. Bruck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2004).

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